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  1. In HIV-infected patients, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated with clinical lipodystrophy (CL) and metabolic abnormalities (MA). This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of the metabolic...

    Authors: Paula Freitas, Davide Carvalho, Selma Souto, Ana Cristina Santos, Sandra Xerinda, Rui Marques, Esteban Martinez, António Sarmento and José Luís Medina
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:246
  2. Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) are used for tuberculosis (TB) screening in healthcare workers (HCWs). However, data on specificity of IGRA in serial testing of HCWs is sparse. Therefore the specificity...

    Authors: Anja Schablon, Roland Diel, Genia Diner, Ute Anske, Wulf Pankow, Felix C Ringshausen and Albert Nienhaus
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:245
  3. There has been major improvement in the survival of HIV-1 infected individuals since the South African Government introduced highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in the public sector in 2004. This has...

    Authors: Colin N Menezes, Mhairi Maskew, Ian Sanne, Nigel J Crowther and Frederick J Raal
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:244
  4. Computer Tomography (CT) is considered the gold standard for assessing the morphological changes of lung parenchyma. Although novel CT techniques have substantially decreased the radiation dose, radiation expo...

    Authors: Elisa Busi Rizzi, Vincenzo Schinina', Massimo Cristofaro, Delia Goletti, Fabrizio Palmieri, Nazario Bevilacqua, Francesco N Lauria, Enrico Girardi and Corrado Bibbolino
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:243
  5. HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China has rapidly increased in recent years. It is suggested that MSM could be a potential bridge of HIV transmission to the general female population. W...

    Authors: Eric PF Chow, David P Wilson and Lei Zhang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:242
  6. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a human-specific pathogen that causes typhoid fever, and remains a global health problem especially in developing countries. Its pathogenesis is complex and host r...

    Authors: Sok Kean Khoo, David Petillo, Mrutyunjaya Parida, Aik Choon Tan, James H Resau and Stephen K Obaro
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:241
  7. Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important first-line drug in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) treatment. However, the unreliable results obtained from traditional susceptibility testing limits its usefulness ...

    Authors: Yu-Chi Chiu, Shiang-Fen Huang, Kwok-Woon Yu, Yu-Chin Lee, Jia-Yih Feng and Wei-Juin Su
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:240
  8. Conjugate vaccines, such as the 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7), alter serotype nasopharyngeal carriage, potentially increasing cases of otitis media by non-vaccine serotypes.

    Authors: Asunción Fenoll, Lorenzo Aguilar, Maria-Dolores Vicioso, Maria-Jose Gimenez, Olga Robledo and Juan-Jose Granizo
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:239
  9. On October 29th 2009 the health authorities in the city of Trondheim, Norway were alerted about a case of Shiga toxin-positive E. coli (STEC) O145 in a child with bloody diarrhoea attending a day-care centre. Sym...

    Authors: Erik Wahl, Line Vold, Bjørn A Lindstedt, Torkjel Bruheim and Jan E Afset
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:238
  10. The incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) within the first 48 hours of intensive care unit (ICU) stay has been poorly investigated. The objective was to estimate early-onset VAP occurrence in ICUs...

    Authors: Philippe Vanhems, Thomas Bénet, Nicolas Voirin, Jean-Marie Januel, Alain Lepape, Bernard Allaouchiche, Laurent Argaud, Dominique Chassard and Claude Guérin
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:236
  11. Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection prevalence is required to determine optimal vaccination strategies. We systematically reviewed the prevalence of oncogenic cervical HPV infection among Canadian f...

    Authors: Andrea C Tricco, Carmen H Ng, Vladimir Gilca, Andrea Anonychuk, Ba' Pham and Shirra Berliner
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:235
  12. Offspring of women with schistosomiasis may exhibit immune responsiveness to schistosomes due to in utero sensitisation or trans-placental transfer of antibodies. Praziquantel treatment during pregnancy boosts ma...

    Authors: Robert Tweyongyere, Patrice A Mawa, Macklyn Kihembo, Frances M Jones, Emily L Webb, Stephen Cose, David W Dunne, Birgitte J Vennervald and Alison M Elliott
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:234
  13. Data on complications in children with seasonal influenza virus infection are limited. We initiated a nation-wide three-year surveillance of children who were admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU...

