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  1. Between November 2 and 10, 2002 several patients with psoriasis and personnel staying in the health centre in Gran Canaria, Spain fell ill with diarrhoea, vomiting or both. Patient original came from Norway, S...

    Authors: Hanne M Eriksen, Philippe J Guerin, Karin Nygård, Marika Hjertqvist, Birgitta de Jong, Angela MC Rose, Markku Kuusi, Ulrike Durr, AG Rojas, Cato Mør and Preben Aavitsland
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:45
  2. Tuberculosis (TB) is increasing in the world and drug-resistant (DR) disease beckons new treatments.

    Authors: Roberto Suárez-Méndez, Idrian García-García, Norma Fernández-Olivera, Magalys Valdés-Quintana, María T Milanés-Virelles, Dalia Carbonell, Delfina Machado-Molina, Carmen M Valenzuela-Silva and Pedro A López-Saura
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:44
  3. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the leading pathogenic cause of nosocomial infections, especially in bacteraemia and sepsis. The essential therapy for MRSA infection is glycopeptides. Therap...

    Authors: Emine Alp, Suveyda Gozukucuk, Ozlem Canoz, Beyhan Kirmaci and Mehmet Doganay
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:43
  4. For ≈ 24 years the AIDS pandemic has claimed ≈ 30 million lives, causing ≈ 14,000 new HIV-1 infections daily worldwide in 2003. About 80% of infections occur by heterosexual transmission. In the absence of vac...

    Authors: A Robert Neurath, Nathan Strick, Yun-Yao Li and Asim K Debnath
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:41
  5. Schistosomiasis is one of the major health problems in tropical and sub-tropical countries, with school age children usually being the most affected group. In 1998 the Department of Health of the province of K...

    Authors: Elmar Saathoff, Annette Olsen, Pascal Magnussen, Jane D Kvalsvig, Wilhelm Becker and Chris C Appleton
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:40
  6. A dengue virus type 2 (DEN-2 Tonga/74) isolated from a 1974 epidemic was characterized by mild illness and belongs to the American genotype of DEN-2 viruses. To prepare a vaccine candidate, a previously descri...

    Authors: Joseph E Blaney Jr, Christopher T Hanson, Kathryn A Hanley, Brian R Murphy and Stephen S Whitehead
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:39
  7. Chlamydiales are familiar causes of acute and chronic infections in humans and animals. Human pulmonary emphysema is a component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a condition in which chronic i...

    Authors: Dirk Theegarten, Olaf Anhenn, Helmut Hotzel, Mathias Wagner, Alessandro Marra, Georgios Stamatis, Grigori Mogilevski and Konrad Sachse
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:38
  8. Despite Noroviruses (NV, previously "Norwalk-like viruses") being a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks, the impact of NV infection is at present unknown and little information is available about str...

    Authors: Rosa Prato, Pier Luigi Lopalco, Maria Chironna, Giovanna Barbuti, Cinzia Germinario and Michele Quarto
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:37
  9. Salmonella spp. with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones have higher than usual MICs to these agents but are still considered "susceptible" by NCCLS criteria. Delayed treatment response to fluoroquinolone...

    Authors: Robert Slinger, Marc Desjardins, Anne E McCarthy, Karam Ramotar, Peter Jessamine, Christiane Guibord and Baldwin Toye
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:36
  10. Clinicians at Haydom Lutheran Hospital, a rural hospital in northern Tanzania noted an unusually high case-fatality rate of pediatric meningitis and suspected an outbreak of an unknown agent or an organism res...

    Authors: Hogne Vaagland, Bjørn Blomberg, Carsten Krüger, Naftali Naman, Roland Jureen and Nina Langeland
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:35
  11. The molecular basis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) induced pathology is still largely unclear. Many SARS patients suffer respiratory distress brought on by interstitial infiltrat...

    Authors: Lisa FP Ng, Martin L Hibberd, Eng-Eong Ooi, Kin-Fai Tang, Soek-Ying Neo, Jenny Tan, Karuturi R Krishna Murthy, Vinsensius B Vega, Jer-Ming Chia, Edison T Liu and Ee-Chee Ren
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:34
  12. Avidity determination of antigen-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies is an established serological method to differentiate acute from past infections. In order to compare the avidity of varicella-zoster...

    Authors: Ralf-Herbert Kneitz, Jörg Schubert, Franz Tollmann, Wolfgang Zens, Klaus Hedman and Benedikt Weissbrich
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:33
  13. The SARS coronavirus is the etiologic agent for the epidemic of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. The recent emergence of this new pathogen, the careful tracing of its transmission patterns, and the abili...

    Authors: Vinsensius B Vega, Yijun Ruan, Jianjun Liu, Wah Heng Lee, Chia Lin Wei, Su Yun Se-Thoe, Kin Fai Tang, Tao Zhang, Prasanna R Kolatkar, Eng Eong Ooi, Ai Ee Ling, Lawrence W Stanton, Philip M Long and Edison T Liu
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:32
  14. To assess the economic aspects of HBV (hepatitis B virus) transmission prevention for premarriage individuals in a country with cultural backgrounds like Iran and intermediate endemicity of HBV infection.

