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  1. To determine the phenotype, molecular characterisation and risk factors of postoperative meningitis induced by Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE) in China.

    Authors: Guanghui Zheng, Yanfei Cao, Chunhong Liu, Lingye Qian, Yumeng Cai, Miaomiao Cui, Huiting Sun, Lv Hong, Jun Yuan, Lina Zhang and Guojun Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:85

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Diabetes is a risk factor for infection with coronaviruses. This study describes the demographic, clinical data, and outcomes of critically ill patients with diabetes and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS).

    Authors: Jesna Jose, Hasan M. Al-Dorzi, Awad Al-Omari, Yasser Mandourah, Fahad Al-Hameed, Musharaf Sadat, Eman Al Qasim, Basem Alraddadi, Abdulrahman Al Harthy, Ghaleb A. Al Mekhlafi, Abdullah Almotairi, Kasim Al Khatib, Ahmed Abdulmomen, Ismael Qushmaq, Anees A. Sindi, Ahmed Mady…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:84

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Keratitis due to by filamentous fungi are not easy to diagnose thus causing a delay in correct therapy. There are many descriptions of keratitis due to Candida, Fusarium and Aspergillus genera. Subramaniula genus...

    Authors: Rosario Cultrera, Riccardo Torelli, Caterina Sarnicola, Daniela Segala, Andrea Mengoli, Giuseppina Chiaretto, Paolo Perri and Maurizio Sanguinetti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:82

    Content type: Case report

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  4. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Raphael Awah Abong, Glory N. Amambo, Patrick W. Chounna Ndongmo, Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Manuel Ritter, Amuam Andrew Beng, Mathias Eyong Esum, Kebede Deribe, Jerome Fru-Cho, Fanny F. Fombad, Theobald Mue Nji, Peter Ivo Enyong, Catherine B. Poole, Kenneth Pfarr, Achim Hoerauf, Clotilde K. S. Carlow…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:81

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:726

  5. Early identification of patients who are at high risk of poor clinical outcomes is of great importance in saving the lives of patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the context of limited m...

    Authors: Zhi-Yong Zeng, Shao-Dan Feng, Gong-Ping Chen and Jiang-Nan Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:80

    Content type: Research article

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  6. The lack of knowledge regarding the pathogenesis and host immune response during SARS-CoV-2 infection has limited the development of effective treatments. Thus, we longitudinally investigated the dynamic chang...

    Authors: Yangli Liu, Weiping Tan, Haihong Chen, Ying Zhu, Li Wan, Ke Jiang, Yubiao Guo, Kejing Tang, Canmao Xie, Hui Yi, Yukun Kuang and Yifeng Luo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:79

    Content type: Research article

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  7. African-Americans/Blacks have suffered higher morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 than all other racial groups. This study aims to identify the causes of this health disparity, determine prognostic indicator...

    Authors: Raavi Gupta, Raag Agrawal, Zaheer Bukhari, Absia Jabbar, Donghai Wang, John Diks, Mohamed Alshal, Dokpe Yvonne Emechebe, F. Charles Brunicardi, Jason M. Lazar, Robert Chamberlain, Aaliya Burza and M. A. Haseeb

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:78

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Candidemia has emerged as an important nosocomial infection, with a mortality rate of 30–50%. It is the fourth most common nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) in the United States and the seventh most commo...

    Authors: Nobuhiro Asai, Wataru Ohashi, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Hideo Kato, Mao Hagihara, Hiroki Watanabe, Arufumi Shiota, Yusuke Koizumi, Yuka Yamagishi and Hiroshige Mikamo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:77

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Invasive candidiasis is the most common fungal disease among hospitalized patients and continues to be a major cause of mortality. Risk factors for mortality have been studied previously but rarely developed i...

    Authors: Ding Li, Tianjiao Li, Changsen Bai, Qing Zhang, Zheng Li and Xichuan Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:76

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The high incidence, seasonal pattern and frequent outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) represent a threat for billions of children around the world. Detecting pre-outbreak signals of HFMD facilitat...

    Authors: Xuhang Zhang, Rong Xie, Zhengrong Liu, Yucong Pan, Rui Liu and Pei Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21(Suppl 1):6

    Content type: Research

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 21 Supplement 1

  11. The elderly population in Hong Kong is rapidly growing, and the need for residential care homes (RCHs) is increasing. The risk of being infected with micro-organisms increases among the frail and the vulnerabl...

    Authors: Jessie Kit Ling Au, Lorna Kwai Ping Suen and Simon Ching Lam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:75

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Cancer patients are more likely to develop and die of bloodstream infection (BSI) than noncancer patients. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is associated with immense mortality and econom...

