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  1. Persistent diarrhoea in children is a common problem in low and middle income countries. To help target appropriate treatment for specific pathogens in the absence of diagnostic tests, we systematically review...

    Authors: Katharine Abba, Rebecca Sinfield, C Anthony Hart and Paul Garner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:88

    Content type: Research article

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  2. A mathematical model was designed to explore the impact of three strategies for better tuberculosis case finding. Strategies included: (1) reducing the number of tuberculosis patients who do not seek care; (2)...

    Authors: Riris A Ahmad, Yodi Mahendradhata, Jane Cunningham, Adi Utarini and Sake J de Vlas

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:87

    Content type: Research article

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  3. In Italy, HBV vaccination is recommended and offered free of charge through the National Health Service to selected population groups – e.g., family members of an HBsAg carrier, healthcare workers, newborns an...

    Authors: Paola Scognamiglio, Enrico Girardi, Mario Fusco, Pierluca Piselli, Silvana Russo Spena, Carmela Maione, Francesco Aurelio Pisanti and Diego Serraino

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:86

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The serious long-term complications of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in women and newborns are well-documented. Particularly, STI imply considerable social consequences for women. Low STI knowledge has...

    Authors: Pham Thi Lan, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg, Ingrid Mogren, Ho Dang Phuc and Nguyen Thi Kim Chuc

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:85

    Content type: Research article

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  5. A high rate of resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins among Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Egypt has been previously reported. This study aims to characterize the resistance mechanism (s) to extended spect...

    Authors: Noha G Khalaf, Mona M Eletreby and Nancy D Hanson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:84

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a major cause of nosocomial blood stream infection, especially in critically ill and haematology patients. CoNS are usually multidrug-resistant and glycopeptide anti...

    Authors: Silvia Natoli, Carla Fontana, Marco Favaro, Alberto Bergamini, Gian Piero Testore, Silvia Minelli, Maria Cristina Bossa, Mauro Casapulla, Giorgia Broglio, Angela Beltrame, Laura Cudillo, Raffaella Cerretti and Francesca Leonardis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:83

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Before 1986, scrub typhus was only found endemic in southern China. Because human infections typically occur in the summer, it is called "summer type". During the autumn-winter period of 1986, a new type of sc...

    Authors: Yun-Xi Liu, Dan Feng, Ji-Jiang Suo, Yu-Bin Xing, Gang Liu, Li-Hua Liu, Hong-Ju Xiao, Ning Jia, Yan Gao, Hong Yang, Shu-Qing Zuo, Pan-He Zhang, Zhong-Tang Zhao, Jing-Si Min, Pei-Tian Feng, Shu-Bin Ma…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:82

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Little is known about immunovirological treatment outcomes and adherence in HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) treated using a simplified management approach in rural areas of developing countri...

    Authors: Laurence Ahoua, Gunar Guenther, Loretxu Pinoges, Paul Anguzu, Marie-Laure Chaix, Clotilde Le Tiec, Suna Balkan, David Olson, Charles Olaro and Mar Pujades-Rodríguez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:81

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Acute kidney injury frequently accompanies sepsis. Endotoxin is known to reduce tissue levels of cAMP and low levels of cAMP have been associated with renal injury. We, therefore, hypothesized that endotoxin i...

    Authors: Won-Il Choi, Kun Young Kwon, Jeong Wook Seo, John Beagle, Deborah A Quinn and Charles A Hales

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:80

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne infection in North America, is increasingly reported. When the characteristic rash, erythema migrans, is not recognized and treated, delayed manifestations of dissemi...

    Authors: John Aucott, Candis Morrison, Beatriz Munoz, Peter C Rowe, Alison Schwarzwalder and Sheila K West

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:79

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Accidental exposure to blood and body fluids is frequent among health care workers. They are at high risk of nosocomial transmission of blood borne pathogens due to injuries caused by used sharps. We are repor...

    Authors: Afia Zafar, Faiza Habib, Roshan Hadwani, Muslima Ejaz, Khurshid Khowaja, Rozina Khowaja and Seema Irfan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:78

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Toxoplasma gondii, the agent of toxoplasmosis, has a complex life cycle. In humans, the parasite may be acquired either through ingestion of contaminated meat or through oocysts present in the environment. The i...

