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  1. The role of Diabetes mellitus (DM) in the etiology and in the antimicrobial resistance of uropathogens in patients with urinary tract infection has not been well clarified. For this reason we have evaluated th...

    Authors: Mario Bonadio, Silvia Costarelli, Giovanna Morelli and Tiziana Tartaglia
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:54
  2. Bloodstream infection (BSI) due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) has relevant clinical impact especially in relation to drug resistance determinants. The PER-1 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) is a common...

    Authors: Andrea Endimiani, Francesco Luzzaro, Beatrice Pini, Gianfranco Amicosante, Gian Maria Rossolini and Antonio Q Toniolo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:52
  3. Previous studies have indicated that a recently described anaerobic bacterium, Atopobium vaginae is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV). Thus far the four isolates of this fastidious micro-organism were foun...

    Authors: Ellen De Backer, Rita Verhelst, Hans Verstraelen, Geert Claeys, Gerda Verschraegen, Marleen Temmerman and Mario Vaneechoutte
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:51
  4. Most of the studies about invasive Candida infections in cancer patients have focused on haematological patients. The aim of this study was to provide information about risk factors for candidaemia in patients wi...

    Authors: Alessandro Comarú Pasqualotto, Daniela Dornelles Rosa, Lidia Rosi Medeiros and Luiz Carlos Severo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:50
  5. Haematogenous Staphylococcus aureus meningitis is rare but associated with high mortality. Knowledge about the disease is still limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate demographic and clinical progno...

    Authors: Michael Pedersen, Thomas L Benfield, Peter Skinhoej and Allan G Jensen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:49
  6. The whole-blood interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is recommended in some settings as an alternative to the tuberculin skin test (TST). Outcomes from field implementation of the IGRA for routine tuberculosi...

    Authors: Puneet Kumar Dewan, Jennifer Grinsdale, Sally Liska, Ernest Wong, Robert Fallstad and L Masae Kawamura
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:47
  7. It is known that there is significant morbidity associated with urinary tract infection and with renal dysfunction in sickle cell disease (SCD). However, it is not known if there are potential adverse outcomes...

    Authors: Vanessa Cumming, Susanna Ali, Terrence Forrester, Karen Roye-Green and Marvin Reid
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:46
  8. Digital clubbing is a sign of chest disease known since the time of Hippocrates. Its association with tuberculosis (TB) has not been well studied, particularly in Africa where TB is common. The prevalence of c...

    Authors: Henry Ddungu, John L Johnson, Marek Smieja and Harriet Mayanja-Kizza
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:45
  9. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts are used for intracranial pressure management and temporary cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage. Infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is a major cause of morbidity and ...

    Authors: Suzan Sacar, Huseyin Turgut, Semra Toprak, Bayram Cirak, Erdal Coskun, Ozlem Yilmaz and Koray Tekin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:43
  10. Screening and active case finding for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is recommended to prevent reproductive morbidity. However insight in community prevalence of gonococcal infections and co-infections with Neisseria...

    Authors: Jan EAM van Bergen, Joke Spaargaren, Hannelore M Götz, Irene K Veldhuijzen, Patrick JE Bindels, Ton J Coenen, Jan Broer, Fetzen de Groot, Christian JPA Hoebe, Jan-Hendrik Richardus, Daniel van Schaik and Marije Verhooren
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:42
  11. HTLV-1 infection is currently restricted to endemic areas. To define the prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in patients living in Italy, we first carried out a retrospective serological analysis in a group of peop...

    Authors: Francesca Vitone, Davide Gibellini, Pasqua Schiavone, Antonietta D'Antuono, Lorenzo Gianni, Isabella Bon and Maria Carla Re
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:41
  12. Continuous outbreaks of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A in Asia has resulted in an urgent effort to improve current diagnostics to aid containment of the virus and lower the threat of a influenza ...

    Authors: Lisa FP Ng, Ian Barr, Tung Nguyen, Suriani Mohd Noor, Rosemary Sok-Pin Tan, Lora V Agathe, Sanjay Gupta, Hassuzana Khalil, Thanh Long To, Sharifah Syed Hassan and Ee-Chee Ren
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:40
  13. As most of the studies in HIV patients with diarrhea were cross sectional, focusing on the etiological agents, we are reporting data on the rate of diarrhea, associations between diarrhea and CD4 counts and va...

    Authors: Suresh VS Attili, AK Gulati, VP Singh, DV Varma, M Rai and Shyam Sundar
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:39
  14. Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype typhi, which is acquired by ingestion of contaminated food and water. Each year the disease affects a...

    Authors: Claudia Colomba, Laura Saporito, Laura Infurnari, Salvatore Tumminia and Lucina Titone
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:38
  15. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is crucial to facilitate early treatment of infectious cases and thus to reduce its spread. To improve the diagnosis of TB, more rapid diagnostic techniques su...

    Authors: Gozde Ongut, Dilara Ogunc, Filiz Gunseren, Candan Ogus, Levent Donmez, Dilek Colak and Meral Gultekin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:37
  16. Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus is a rare infection in humans associated with contact with horses or consumption of unpasteurized milk products. On October 23, 2003, the National Public Health Instit...