    Authors: Andrea Streng, Veit Grote and Johannes G Liese
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:233
  14. Severe disease caused by 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1virus is characterized by the presence of hypercytokinemia. The origin of the exacerbated cytokine response is unclear. As observed previously, uncontroll...

    Authors: Raquel Almansa, Andres Anton, Paula Ramirez, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, David Banner, Tomás Pumarola, Luoling Xu, Jesús Blanco, Longsi Ran, Guillermo Lopez-Campos, Fernando Martin-Sanchez, Lorenzo Socias, Ana Loza, David Andaluz, Enrique Maravi, Mónica Gordón…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:232
  15. Inhalation of N-chlorotaurine (NCT), an endogenous new broad spectrum non-antibiotic anti-infective, has been shown to be very well tolerated in the pig model recently. In the present study, inhaled NCT was te...

    Authors: Martin Schwienbacher, Benedikt Treml, Anna Pinna, Ralf Geiger, Hannes Reinstadler, Iris Pircher, Elisabeth Schmidl, Christian Willomitzer, Johannes Neumeister, Michael Pilch, Maria Hauer, Thomas Hager, Consolato Sergi, Sabine Scholl-Bürgi, Thomas Giese, Alexander Löckinger…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:231
  16. Vaccination is generally considered to be the best primary prevention measure against influenza virus infection. Many countries encourage specific target groups of people to undertake vaccination, often with f...

    Authors: Sophia Ng, Peng Wu, Hiroshi Nishiura, Dennis KM Ip, Esther ST Lee and Benjamin J Cowling
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:230
  17. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a rodent-borne disease caused by Hantavirus, with characteristics of fever, hemorrhage, kidney damage, and hypotension. HFRS is recognized as a notifiable public...

    Authors: Wei Wu, Junqiao Guo, Peng Guan, Yingwei Sun and Baosen Zhou
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:229
  18. Evidence in the literature suggests that exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by bacterial cells are essential for the expression of virulence in these organisms. Secreted EPSs form the framework in which microbi...

    Authors: Takeshi Yamanaka, Kazuyoshi Yamane, Tomoyo Furukawa, Chiho Matsumoto-Mashimo, Chieko Sugimori, Takayuki Nambu, Noboru Obata, Clay B Walker, Kai-Poon Leung and Hisanori Fukushima
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:228
  19. In the Netherlands, epidemics of vaccine preventable diseases are largely confined to an orthodox protestant minority with religious objections to vaccination. The clustering of unvaccinated children in orthod...

    Authors: Wilhelmina LM Ruijs, Jeannine LA Hautvast, Reinier P Akkermans, Marlies EJL Hulscher and Koos van der Velden
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:227
  20. In the United Kingdom (UK) in September 2008, school nurses began delivering the HPV immunisation programme for girls aged 12 and 13 years old. This study offers insights from school nurses' perspectives and e...

    Authors: Shona Hilton, Kate Hunt, Helen Bedford and Mark Petticrew
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:226
  21. There was a pandemic influenza around the world in 2009 including South Korea since last pandemic occurred four decades ago. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of this infect...

    Authors: Jung-Woo Rhim, Kyung-Yil Lee, You-Sook Youn, Jin-Han Kang and Ji-Chang Kim
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:225
  22. Recognizing infection is crucial in immunocompromised patients with organ dysfunction. Our objective was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) in critically ill immunocompromised patients.

    Authors: Nicolas Bele, Michael Darmon, Isaline Coquet, Jean-Paul Feugeas, Stéphane Legriel, Nadir Adaoui, Benoît Schlemmer and Élie Azoulay
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:224
  23. The primary objective of this study was to investigate if extended antibiotic treatment against bacterial vaginosis (BV) together with adjuvant lactobacilli treatment could cure BV and, furthermore, to investi...