    Authors: Emmanuelle Gilot Fromont, Benjamin Riche and Muriel Rabilloud

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:76

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The clinical management of leprosy Type 1 (T1R) and Type 2 (T2R) reactions pose challenges mainly because they can cause severe nerve injury and disability. No laboratory test or marker is available for the di...

    Authors: Mariane M Stefani, Jackeline G Guerra, Ana Lucia M Sousa, Mauricio B Costa, Maria Leide W Oliveira, Celina T Martelli and David M Scollard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:75

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Studies on HPV infection in pregnant women and HPV transmission to the child have yielded inconsistent results.

    Authors: Xavier Castellsagué, Teresa Drudis, Maria Paz Cañadas, Anna Goncé, Ramón Ros, José M Pérez, M Jesús Quintana, Jesús Muñoz, Ginesa Albero, Silvia de Sanjosé and F Xavier Bosch

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:74

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common notifiable disease in Australia, mainly affecting those aged 15 to 29 years. Testing rates are low in Australia and considerably lower in rural areas, with access and c...

    Authors: Fabian YS Kong, Jane S Hocking, Chris K Link, Marcus Y Chen and Margaret E Hellard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:73

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Latent toxoplasmosis, protozoan parasitosis with prevalence rates from 20 to 60% in most populations, is known to impair reaction times in infected subjects, which results, for example, in a higher risk of tra...

    Authors: Jaroslav Flegr, Jiří Klose, Martina Novotná, Miroslava Berenreitterová and Jan Havlíček

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:72

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Knowledge of some baseline entomological data such as Entomological Inoculation Rates (EIR) is crucially needed to assess the epidemiological impact of malaria control activities directed either against parasi...

    Authors: Clément Kerah-Hinzoumbé, Mallaye Péka, Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio, Issa Donan-Gouni, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Albert Samè-Ekobo and Frédéric Simard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:71

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a non-fermentative, gram-negative rod, is responsible for a wide variety of clinical syndromes in NICU patients, including sepsis, pneumonia, meningitis, diarrhea, conjunctivitis and skin...

    Authors: Valeria Crivaro, Anna Di Popolo, Alessandro Caprio, Antonietta Lambiase, Mario Di Resta, Tonia Borriello, Alda Scarcella, Maria Triassi and Raffaele Zarrilli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:70

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Low density Plasmodium falciparum infections, below the microscopic detection limit, may play an important role in maintaining malaria transmission in low endemic areas as well as contribute to the maintenance of...

    Authors: Seif Shekalaghe, Michael Alifrangis, Charles Mwanziva, Anders Enevold, Steve Mwakalinga, Humphrey Mkali, Reginald Kavishe, Alphaxard Manjurano, Robert Sauerwein, Chris Drakeley and Teun Bousema

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:69

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Legionellosis is a common cause of severe community acquired pneumonia and respiratory disease outbreaks. The Ontario Public Health Laboratory (OPHL) has conducted most testing for Legionella species in the Canad...

    Authors: Victoria Ng, Patrick Tang, Frances Jamieson, Cyril Guyard, Donald E Low and David N Fisman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:68

    Content type: Research article

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  21. When a test for diagnosis of infectious diseases is introduced in a resource-limited setting, monitoring quality is a major concern. An optimized design of experiment and statistical models are required for th...

    Authors: Nguyen TL Hang, Naoki Ishizuka, Naoto Keicho, Le T Hong, Do B Tam, Vu TX Thu, Ikumi Matsushita, Nobuyuki Harada, Kazue Higuchi, Shinsaku Sakurada and Luu T Lien

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:66

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Nowadays there is a debate about the indication of the oral whole-cell/recombinant B-subunit cholera vaccine (WC/rBS) in traveller's diarrhoea. However, a cost-benefit analysis based on real data has not been ...

    Authors: Rosa López-Gigosos, Pedro Garcia-Fortea, Maria J Calvo, Emilia Reina, Rosa Diez-Diaz and Elena Plaza

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:65

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Good hand hygiene has for many years been considered to be the most important measure that can be applied to prevent the spread of healthcare-associated infection (HAI). Continuous emphasis on this interventio...