    Authors: Markku Kuusi, Elina Lahti, Anni Virolainen, Maija Hatakka, Risto Vuento, Leila Rantala, Jaana Vuopio-Varkila, Eija Seuna, Matti Karppelin, Marjaana Hakkinen, Johanna Takkinen, Veera Gindonis, Kyosti Siponen and Kaisa Huotari
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:36
  17. Neutropenic enterocolitis is a life-threatening complication most frequently occurring after intensive chemotherapy in acute leukaemias. Gramnegative bacteria constitute the most important group of causative p...

    Authors: Marcus Gorschlüter, Ulrich Mey, John Strehl, Volker Schmitz, Christian Rabe, Katharina Pauls, Carsten Ziske, Ingo GH Schmidt-Wolf and Axel Glasmacher
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:35
  18. End-stage liver disease is currently a major concern among HIV-positive individuals due to co-infection with hepatotropic virus. Hepatitis C has been pointed out as a remarkable factor for that. More recently,...

    Authors: Rui Alberto Roldão de Almeida Pereira, Aparecida Duarte Hg Mussi, Vergínia Correa de Azevedo e Silva and Francisco José Dutra Souto
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:34
  19. Delay in start of tuberculosis (TB) treatment has an impact at both the individual level, by increasing the risk of morbidity and mortality, and at the community level, by increasing the risk of transmission. ...

    Authors: Mohamed Guled Farah, Jens Henning Rygh, Tore W Steen, Randi Selmer, Einar Heldal and Gunnar Bjune
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:33
  20. To apply clarithromycin as an immunomodulatory treatment in experimental urosepsis by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Authors: Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Anastasia Antonopoulou, Maria Raftogiannis, Pantelis Koutoukas, Thomas Tsaganos, Vassiliki Tziortzioti, Charalambos Panagou, Theodoros Adamis and Helen Giamarellou
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:31
  21. The occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has gradually become more frequent in most countries of the world. Sweden has remained one of few exceptions to the high occurrence of MRSA in ...

    Authors: Mikael Stenhem, Åke Örtqvist, Håkan Ringberg, Leif Larsson, Barbro Olsson-Liljequist, Sara Hæggman and Karl Ekdahl
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:30
  22. Measles remains a major public health problem in Mozambique despite significant efforts to control the disease. Currently, health authorities base their outbreak control on data from the routine surveillance s...

    Authors: Jagrati V Jani, Ilesh V Jani, Carolina Araújo, Sundeep Sahay, Jorge Barreto and Gunnar Bjune
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:29
  23. While hearing loss in HIV-infected people after beginning nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) has been reported, there have been no prospective studies that measured hearing changes longitudina...

    Authors: Jeffrey T Schouten, David W Lockhart, Thomas S Rees, Ann C Collier and Christina M Marra
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:28
  24. HPV infection in women from developing countries is an important public health problem. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalences of HPV infection and HPV genotypes in a female population of Durango Ci...

    Authors: Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Miguel Arturo Reyes-Romero and Margarita Carrera-Rodríguez
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:27
  25. The current recommended therapy for diffuse coccidioidal pneumonia involves initial treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate or high-dose fluconazole, followed by an azole after clinical improvement. Amphote...

    Authors: Dae Won Park, Jang Wook Sohn, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim, Min Ja Kim, Je Hyeong Kim and Chol Shin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:26
  26. Meningococcal disease is infrequently found in Taiwan, a country with 23 million people. Between 1996 and 2002, 17 to 81 clinical cases of the disease were reported annually. Reported cases dramatically increa...

    Authors: Chien-Shun Chiou, Jui-Cheng Liao, Tsai-Ling Liao, Chun-Chin Li, Chen-Ying Chou, Hsiu-Li Chang, Shu-Man Yao and Yeong-Sheng Lee
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:25
  27. The frequency of ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections (BSI) is high in Brazilian hospitals, however little is known regarding what role, if any, resistance plays in the expected outcome in ...

    Authors: Alexandre R Marra, Sérgio B Wey, Adauto Castelo, Ana Cristina Gales, Ruy Guilherme R Cal, José R do Carmo Filho, Michael B Edmond and Carlos Alberto P Pereira
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:24
  28. Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) are medically significant infectious agents associated with various chronic human pathologies. Nevertheless, specific roles in disease progression or init...

    Authors: Frances Cirino, Wilmore C Webley, Corrie West, Nancy L Croteau, Chester Andrzejewski Jr and Elizabeth S Stuart
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:23

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:165

  29. Syndromic management of STIs has been advocated as simplified and cheap approach. Youth have been reported to be at increased risk of acquiring STIs which can facilitate HIV transmission. We have investigated ...

    Authors: Guerino Chalamilla, Judica Mbwana, Fred Mhalu, Eunice Mmari, Mtebe Majigo, Andrew Swai, Willy Urassa and Eric Sandstrom
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:22
  30. Infection represents a frequent complication among patients in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and mortality is high. In particular, the incidence of fungal infections, especially due to Candida spp., has been increa...