    Authors: Per-Göran Larsson, Erik Brandsborg, Urban Forsum, Sonal Pendharkar, Kasper Krogh Andersen, Salmir Nasic, Lennart Hammarström and Harold Marcotte
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:223
  24. Salmonella are the major pathogenic bacteria in humans as well as in animals. Salmonella species are leading causes of acute gastroenteritis in several countries and salmonellosis remains an important public hea...

    Authors: Zelalem Addis, Nigatu Kebede, Zufan Sisay, Haile Alemayehu, Alehegne Wubetie and Tesfu Kassa
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:222
  25. Non-nosocomial healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (NNHCA-IE) is a new category of IE of increasing importance. This study described the clinical and microbiological characteristics and outcome of NNH...

    Authors: Kuan-Sheng Wu, Susan Shin-Jung Lee, Hung-Chin Tsai, Shue-Ren Wann, Jui-Kuang Chen, Cheng-Len Sy, Yung-Hsin Wang, Yu-Ting Tseng and Yao-Shen Chen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:221
  26. Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) with herpes- or enterovirus can be self-limiting and benign, but occasionally result in severe and fatal disease. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has revoluti...

    Authors: Birgitta Sundén, Marie Larsson, Tina Falkeborn, Jakob Paues, Urban Forsum, Magnus Lindh, Liselotte Ydrenius, Britt Åkerlind and Lena Serrander
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:220
  27. Sudan is a large country with a diverse population and history of civil conflict. Poverty levels are high with a gross national income per capita of less than two thousand dollars. The country has a high burde...

    Authors: Ghada S Sharaf Eldin, Imad Fadl-Elmula, Mohammed S Ali, Ahmed B Ali, Abdel Latif GA Salih, Kim Mallard, Christian Bottomley and Ruth McNerney
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:219
  28. Our aim was to characterize clinical properties and laboratory parameters in patients with or without cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings suggestive of central nervous system (CNS) involvement, and especially t...

    Authors: Timo Hautala, Nina Hautala, Saara-Mari Mähönen, Tarja Sironen, Eija Pääkkö, Ari Karttunen, Pasi I Salmela, Olli Vainio, Seppo Rytky, Alexander Plyusnin, Antti Vaheri, Olli Vapalahti and Heikki Kauma
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:217
  29. The cause of the high HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa is incompletely understood, with heterosexual penile-vaginal transmission proposed as the main mechanism. Heterosexual HIV transmission has been estim...

    Authors: Diego F Cuadros, Philip H Crowley, Ben Augustine, Sarah L Stewart and Gisela García-Ramos
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:216
  30. Bell's palsy and Lyme neuroborreliosis are the two most common diagnoses in patients with peripheral facial palsy in areas endemic for Borrelia burgdorferi. Bell's palsy is treated with corticosteroids, while Lym...

    Authors: Daniel Bremell and Lars Hagberg
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:215
  31. Bacterial meningitis (BM) is a life-threatening disease, often related with serious complications and sequelae. Infants and children who survive bacterial meningitis often suffer neurological and other sequelae.

    Authors: Vasiliki A Vasilopoulou, Maria Karanika, Kalliopi Theodoridou, Antonios T Katsioulis, Maria N Theodoridou and Christos S Hadjichristodoulou
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:214
  32. Anemia is a common clinical finding in HIV-infected patients and iron deficiency or redistribution may contribute to the development of low hemoglobin levels. Iron overload is associated with a poor prognosis ...

    Authors: Rudi Wisaksana, Rachmat Sumantri, Agnes R Indrati, Aleta Zwitser, Hadi Jusuf, Quirijn de Mast, Reinout van Crevel and Andre van der Ven
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:213
  33. Worldwide there is a need to develop simple effective predictors that can distinguish whether a patient will progress from dengue fever (DF) to life threatening dengue hemorrhagic (DHF) or dengue shock syndrom...

    Authors: Farhad F Vasanwala, Rukshini Puvanendran, Stephanie Fook-Chong, Joo-Ming Ng, Sufi M Suhail and Kheng-Hock Lee
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:212
  34. As most genital chlamydia infections are asymptomatic, screening is the main way to detect and cases for treatment. We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the efficacy of interventions for incre...

