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  1. Lamivudine inhibits replication of both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and is commonly used as part of antiretroviral therapy. The main limitation in the use of lamivudine is re...

    Authors: Eneida A Santos, Michel VF Sucupira, Juçara Arabe and Selma A Gomes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:29

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, has been used in plastic and reconstructive surgery, to relieve venous congestion and to improve the microrevascularization of flaps. In many countries, wild leeches are still...

    Authors: Atakan Aydin, Hasan Nazik, Samet Vasfi Kuvat, Nezahat Gurler, Betigul Ongen, Serdar Tuncer, Emre Hocaoglu and Sinan Nur Kesim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:28

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Geohelminth infection is a major health problem of children from rural areas of developing countries. In an attempt to reduce this burden, the Department of Health of the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) establ...

    Authors: Elmar Saathoff, Annette Olsen, Jane D Kvalsvig and Chris C Appleton

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:27

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The strikingly young age of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (vCJD) cases remains unexplained. Age dependent susceptibility to infection has been put forward, but differential dietary exposure to contamin...

    Authors: Pierre-Yves Boëlle, Jean-Yves Cesbron and Alain-Jacques Valleron

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:26

    Content type: Research article

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  5. data on HIV epidemiology and preventive measures in Islamic countries is limited. This study describes the results of 18-year of HIV surveillance in Saudi Arabia (SA) and the preventive measures implemented fr...

    Authors: Tariq A Madani, Yagob Y Al-Mazrou, Mohammad H Al-Jeffri and Naser S Al Huzaim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:25

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Fusobacterium necrophorum may cause a number of clinical syndromes, collectively known as necrobacillosis. Meningitis is a significant cause of mortality, rarely reported in the adult population.

    Authors: SreeNeelima Garimella, Aparna Inaparthy and Thomas Herchline

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:24

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Invasive infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Case series and experimental data have shown that the capsular serotype is involved in the pathogenesis a...

    Authors: Pernille Martens, Signe Westring Worm, Bettina Lundgren, Helle Bossen Konradsen and Thomas Benfield

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:21

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The question "Where have you been?" is a common one asked by doctors in Northern Europe and America when faced with clinical symptoms not typical of their country. This question must also arise in the clinics ...

    Authors: Joaquina Martín-Sánchez, José M Navarro-Mari, Juan Pasquau-Liaño, Oscar D Salomón and Francisco Morillas-Márquez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:20

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Clinical spectrum, microbiology and outcome of empyema thoracis are changing. Intrapleural instillation of fibrinolytic agents is being increasingly used for management of empyema thoracis. The present study w...

    Authors: Amit Banga, GC Khilnani, SK Sharma, AB Dey, Naveet Wig and Namrata Banga

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:19

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The combination therapies recommended by the World Health Organization for treatment of brucellosis are doxycycline plus rifampicin or doxycycline plus streptomycin. Although highly successful results have bee...

    Authors: Oguz Karabay, Irfan Sencan, Derya Kayas and Idris Şahin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:18

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Surveillance data allow for analysis, providing public health officials and policy-makers with a basis for long-term priorities and timely information on possible outbreaks for rapid response (data for action)...

    Authors: Per Rolfhamre, Katarzyna Grabowska and Karl Ekdahl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:17

    Content type: Database

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  12. Noroviruses (NoV) have become one of the most commonly reported causative agents of large outbreaks of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide as well as sporadic gastroenteritis in the community. Curren...

    Authors: Michael Schmid, Rainer Oehme, Gunnar Schalasta, Stefan Brockmann, Peter Kimmig and Gisela Enders

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:15

    Content type: Technical advance

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  13. Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium falciparum are common infections of school aged children in Kenya. They both cause enlargement of the spleen, but their relative contribution to the condition of splenomegaly r...

    Authors: Mark Booth, Birgitte J Vennervald, LeeCarol Kenty, Anthony E Butterworth, Henry C Kariuki, Hilda Kadzo, Edmund Ireri, Clifford Amaganga, Gachuhi Kimani, Joseph K Mwatha, Amos Otedo, John H Ouma, Eric Muchiri and David W Dunne

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:13

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Despite its direct connection to the nasopharynx which harbors otitis media pathogens as part of its normal flora, the middle ear cavity is kept free of these bacteria by as yet unknown mechanisms. Respiratory...