    Authors: Matteo Bassetti, Elda Righi, Alessandro Costa, Roberta Fasce, Maria Pia Molinari, Raffaella Rosso, Franco Bobbio Pallavicini and Claudio Viscoli
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:21
  31. We have previously developed a test for the diagnosis and prognostic assessment of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) based on the detection of the SARS-coronavirus RNA in serum by real-time quantita...

    Authors: Rossa WK Chiu, Yongjie Jin, Grace TY Chung, Wing-bong Lui, Anthony TC Chan, Wilina Lim and YM Dennis Lo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:20
  32. Thrombocytopenia is commonly observed in severe leptospirosis. However, previous studies on coagulation alterations during leptospirosis resulted in inconsistent conclusions. Some findings showed that the prom...

    Authors: Hong-Liang Yang, Xu-Cheng Jiang, Xiang-Yan Zhang, Wen-Jun LI, Bao-Yu HU, Guo-Ping Zhao and Xiao-Kui Guo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:19
  33. Early detection of cholera outbreaks is crucial for the implementation of the most appropriate control strategies.

    Authors: Xuan-Yi Wang, M Ansaruzzaman, Raul Vaz, Catarina Mondlane, Marcelino ES Lucas, Lorenz von Seidlein, Jacqueline L Deen, Sonia Ampuero, Mahesh Puri, Taesung Park, GB Nair, John D Clemens, Claire-Lise Chaignat, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Farida Nato and Jean-Michel Fournier
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:17
  34. The WHO recommends that adults with uncomplicated P. falciparum successfully treated with a blood schizonticide receive a single dose of primaquine (PQ) 45 mg as a gametocytocidal agent. An earlier pilot study...

    Authors: NJ Gogtay, KD Kamtekar, SS Dalvi, SS Mehta, AR Chogle, U Aigal and NA Kshirsagar
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:16
  35. Acute infectious diseases are typically accompanied by non-specific symptoms including fever, malaise, irritability and somnolence that usually resolve on recovery. However, in some individuals these symptoms ...

    Authors: Suzanne D Vernon, Toni Whistler, Barbara Cameron, Ian B Hickie, William C Reeves and Andrew Lloyd
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:15
  36. Recent trends of pneumococcal colonization in the United States, following the introduction of conjugate vaccination, indicate that non-vaccine serotypes tend to replace vaccine serotypes. The eventual extent ...

    Authors: Simon Cauchemez, Laura Temime, Alain-Jacques Valleron, Emmanuelle Varon, Guy Thomas, Didier Guillemot and Pierre-Yves Boëlle
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:14
  37. The reproducibilty of dengue IgM and IgG ELISA was studied in serum and filter paper blood spots from Vietnamese febrile patients.

    Authors: Thanh Nga T Tran, Peter J de Vries, Lan Phuong Hoang, Giao T Phan, Hung Q Le, Binh Q Tran, Chi Mai T Vo, Nam V Nguyen, Piet A Kager, Nico Nagelkerke and Jan Groen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:13
  38. We recently showed that beta-defensins have antimicrobial activity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and that interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) up-regulates the transcription of beta-defensin 2 ...

    Authors: Sung-Kyun Moon, Haa-Yung Lee, Huiqi Pan, Tamotsu Takeshita, Raekil Park, Kiweon Cha, Ali Andalibi and David J Lim
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:12
  39. A reliable prediction of the causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not possible based on clinical features. Our aim was to test, whether the measurement of the expression of complement recep...

    Authors: Ulla Hohenthal, Jari Nuutila, Esa-Matti Lilius, Iina Laitinen, Jukka Nikoskelainen and Pirkko Kotilainen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:11
  40. The effects of HAART may differ between children and adults because children have a developing immune system, and the long-term immunological outcome in HIV-infected children on HAART is not well-known. A majo...

    Authors: Salvador Resino, Rosa Resino, Juan A Leon, José M Bellon, Pablo Martin-Fontelos, Jose T Ramos, Dolores Gurbindo-Gutierrez, Maria I de Jose, Luis Ciria and Maria A Muñoz-Fernandez
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:10
  41. Abiotrophia and Granulicatella species, previously referred to as nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS), are significant causative agents of endocarditis and bacteraemia. In this study, we reviewed the clinic...

    Authors: Laurence Senn, José M Entenza, Gilbert Greub, Katia Jaton, Aline Wenger, Jacques Bille, Thierry Calandra and Guy Prod'hom
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:9
  42. Few published reports have evaluated the clinical features and outcome of serogroup W135 meningococcal disease. In Taiwan, W135 is the second most prevalent meningococcal disease serogroup.

    Authors: Jiun-Ling Wang, Ding-Ping Liu, Jer-Jea Yen, Chia-Jung Yu, Hsi-Chen Liu, Ching-Yuang Lin and Shan-Chwen Chang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:7
  43. Despite the increasing popularity of acupuncture, the importance of infection control is not adequately emphasized in Oriental medicine. In December 2001, an Oriental medical doctor in Seoul, South Korea, enco...

    Authors: Joon Young Song, Jang Wook Sohn, Hye Won Jeong, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim and Min Ja Kim
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:6

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