    Authors: Peyman Adibi, Mohammadreza Rezailashkajani, Delnaz Roshandel, Negar Behrouz, Shahin Ansari, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Saeed Shahraz and Mohammad Reza Zali
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:31
  15. In many countries breeding programs for resistance to scrapie in sheep are established. Therefore, the demand on genotyping capacities of the polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (prnp) relevant to presently k...

    Authors: Johannes Buitkamp and Jördis Semmer
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:30
  16. Lamivudine inhibits replication of both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and is commonly used as part of antiretroviral therapy. The main limitation in the use of lamivudine is re...

    Authors: Eneida A Santos, Michel VF Sucupira, Juçara Arabe and Selma A Gomes
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:29
  17. Medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, has been used in plastic and reconstructive surgery, to relieve venous congestion and to improve the microrevascularization of flaps. In many countries, wild leeches are still...

    Authors: Atakan Aydin, Hasan Nazik, Samet Vasfi Kuvat, Nezahat Gurler, Betigul Ongen, Serdar Tuncer, Emre Hocaoglu and Sinan Nur Kesim
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:28
  18. Geohelminth infection is a major health problem of children from rural areas of developing countries. In an attempt to reduce this burden, the Department of Health of the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) establ...

    Authors: Elmar Saathoff, Annette Olsen, Jane D Kvalsvig and Chris C Appleton
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:27
  19. The strikingly young age of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (vCJD) cases remains unexplained. Age dependent susceptibility to infection has been put forward, but differential dietary exposure to contamin...

    Authors: Pierre-Yves Boëlle, Jean-Yves Cesbron and Alain-Jacques Valleron
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:26
  20. data on HIV epidemiology and preventive measures in Islamic countries is limited. This study describes the results of 18-year of HIV surveillance in Saudi Arabia (SA) and the preventive measures implemented fr...

    Authors: Tariq A Madani, Yagob Y Al-Mazrou, Mohammad H Al-Jeffri and Naser S Al Huzaim
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:25
  21. Fusobacterium necrophorum may cause a number of clinical syndromes, collectively known as necrobacillosis. Meningitis is a significant cause of mortality, rarely reported in the adult population.

    Authors: SreeNeelima Garimella, Aparna Inaparthy and Thomas Herchline
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:24
  22. Invasive infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Case series and experimental data have shown that the capsular serotype is involved in the pathogenesis a...

    Authors: Pernille Martens, Signe Westring Worm, Bettina Lundgren, Helle Bossen Konradsen and Thomas Benfield
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:21
  23. The question "Where have you been?" is a common one asked by doctors in Northern Europe and America when faced with clinical symptoms not typical of their country. This question must also arise in the clinics ...

    Authors: Joaquina Martín-Sánchez, José M Navarro-Mari, Juan Pasquau-Liaño, Oscar D Salomón and Francisco Morillas-Márquez
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:20
  24. Clinical spectrum, microbiology and outcome of empyema thoracis are changing. Intrapleural instillation of fibrinolytic agents is being increasingly used for management of empyema thoracis. The present study w...

    Authors: Amit Banga, GC Khilnani, SK Sharma, AB Dey, Naveet Wig and Namrata Banga
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:19
  25. The combination therapies recommended by the World Health Organization for treatment of brucellosis are doxycycline plus rifampicin or doxycycline plus streptomycin. Although highly successful results have bee...

    Authors: Oguz Karabay, Irfan Sencan, Derya Kayas and Idris Şahin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:18
  26. Surveillance data allow for analysis, providing public health officials and policy-makers with a basis for long-term priorities and timely information on possible outbreaks for rapid response (data for action)...

    Authors: Per Rolfhamre, Katarzyna Grabowska and Karl Ekdahl
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:17
  27. Noroviruses (NoV) have become one of the most commonly reported causative agents of large outbreaks of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide as well as sporadic gastroenteritis in the community. Curren...

    Authors: Michael Schmid, Rainer Oehme, Gunnar Schalasta, Stefan Brockmann, Peter Kimmig and Gisela Enders
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:15
  28. Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium falciparum are common infections of school aged children in Kenya. They both cause enlargement of the spleen, but their relative contribution to the condition of splenomegaly r...

    Authors: Mark Booth, Birgitte J Vennervald, LeeCarol Kenty, Anthony E Butterworth, Henry C Kariuki, Hilda Kadzo, Edmund Ireri, Clifford Amaganga, Gachuhi Kimani, Joseph K Mwatha, Amos Otedo, John H Ouma, Eric Muchiri and David W Dunne
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:13
  29. Despite its direct connection to the nasopharynx which harbors otitis media pathogens as part of its normal flora, the middle ear cavity is kept free of these bacteria by as yet unknown mechanisms. Respiratory...

    Authors: Haa-Yung Lee, Ali Andalibi, Paul Webster, Sung-Kyun Moon, Karen Teufert, Sung-Ho Kang, Jian-Dong Li, Mitsuyoshi Nagura, Tomas Ganz and David J Lim
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:12
  30. Human enterovirus 71 has emerged as an important pathogen in the Asia Pacific region and it is important to be able to make a rapid and specific diagnosis for outbreak control. Recent Asian strains of Coxsacki...