    Authors: Zhouqi Li, Hemu Zhuang, Guannan Wang, Hui Wang and Ying Dong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:74

    Content type: Research article

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  13. In pregnant women Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) can be transmitted to newborn causing severe infections. It is classified into 10 serotypes (Ia, Ib, II-IX). The severity of neonatal disease is determined by the ...

    Authors: Fernando J. Bobadilla, Marina G. Novosak, Iliana J. Cortese, Osvaldo D. Delgado and Margarita E. Laczeski

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:73

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Hydroxychloroquine has not been associated with improved survival among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the majority of observational studies and similarly was not identified as an effective prophylaxis foll...

    Authors: Andrew Ip, Jaeil Ahn, Yizhao Zhou, Andre H. Goy, Eric Hansen, Andrew L. Pecora, Brittany A. Sinclaire, Urszula Bednarz, Michael Marafelias, Ihor S. Sawczuk, Joseph P. Underwood III, David M. Walker, Rajiv Prasad, Robert L. Sweeney, Marie G. Ponce, Samuel La Capra…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:72

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Understanding the demographic characteristics of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) infected through commercial heterosexual contact (CHC) or nonmarital noncommercial heterosexual contact (NMNCHC) is importan...

    Authors: Zhilong Dong, Liying Ma, Chang Cai, George Fu Gao and Fan Lyu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:71

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Knowing the number of undetected cases of COVID-19 is important for a better understanding of the spread of the disease. This study analyses the temporal dynamic of detected vs. undetected cases to provide gui...

    Authors: C. Rippinger, M. Bicher, C. Urach, D. Brunmeir, N. Weibrecht, G. Zauner, G. Sroczynski, B. Jahn, N. Mühlberger, U. Siebert and N. Popper

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:70

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Scrub typhus is a mite-borne infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Few follow-up studies have assessed antibody titers using serologic tests from various commercial laboratories and the Korea Cente...

    Authors: Choon-Mee Kim, Dong-Min Kim and Na Ra Yun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:69

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus that was first discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. With the growi...

    Authors: Ran Jing, Rama Rao Vunnam, Elizabeth Schnaubelt, Chad Vokoun, Allison Cushman-Vokoun, David Goldner and Srinivas Rao Vunnam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:68

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Recently, many cases of pneumonia in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection have been shown to have varying degrees of intrabronchial mucus plug formation. The clinical, laboratory, radiological characteri...

    Authors: Jiahui Zhang, Ting Wang, Rongrong Li, Wei Ji, Yongdong Yan, Zhichao Sun, Jiahong Tan, Jinfeng Wu, Li Huang and Zhengrong Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:67

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Early detection and treatment of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), major causative pathogens of sepsis (a potentially fatal condition caused by the body’s response to an infection), may benefit a patient’s outcome...

    Authors: Chan-Peng Hsu, Hsin-Yu Chen, Wei-Lung Chen, Jiann-Hwa Chen, Chien-Cheng Huang, Po-Han Wu and Jui-Yuan Chung

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:66

    Content type: Research article

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  21. West Nile virus (WNV) infections have become increasingly prevalent in certain European countries, including Hungary. Although most human infections do not cause severe symptoms, in approximately 1% of cases W...

    Authors: Márton Koch, Éva Pozsgai, Viktor Soós, Anna Nagy, János Girán, Norbert Nyisztor, Tibor Martyin, Zsófia Müller, Melánia Fehér, Edit Hajdú and Csaba Varga

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:65

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Congenital syphilis is completely preventable through screening and treatment, but rates have been rising in the United States. Certain areas are at particularly high risk. We aimed to assess attitudes, knowle...

    Authors: Emily W. Harville, Gloria P. Giarratano, Pierre Buekens, Eurydice Lang and Jennifer Wagman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:64

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Chest X-ray (CXR) interpretation remains a central component of the current World Health Organization recommendations as an adjuvant test in diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis (TB). With its low specific...

    Authors: Lydia Nakiyingi, John Mark Bwanika, Willy Ssengooba, Frank Mubiru, Damalie Nakanjako, Moses L. Joloba, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza and Yukari C. Manabe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:63

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Although traditional diagnostic techniques of infection are mature and price favorable at present, most of them are time-consuming and with a low positivity. Metagenomic next⁃generation sequencing (mNGS) was s...

    Authors: Hongxia Duan, Xuan Li, Aihong Mei, Ping Li, Yang Liu, Xiaofeng Li, Weiwei Li, Changhui Wang and Shuanshuan Xie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:62

    Content type: Research article

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  25. To effectively reduce vertical HIV transmission requires a reduction of HIV prevalence and incidence among pregnant women and a full understanding of its epidemiology. The study aimed to determine the prevalen...