    Authors: Clive B Beggs, Simon J Shepherd and Kevin G Kerr

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:64

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the main method for laboratory diagnosis of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease (IID). However, up to 16% of healthy individuals in th...

    Authors: Gemma Phillips, Ben Lopman, Clarence C Tam, Miren Iturriza-Gomara, David Brown and Jim Gray

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:63

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Currently, broad empiric antimicrobial treatment including atypical coverage is recommended for patients with mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Therefore, the relative impact of each atypica...

    Authors: Heike von Baum, Tobias Welte, Reinhard Marre, Norbert Suttorp, Christian Lück and Santiago Ewig

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:62

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The primary aims of this study were (i) to determine the quantity and pattern of antibiotic use in Austria between 1998 and 2007 and (ii) to analyze antibiotic resistance rates in relation to antibiotic consum...

    Authors: Sigrid Metz-Gercek, Andreas Maieron, Reinhild Strauß, Peter Wieninger, Petra Apfalter and Helmut Mittermayer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:61

    Content type: Research article

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  27. We intended to assess the risk for health care workers (HCWs) of acquiring M. tuberculosis infection after exposure to patients with sputum-smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis at three University Hospitals (Ull...

    Authors: Dag Gundersen Storla, Ingun Kristiansen, Fredrik Oftung, Gro Ellen Korsvold, Monica Gaupset, Gerd Gran, Anne Kristin Øverby, Anne Margarita Dyrhol-Riise and Gunnar Aksel Bjune

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:60

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Pertussis is a highly communicable, vaccine-preventable respiratory infection. Immune response against this disease can be induced by infection or vaccination. Protection after childhood vaccination is minimal...

    Authors: Seyyed Hamid Hashemi, Mitra Ranjbar, Mehrdad Hajilooi, Mohammad-Ali Seif-Rabiei, Mahnaz Bolandi and Javad Moghimi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:58

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Hyperglycemia has been associated with unfavorable outcome in several disorders, but few data are available in bacterial meningitis. We assessed the incidence and significance of hyperglycemia in adults with b...

    Authors: Ewout S Schut, Willeke F Westendorp, Jan de Gans, Nyika D Kruyt, Lodewijk Spanjaard, Johannes B Reitsma and Diederik van de Beek

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:57

    Content type: Research article

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  30. A thorough epidemiological surveillance and a good understanding of the burden of diseases associated to VZV are crucial to asses any potential impact of a prevention strategy. A population-based retrospective...

    Authors: Angel Gil, Ruth Gil, Alejendro Alvaro, María San Martín and Antonio González

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:55

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Schitosomiasis japonica is still a significant public health problem in China. A protective vaccine for human or animal use represents an important strategy for long-term control of this disease. Due to the co...

    Authors: Xindong Xu, Dongmei Zhang, Wei Sun, Qingfeng Zhang, Jingjing Zhang, Xiangyang Xue, Luhui Shen and Weiqing Pan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:54

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Sputum concentration increases the sensitivity of smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), but few studies have investigated this method in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals.

    Authors: Adithya Cattamanchi, David W Dowdy, J Lucian Davis, William Worodria, Samuel Yoo, Moses Joloba, John Matovu, Philip C Hopewell and Laurence Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:53

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Upper Respiratory Infections (URIs) are common in children. The cause is usually viral, but parents' attitude often contributes to inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, promoting antibiotic resistance. The obj...

    Authors: Sotiria G Panagakou, Maria N Theodoridou, Vassiliki Papaevangelou, Panagiotis Papastergiou, George A Syrogiannopoulos, Georgia P Goutziana and Christos S Hadjichristodoulou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:52

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory disease syndrome (SARS) is not fully understood. One case-control study has reported an association between susceptibility to SARS and mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in C...

    Authors: Yan Wang, Jiangwei Yan, Yuling Shi, Ping Li, Chuanxuan Liu, Qingjun Ma, Ruifu Yang, Xiaoyi Wang, Lina zhu, Xiao Yang and Cheng Cao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:51

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Daptomycin, a lipopeptide antibiotic, could be an alternative to vancomycin for treatment of pneumococcal meningitis. We determined the activity of daptomycin versus vancomycin, with dexamethasone as an adjuva...