    Authors: Haa-Yung Lee, Ali Andalibi, Paul Webster, Sung-Kyun Moon, Karen Teufert, Sung-Ho Kang, Jian-Dong Li, Mitsuyoshi Nagura, Tomas Ganz and David J Lim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:12

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Human enterovirus 71 has emerged as an important pathogen in the Asia Pacific region and it is important to be able to make a rapid and specific diagnosis for outbreak control. Recent Asian strains of Coxsacki...

    Authors: David Perera, Yuwana Podin, Winnie Akin, Cheng-Siang Tan and Mary Jane Cardosa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:11

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Genital herpes is one of the most prevalent sexually-transmitted diseases, and accounts for a substantial morbidity. Genital herpes puts newborns at risk for very severe disease and also increases the risk of ...

    Authors: Dominique Bünzli, Vincent Wietlisbach, Fabrizio Barazzoni, Roland Sahli and Pascal RA Meylan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:10

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Rabies is one of the most hazardous zoonoses in the world. Oral mass vaccination has developed into the most effective management method to control fox rabies. The future need to control the disease in large c...

    Authors: Hans-Hermann Thulke, Thomas Selhorst, Thomas Müller, Tomasz Wyszomirski, Uli Müller and Urs Breitenmoser

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:9

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of neurodegenerative diseases affecting both human and animals. The neuroanatomical changes which occur in the central nervous system (CNS) of T...

    Authors: Janice B Barr, Robert A Somerville, Yuen-Li Chung and Janet R Fraser

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:8

    Content type: Technical advance

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  19. A small fraction of Human T cell Leukemia Virus type-1 (HTLV-I) infected subjects develop a severe form of myelopathy. It has been established that patients with HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic p...

    Authors: Silvane Braga Santos, Aurélia Fonseca Porto, André Luiz Muniz, Amélia Ribeiro de Jesus, Elza Magalhães, Ailton Melo, Walderez O Dutra, Kenneth J Gollob and Edgar M Carvalho

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:7

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Conventional tests for tuberculous pleuritis have several limitations. A variety of new, rapid tests such as nucleic acid amplification tests – including polymerase chain reaction – have been evaluated in rece...

    Authors: Madhukar Pai, Laura L Flores, Alan Hubbard, Lee W Riley and John M Colford Jr

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:6

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a polymicrobial syndrome characterized by a change in vaginal flora away from predominantly Lactobacillus species. The cause of BV is unknown, but the condition has been implicated in ...

    Authors: Michael J Ferris, Alicia Masztal, Kenneth E Aldridge, J Dennis Fortenberry, Paul L Fidel Jr and David H Martin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:5

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Non-organ-specific autoantibodies are found in a considerable number of anti-HCV positive patients. Previous studies investigated the clinical relevance of these antibodies in patients treated with interferon ...

    Authors: Hermann E Wasmuth, Christian Stolte, Andreas Geier, Christoph G Dietrich, Carsten Gartung, Johann Lorenzen, Siegfried Matern and Frank Lammert

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:4

    Content type: Research article

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  23. A new respiratory infectious epidemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), broke out and spread throughout the world. By now the putative pathogen of SARS has been identified as a new coronavirus, a single ...

    Authors: Hongchao Lu, Yi Zhao, Jingfen Zhang, Yuelan Wang, Wei Li, Xiaopeng Zhu, Shiwei Sun, Jingyi Xu, Lunjiang Ling, Lun Cai, Dongbo Bu and Runsheng Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:3

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Common variable immunodificiency syndrome predominantly affects adults. It is characterized by low production of all the major classes of immunoglobulins. We report a case of common variable immunodeficiency s...

    Authors: Arzu Didem Yalcin, Nese Aydemir, Huseyin Turgut, Riza Hakan Erbay and Ata Nevzat Yalcin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:2

    Content type: Case report

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  25. The potential use of microorganisms as agents of biological warfare (BW) is a growing concern. Lassa virus, a member of the Arenavirus class of Hemorrhagic fever (HF) viruses has emerged as a worldwide concern...

    Authors: Fatih M Uckun, Alexander S Petkevich, Alexei O Vassilev, Heather E Tibbles and Leonid Titov

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:1

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:14

  26. HIV infected adults have increased susceptibility to bacterial pneumonia but the underlying immune defect is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that HIV infection might be associated with increased ba...

    Authors: Stephen B Gordon, Janelisa Musaya, Lorna Wilson, Amos Phiri, Eduard E Zijlstra and Malcolm E Molyneux

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:29

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The Republic of Ireland has the second highest incidence of BSE worldwide. Only a single case of vCJD has been identified to date.