    Authors: Sikhumbuzo A. Mabunda, Khuthala Sigovana, Wezile Chitha, Teke Apalata and Sibusiso Nomatshila

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:61

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Little evidence exists to comprehensively estimate adolescent viral suppression after initiation on antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines adolescent progression along the HIV care c...

    Authors: Roxanna Haghighat, Elona Toska, Nontuthuzelo Bungane and Lucie Cluver

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:60

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Female adolescents and young women have the highest risk of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) globally. Data on the prevalence of STIs among young women in Uganda are limited. In this study, we in...

    Authors: Veronicah Masanja, Solomon Tsebeni Wafula, Tonny Ssekamatte, John Bosco Isunju, Richard K. Mugambe and Guido Van Hal

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:59

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Testing is one of the most effective means to manage the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is an upper bound on daily testing volume because of limited healthcare staff and working hours, as well as different ...

    Authors: Yapeng Cui, Shunjiang Ni and Shifei Shen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:58

    Content type: Research article

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  29. In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, Hubei, China. Moreover, it has become a global pandemic. This is o...

    Authors: Xue-song Wen, Dan Jiang, Lei Gao, Jian-zhong Zhou, Jun Xiao, Xiao-cheng Cheng, Bin He, Yue Chen, Peng Lei, Xiao-wei Tan, Shu Qin and Dong-ying Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:57

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a high-risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Cellular immune responses are essential for HCC development, and the CD4+ and CD8+ T subtypes are identified as the pr...

    Authors: Ruoyu Wang, Dong Zhang, Kewei Sun, Jianping Peng, Wenfang Zhu, Sihan Yin, Dan Tang and Yunan Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:56

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Small bowel obstruction is one of the leading reasons for accessing to the Emergency Department. Food poisoning from Clostridium botulinum has emerged as a very rare potential cause of small bowel obstruction. Th...

    Authors: Alberto Friziero, Cosimo Sperti, Gianfranco Da Dalt, Nicola Baldan, Gianpietro Zanchettin, Pasquale Auricchio, Laura Gavagna, Andrea Grego, Giulia Capelli and Stefano Merigliano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:55

    Content type: Case report

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  32. An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred in a kindergarten located Shenzhen City on March 4, 2018. We were invited to investigate to the risk factors associated with this outbreak.

    Authors: Yuan Li, Xiangbo Fan, Guangqing Yu, Peinan Wei, Yong Wang and Hongxiong Guo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:54

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Workplace absenteeism increases significantly during influenza epidemics. Sick leave records may facilitate more timely detection of influenza outbreaks, as trends in increased sick leave may precede alerts is...

    Authors: Tom Duchemin, Jonathan Bastard, Pearl Anne Ante-Testard, Rania Assab, Oumou Salama Daouda, Audrey Duval, Jérôme-Philippe Garsi, Radowan Lounissi, Narimane Nekkab, Helene Neynaud, David R. M. Smith, William Dab, Kevin Jean, Laura Temime and Mounia N. Hocine

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:52

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in HIV infected individuals is a serious threat to global efforts to combat tuberculosis. Inconsistent findings on the association between HIV infection and MDR-TB wer...

    Authors: Zeeba Zahra Sultana, Farhana Ul Hoque, Joseph Beyene, Md. Akhlak-Ul-Islam, Md Hasinur Rahman Khan, Shakil Ahmed, Delwer Hossain Hawlader and Ahmed Hossain

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:51

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:86

  35. Hand hygiene (HH) is the cornerstone of infection control, and the promotion of HH is the focus of the world. The study aims to compare the role of two different types of electronic hand hygiene monitoring sys...

    Authors: Xiao Zhong, Dong-Li Wang, Li-Hua Xiao, Lan-Fang Mo, Qing-Fei Wu, Yan-Wei Chen and Xiao-Feng Luo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:50

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. The World Health Organization (WHO) has endorsed the next-generation Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Ultra) cartridge, and Uganda is currently transitioning from the older generation Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) cartridge to Ul...

    Authors: A. Andama, D. Jaganath, R. Crowder, L. Asege, M. Nakaye, D. Katumba, J. Mukwatamundu, S. Mwebe, C. F. Semitala, W. Worodria, M. Joloba, S. Mohanty, A. Somoskovi and A. Cattamanchi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:49

    Content type: Research article

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  37. In Morocco, of the estimated 29,000 people living with HIV in 2011, only 20% were aware of their HIV status. More than half of diagnoses were at the AIDS stage. We assumed that people who were unaware of their...