    Authors: Rebecca J Guy, Hammad Ali, Bette Liu, Simone Poznanski, James Ward, Basil Donovan, John Kaldor and Jane Hocking
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:211
  35. Late onset sepsis is a frequent complication of prematurity associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The commensal bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract play a key role in the development of healthy...

    Authors: Suzanne M Garland, Jacinta M Tobin, Marie Pirotta, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Gillian Opie, Susan Donath, Mimi LK Tang, Colin J Morley, Leah Hickey, Linh Ung and Susan E Jacobs
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:210
  36. While dengue-elicited early and transient host responses preceding defervescence could shape the disease outcome and reveal mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis, assessment of these responses are difficult a...

    Authors: Thomas Tolfvenstam, Anna Lindblom, Mark J Schreiber, Ling Ling, Angelia Chow, Eng Eong Ooi and Martin L Hibberd
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:209
  37. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) has become an important measure in the diagnosis and monitoring of HCV infection treatment. In the United States (U.S.) HCV GT 1 is reported as the most common infecting G...

    Authors: Paulo Telles Dias, Judith A Hahn, Eric Delwart, Brian R Edlin, Jeff Martin, Paula Lum, Jennifer Evans, Alex Kral, Steve Deeks, Michael P Busch and Kimberly Page
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:208
  38. Influenza viruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Vaccination remains a powerful tool for preventing or mitigating influenza outbreaks. Yet, vaccine supplies and daily administration ca...

    Authors: Maytee Cruz-Aponte, Erin C McKiernan and Marco A Herrera-Valdez
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:207
  39. Conventional serological tests, using total soluble proteins or a cocktail of recombinant proteins from T. cruzi as antigens, are highly sensitive for Chagas disease diagnosis. This type of tests, however, does n...

    Authors: Ana Fernández-Villegas, María Jesús Pinazo, Concepción Marañón, M Carmen Thomas, Elizabeth Posada, Bartolomé Carrilero, Manuel Segovia, Joaquim Gascon and Manuel C López
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:206
  40. There was a low adherence to influenza A (H1N1) vaccination program among university students and health care workers during the pandemic influenza in many parts of the world. Vaccination of high risk individu...

    Authors: Padmanaban S Suresh, Venkatesh Thejaswini and Thangarasu Rajan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:205
  41. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening programmes are implemented in many countries to decrease burden of STI and to improve sexual health. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae ha...

    Authors: Remco PH Peters, Stephan P Verweij, Noëmi Nijsten, Sander Ouburg, Johan Mutsaers, Casper L Jansen, A Petra van Leeuwen and Servaas A Morré
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:203
  42. Identification of the causative agents of invasive fungal infections (IFI) is critical for guiding antifungal therapy. Cultures remain negative in a substantial number of IFI cases. Accordingly, species identi...

    Authors: Volker Rickerts, Prasanna D Khot, David Myerson, Daisy L Ko, Evelyn Lambrecht and David N Fredricks
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:202
  43. Influenza virus is a major cause of respiratory disease worldwide and Streptococcus pneumoniae infection associated with influenza often leads to severe complications. Dendritic cells are key antigen presenting c...

    Authors: Yuet Wu, Huawei Mao, Man-To Ling, Kin-Hung Chow, Pak-Leung Ho, Wenwei Tu and Yu-Lung Lau
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:201
  44. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by vaginal lactobacilli is generally believed to protect against bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), and strains of lactobacilli that can produce H2O2 are being de...

    Authors: Deirdre E O'Hanlon, Thomas R Moench and Richard A Cone
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:200
  45. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) is very common in China. It is difficult to distinguish between EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) infections in clinical HFMD patients. Ro...

    Authors: Weifeng Shi, Kun Li, Yun Ji, Qingbo Jiang, Mei Shi and Zuhuang Mi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:197
  46. During the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic, adjuvanted influenza vaccines were used for the first time on a large scale. Results on the effectiveness of the vaccines in preventing 2009 influenza A/H1N1-related ...

    Authors: Anneke Steens, Eleonora G Wijnans, Jeanne P Dieleman, Miriam CJM Sturkenboom, Marianne AB van der Sande and Wim van der Hoek
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:196

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