    Authors: Michael S Harney, Azra C Ghani, CA Donnelly, Rory McConn Walsh, Michael Walsh, Rachel Howley, Francesca Brett and Michael Farrell

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:28

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) has been used for several decades in the pharmaceutical industry for enteric film coating of oral tablets and capsules. Micronized CAP, available commercially as "Aquateric" a...

    Authors: A Robert Neurath, Nathan Strick and Yun-Yao Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:27

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Molecular identification of Mycobacterium species has two primary advantages when compared to phenotypic identification: rapid turn-around time and improved accuracy. The information content of the 5' end of the ...

    Authors: Dag Harmsen, Stefan Dostal, Andreas Roth, Stefan Niemann, Jörg Rothgänger, Michael Sammeth, Jürgen Albert, Matthias Frosch and Elvira Richter

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:26

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Incarceration has been associated with HIV infection among injection drug users. However, data on HIV risk factors of the inmates during incarceration are rarely reported from Thailand.

    Authors: Hansa Thaisri, John Lerwitworapong, Suthon Vongsheree, Pathom Sawanpanyalert, Chanchai Chadbanchachai, Archawin Rojanawiwat, Wichuda Kongpromsook, Wiroj Paungtubtim, Pongnuwat Sri-ngam and Rachaneekorn Jaisue

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:25

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Prior to the selection of disinfectants for low, intermediate and high (sterilizing) levels, the decimal reduction time, D-value, for the most common and persistent bacteria identified at a health care facilit...

    Authors: Priscila Gava Mazzola, Thereza Christina Vessoni Penna and Alzira M da S Martins

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:24

    Content type: Research article

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  32. As a proportion of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3) are associated with equivocal cervical smears, which show borderline or mild dyskaryosis, follow up with repeat smears, colposcopy and ...

    Authors: Andrea Guyot, Shakir Karim, May S Kyi and John Fox

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:23

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is the necessary causal agent in the development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Infection with HIV-1, male g...

    Authors: Janet M Wojcicki, Rob Newton, Margaret I Urban, Lara Stein, Martin Hale, Moosa Patel, Paul Ruff, Ranjan Sur, Dimitra Bourboulia and Freddy Sitas

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:21

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Castleman's disease (CD), a rare condition of uncertain etiology, involves a massive proliferation of lymphoid tissues and typically presents as mediastinal masses. We describe a patient with CD who presented ...

    Authors: Ifeoma S Izuchukwu, Kamal Tourbaf and Martin C Mahoney

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:20

    Content type: Case report

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  35. An epidemic of a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) caused by a new coronavirus has spread from the Guangdong province to the rest of China and to the world, with a puzzling contagion behavior. It is imp...

    Authors: Tuen Wai Ng, Gabriel Turinici and Antoine Danchin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:19

    Content type: Research article

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  36. To describe the demographic and geographic distribution of tuberculosis (TB) in Manitoba, thus determining risk factors associated with clustering and higher incidence rates in distinct subpopulations.

    Authors: Kym S Blackwood, Assaad Al-Azem, Lawrence J Elliott, Earl S Hershfield and Amin M Kabani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:18

    Content type: Research article

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  37. An 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could provide significantly larger reduction in pneumococcal disease burden than the currently available 7-valent vaccine formulation in many countries.

    Authors: Maria Z Rosario Capeding, Taneli Puumalainen, Connie P Gepanayao, Helena Käyhty, Marilla G Lucero and Hanna Nohynek

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:17

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Although European Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates have been divided into five genospecies, specific tools for the serotype characterization of only three genospecies are available. Monoclonals antibodies...

    Authors: Karine Ryffel, Olivier Péter, Eric Dayer, Anne-Gabrielle Bretz and Edmond Godfroid

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:14

    Content type: Research article

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  39. We used human papillomaviruses (HPV) as a model system to evaluate the utility of a nucleic acid, hybridization-based bioelectronic DNA detection platform (eSensor™) in identifying multiple pathogens.

    Authors: Suzanne D Vernon, Daniel H Farkas, Elizabeth R Unger, Vivian Chan, Donna L Miller, Yin-Peng Chen, Gary F Blackburn and William C Reeves

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:12

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Low-dose ritonavir (RTV) boosts plasma amprenavir (APV) exposure. Little has been published on the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of APV 600 mg/RTV 100 mg (APV600/RTV) twice daily (BID) compared to APV 120...

    Authors: Jeffrey P Nadler, Joseph C Gathe, Richard B Pollard, Gary J Richmond, Qiming Liao, Sandy Griffith, C Tracey Lancaster, Jaime E Hernandez and Keith A Pappa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2003 3:10

    Content type: Research article

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