    Authors: Latifa Marih, Victoire Sawras, Juliette Pavie, Mustapha Sodqi, Mourad Malmoussi, Noura Tassi, Rajaa Bensghir, Samira Nani, Ahd Oulad Lahsen, Didier Laureillard, Kamal Marhoum El Filali, Karen Champenois and Laurence Weiss

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:48

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The spread of a highly pathogenic, novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a once-in-a-century pandemic, having already infected over 63 million people worldwide. Novel therapies are urgently needed. Jan...

    Authors: Lucas Walz, Avi J. Cohen, Andre P. Rebaza, James Vanchieri, Martin D. Slade, Charles S. Dela Cruz and Lokesh Sharma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:47

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Immunocompromised children and adults are at increased risk for severe disease and death following varicella zoster virus infection. Varicella zoster immune globulin (human) (VARIZIG) is recommended for post-e...

    Authors: Hayley Gans and Roy F. Chemaly

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:46

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The Taiwanese national 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) program in adults ≥75 years of age and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) program for children were implemented in...

    Authors: Wei-Ju Su, Pei-Hung Chuang, Luan-Yin Chang, Hsiu-Yun Lo, Chuen-Sheue Chiang, Ez-Tzu Wang and Chin-Hui Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:45

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Transmission stemming from asymptomatic infections is increasingly being recognized as a threat to malaria elimination. In many regions, malaria transmission is seasonal. It is not well understood whether Plasmod...

    Authors: Colins O. Oduma, Sidney Ogolla, Harrysone Atieli, Bartholomew N. Ondigo, Ming-Chieh Lee, Andrew K. Githeko, Arlene E. Dent, James W. Kazura, Guiyun Yan and Cristian Koepfli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:44

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among migrant population has become a critical issue for many low tuberculosis (TB) burden countries. Evidence regarding effectiveness of LTBI programs are li...

    Authors: Lisa Kawatsu, Kazuhiro Uchimura and Akihiro Ohkado

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:42

    Content type: Research article

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  43. In order to reduce the burden on organ shortage around the world, using potential infectious donor might be an option. However, scarce evidences have been published on kidney transplantation (KTx) from hepatit...

    Authors: Xian-ding Wang, Shi-jian Feng, Jin-peng Liu, Tu-run Song, Zhong-li Huang, Yu Fan, Yun-ying Shi, Li-yu Chen, Yuan-hang Lv, Zi-lin Xu, Xiao-hong Li, Li Wang and Tao Lin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:41

    Content type: Research article

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  44. COVID-19 studies are primarily from the inpatient setting, skewing towards severe disease. Race and comorbidities predict hospitalization, however, ambulatory presentation of milder COVID-19 disease and charac...

    Authors: Laura Vaughan, Darlene Veruttipong, Jonathan G. Shaw, Noemie Levy, Lauren Edwards and Marcy Winget

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:40

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its associated disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a worldwide emergency. Demographic, comorbidity and laboratory determinants of de...

    Authors: Jon Gitz Holler, Robert Eriksson, Tomas Østergaard Jensen, Maarten van Wijhe, Thea Kølsen Fischer, Ole Schmeltz Søgaard, Simone Bastrup Israelsen, Rajesh Mohey, Thilde Fabricius, Frederik Jøhnk, Lothar Wiese, Stine Johnsen, Christian Søborg, Henrik Nielsen, Ole Kirk, Birgitte Lindegaard Madsen…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:39

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection can occur in an immunocompromised host. Although rare, bacteremia due to Y. pseudotuberculosis may also occur in immunocompetent hosts. The prognosis and therapeutic strategy...

    Authors: Takehiro Hashimoto, Ryuichi Takenaka, Haruka Fukuda, Kazuhiko Hashinaga, Shin-ichi Nureki, Hideki Hayashidani, Teruo Sakamoto and Osamu Shigemitsu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:36

    Content type: Case report

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  47. Salmonellas enterica serovar Typhi (S.typhi) causes typhoid fever and is a global health problem, especially in developing countries like Ethiopia. But there is a little information about prevalence and factors a...

    Authors: Roza Nasir Awol, Dawit Yihdego Reda and Deresse Daka Gidebo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:30

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Severe fever thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is the causative agent of severe fever thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS). SFTS is an emerging infectious disease, characterized by high fever, gastrointestin...

    Authors: Hyungdon Lee, Woo Young Choi, Choon Mee Kim, Na-Ra Yun, Dong-Min Kim, Sang-Hyun Pyun, Byung Jun Yu and You Mi Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:25

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

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