    Authors: Barry B Mook-Kanamori, Mark S Rouse, Cheol-In Kang, Diederik van de Beek, James M Steckelberg and Robin Patel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:50

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The usefulness of procalcitonin (PCT) measurement in critically ill medical patients with suspected nosocomial infection is unclear. The aim of the study was to assess PCT value for the early diagnosis of bact...

    Authors: Pierre Emmanuel Charles, Emmanuel Kus, Serge AHO, Sébastien Prin, Jean-Marc Doise, Nils-Olivier Olsson, Bernard Blettery and Jean-Pierre Quenot

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:49

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Leptospirosis is endemic in both urban and rural areas of Sri Lanka and there had been many out breaks in the recent past. This study was aimed at validating the leptospirosis surveillance case definition, usi...

    Authors: Dinesh LB Dassanayake, Harith Wimalaratna, Suneth B Agampodi, Veranja C Liyanapathirana, Thibbotumunuwe ACL Piyarathna and Bimba L Goonapienuwala

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:48

    Content type: Research article

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  38. In patients with chronic respiratory disease, Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) colonization is observed, and may influence disease progression and systemic inflammation. Pneumocystis pneumonia causes interst...

    Authors: Yasuo Shimizu, Noriaki Sunaga, Kunio Dobashi, Makoto Fueki, Naoto Fueki, Sohei Makino and Masatomo Mori

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:47

    Content type: Research article

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  39. To assess the risk and the prognostic significance of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in patients from The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database, a multi-centre prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients receivin...

    Authors: Jialun Zhou, Julian Elliott, Patrick CK Li, Poh Lian Lim, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Tuti Parwati Merati, Sanjay Pujari, Yi-Ming A Chen, Praphan Phanuphak, Saphonn Vonthanak, Thira Sirisanthana, Somnuek Sungkanuparph, Christopher KC Lee, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Shinichi Oka…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:46

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination led to a significant decrease in invasive bacterial infections in children. The aim of this study was to assess a potential shift to more non-type b invasive inf...

    Authors: Helen Kalies, Anette Siedler, Britta Gröndahl, Veit Grote, Astrid Milde-Busch and Rüdiger von Kries

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:45

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is difficult, especially so in health care facilities in developing countries where laparoscopy and colonoscopy are rarely available. There is little information on...

    Authors: Edford Sinkala, Sylvia Gray, Isaac Zulu, Victor Mudenda, Lameck Zimba, Sten H Vermund, Francis Drobniewski and Paul Kelly

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:44

    Content type: Research article

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  42. In Southeast Asia, HIV-infected patients frequently die during TB treatment. Many physicians are reluctant to treat HIV-infected TB patients with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and have questions about the adde...

    Authors: Jay K Varma, Sriprapa Nateniyom, Somsak Akksilp, Wiroj Mankatittham, Chawin Sirinak, Wanchai Sattayawuthipong, Channawong Burapat, Wanitchaya Kittikraisak, Patama Monkongdee, Kevin P Cain, Charles D Wells and Jordan W Tappero

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:42

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Clinical outcomes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species (ESBL-EK) have not been adequately investigated.

    Authors: Kyoung-Ho Song, Jae Hyun Jeon, Wan Beom Park, Sang-Won Park, Hong Bin Kim, Myoung-don Oh, Hyo-Suk Lee, Nam Joong Kim and Kang Won Choe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:41

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Ukraine was the epicentre of the HIV epidemic in Eastern Europe, which has the most rapidly accelerating HIV epidemic world-wide today; national HIV prevalence is currently estimated at 1.6%. Our objective was...

    Authors: Claire Thorne, Igor Semenenko, Tatyana Pilipenko and Ruslan Malyuta

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:40

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the leading cause of genital ulcer disease in developing countries, including Brazil, and is especially prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM). HSV-2 infection r...

    Authors: Junia Rodrigues, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Francisco I Bastos, Luciane Velasque, Paula M Luz, Claudia TV de Souza, Ingebourg Georg, Jose H Pilotto and Valdilea G Veloso

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:39

    Content type: Research article

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