    Authors: David Perera, Yuwana Podin, Winnie Akin, Cheng-Siang Tan and Mary Jane Cardosa
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:11
  31. Genital herpes is one of the most prevalent sexually-transmitted diseases, and accounts for a substantial morbidity. Genital herpes puts newborns at risk for very severe disease and also increases the risk of ...

    Authors: Dominique Bünzli, Vincent Wietlisbach, Fabrizio Barazzoni, Roland Sahli and Pascal RA Meylan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:10
  32. Rabies is one of the most hazardous zoonoses in the world. Oral mass vaccination has developed into the most effective management method to control fox rabies. The future need to control the disease in large c...

    Authors: Hans-Hermann Thulke, Thomas Selhorst, Thomas Müller, Tomasz Wyszomirski, Uli Müller and Urs Breitenmoser
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:9
  33. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of neurodegenerative diseases affecting both human and animals. The neuroanatomical changes which occur in the central nervous system (CNS) of T...

    Authors: Janice B Barr, Robert A Somerville, Yuen-Li Chung and Janet R Fraser
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:8
  34. A small fraction of Human T cell Leukemia Virus type-1 (HTLV-I) infected subjects develop a severe form of myelopathy. It has been established that patients with HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic p...

    Authors: Silvane Braga Santos, Aurélia Fonseca Porto, André Luiz Muniz, Amélia Ribeiro de Jesus, Elza Magalhães, Ailton Melo, Walderez O Dutra, Kenneth J Gollob and Edgar M Carvalho
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:7
  35. Conventional tests for tuberculous pleuritis have several limitations. A variety of new, rapid tests such as nucleic acid amplification tests – including polymerase chain reaction – have been evaluated in rece...

    Authors: Madhukar Pai, Laura L Flores, Alan Hubbard, Lee W Riley and John M Colford Jr
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:6
  36. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a polymicrobial syndrome characterized by a change in vaginal flora away from predominantly Lactobacillus species. The cause of BV is unknown, but the condition has been implicated in ...

    Authors: Michael J Ferris, Alicia Masztal, Kenneth E Aldridge, J Dennis Fortenberry, Paul L Fidel Jr and David H Martin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:5
  37. Non-organ-specific autoantibodies are found in a considerable number of anti-HCV positive patients. Previous studies investigated the clinical relevance of these antibodies in patients treated with interferon ...

    Authors: Hermann E Wasmuth, Christian Stolte, Andreas Geier, Christoph G Dietrich, Carsten Gartung, Johann Lorenzen, Siegfried Matern and Frank Lammert
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:4
  38. A new respiratory infectious epidemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), broke out and spread throughout the world. By now the putative pathogen of SARS has been identified as a new coronavirus, a single ...

    Authors: Hongchao Lu, Yi Zhao, Jingfen Zhang, Yuelan Wang, Wei Li, Xiaopeng Zhu, Shiwei Sun, Jingyi Xu, Lunjiang Ling, Lun Cai, Dongbo Bu and Runsheng Chen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:3
  39. Common variable immunodificiency syndrome predominantly affects adults. It is characterized by low production of all the major classes of immunoglobulins. We report a case of common variable immunodeficiency s...

    Authors: Arzu Didem Yalcin, Nese Aydemir, Huseyin Turgut, Riza Hakan Erbay and Ata Nevzat Yalcin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:2
  40. The potential use of microorganisms as agents of biological warfare (BW) is a growing concern. Lassa virus, a member of the Arenavirus class of Hemorrhagic fever (HF) viruses has emerged as a worldwide concern...

    Authors: Fatih M Uckun, Alexander S Petkevich, Alexei O Vassilev, Heather E Tibbles and Leonid Titov
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:1

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:14

  41. HIV infected adults have increased susceptibility to bacterial pneumonia but the underlying immune defect is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that HIV infection might be associated with increased ba...

    Authors: Stephen B Gordon, Janelisa Musaya, Lorna Wilson, Amos Phiri, Eduard E Zijlstra and Malcolm E Molyneux
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:29
  42. The Republic of Ireland has the second highest incidence of BSE worldwide. Only a single case of vCJD has been identified to date.

    Authors: Michael S Harney, Azra C Ghani, CA Donnelly, Rory McConn Walsh, Michael Walsh, Rachel Howley, Francesca Brett and Michael Farrell
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:28
  43. Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) has been used for several decades in the pharmaceutical industry for enteric film coating of oral tablets and capsules. Micronized CAP, available commercially as "Aquateric" a...

    Authors: A Robert Neurath, Nathan Strick and Yun-Yao Li
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:27
  44. Molecular identification of Mycobacterium species has two primary advantages when compared to phenotypic identification: rapid turn-around time and improved accuracy. The information content of the 5' end of the ...

    Authors: Dag Harmsen, Stefan Dostal, Andreas Roth, Stefan Niemann, Jörg Rothgänger, Michael Sammeth, Jürgen Albert, Matthias Frosch and Elvira Richter
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:26

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