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  1. Others and we have previously described the potent in vivo and in vitro activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent PAP (Pokeweed antiviral protein) against a wide range of viruses. The purpose of the present ...

    Authors: Fatih M Uckun, Larisa Rustamova, Alexei O Vassilev, Heather E Tibbles and Alexander S Petkevich

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:9

    Content type: Research article

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  2. In Malaysia, Shigella spp. was reported to be the third commonest bacterial agent responsible for childhood diarrhoea. Currently, isolation of the bacterium and confirmation of the disease by microbiological and ...

    Authors: Kwai Lin Thong, Susan Ling Ling Hoe, SD Puthucheary and Rohani Md Yasin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:8

    Content type: Research article

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  3. This report describes a large international chocolate-associated Salmonella outbreak originating from Germany.

    Authors: Dirk Werber, Johannes Dreesman, Fabian Feil, Ulrich van Treeck, Gerhard Fell, Steen Ethelberg, Anja M Hauri, Peter Roggentin, Rita Prager, Ian ST Fisher, Susanne C Behnke, Edda Bartelt, Ekkehard Weise, Andrea Ellis, Anja Siitonen, Yvonne Andersson…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:7

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Four human coronaviruses are currently known to infect the respiratory tract: human coronaviruses OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and 229E (HCoV-229E), SARS associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the recently identified human...

    Authors: Elien Moës, Leen Vijgen, Els Keyaerts, Kalina Zlateva, Sandra Li, Piet Maes, Krzysztof Pyrc, Ben Berkhout, Lia van der Hoek and Marc Van Ranst

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:6

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Many studies associated nosocomial infections with increased hospital costs due to extra days in hospital, staff time, extra investigations and drug treatment. The cost of antibiotic treatment for these infect...

    Authors: Dilara Inan, Rabin Saba, Filiz Gunseren, Gozde Ongut, Ozge Turhan, Ata Nevzat Yalcin and Latife Mamikoglu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:5

    Content type: Research article

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  6. In the field of clinical mycobacteriology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) can be a difficult organism to manipulate due to the restrictive environment of a containment level 3 (CL3) laboratory. Tests for rapid ...

    Authors: Kym S Blackwood, Tamara V Burdz, Christine Y Turenne, Meenu K Sharma, Amin M Kabani and Joyce N Wolfe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:4

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Enterococcal meningitis is an uncommon disease usually caused by Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium and is associated with a high mortality rate. Enterococcus casseliflavus has been implicated in a wi...

    Authors: Chiara Iaria, Giovanna Stassi, Gaetano Bruno Costa, Rita Di Leo, Antonio Toscano and Antonio Cascio

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:3

    Content type: Case report

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  8. Hyperlipidemia secondary to protease inhibitors (PI) may abate by switching to anti-HIV medications without lipid effects.

    Authors: Philip H Keiser, Michael G Sension, Edwin DeJesus, Allan Rodriguez, Jeffrey F Olliffe, Vanessa C Williams, John H Wakeford, Jerry W Snidow, Anne D Shachoy-Clark, Julie W Fleming, Gary E Pakes and Jaime E Hernandez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:2

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The intravenous use of polymyxins has been considered to be associated with considerable nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. For this reason, the systemic administration of polymyxins had been abandoned for abou...

    Authors: Matthew E Falagas, Michael Rizos, Ioannis A Bliziotis, Kostas Rellos, Sofia K Kasiakou and Argyris Michalopoulos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2005 5:1

    Content type: Research article

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  10. MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the major cause of treatment failure in tuberculosis patients, especially in immunosuppressed. We described a young polymyositis patient on immunosuppressive therapy who was star...

    Authors: Chiranjoy Mukhopadhyay, Ankita Garg and Archana Ayyagari

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:63

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Micrococcus species may cause intracranial abscesses, meningitis, pneumonia, and septic arthritis in immunosuppressed or immunocompetent hosts. In addition, strains identified as Micrococcus spp. have been repor...

    Authors: Fevzi Altuntas, Orhan Yildiz, Bülent Eser, Kürsat Gündogan, Bulent Sumerkan and Mustafa Çetin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:62

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Wasting and micronutrient malnutrition have not been well characterized in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis. We hypothesized that micronutrient malnutrition is associated with wasting and higher plasma human...

    Authors: Monique van Lettow, Anthony D Harries, Johnny J Kumwenda, Ed E Zijlstra, Tamara D Clark, Taha E Taha and Richard D Semba

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:61

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Since the mid-1980's there has been a worldwide resurgence of severe disease from group A streptococcus (GAS), with clonal clusters implicated in Europe and the United States. However GAS associated sepsis and...

    Authors: Marilyn Hassell, Peter Fagan, Phillip Carson and Bart J Currie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:60

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Tertiary care hospitals are a potential source for development and spread of bacterial resistance being in the loop to receive outpatients and referrals from community nursing homes and hospitals. The liberal ...

    Authors: Lexley M Pinto Pereira, Marjorie Phillips, Hema Ramlal, Karen Teemul and P Prabhakar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:59

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Management of patients with bleeding oesophageal varices comprises of mainly diagnostic endoscopy, sclerotherapy and band ligation. One of the major problems to do any of the above is the active bleeding which...

    Authors: Shyama Chatterjee and Eric Van Marck

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:58

    Content type: Study protocol

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  16. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) is an important opportunistic infection among immunosuppressed patients, especially in those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The clinical presentation of...

    Authors: Alan KL Wu, Vincent CC Cheng, Bone SF Tang, Ivan FN Hung, Rodney A Lee, David S Hui and Kwok Y Yuen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:57

    Content type: Case report

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  17. TT virus is prevalent worldwide, but its prevalence and genotype distribution in Central and East-Europe has not been determined. The high prevalence of TTV in multiply-transfused patients points to the import...

    Authors: Martina Saláková, Vratislav Němeček, Jaroslav König and Ruth Tachezy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:56

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Molecular detection of herpesviruses DNA is considered as the reference standard assay for diagnosis of central nervous system infections. In this study nested PCR and real time PCR techniques for detection of...

    Authors: Lorenzo Drago, Alessandra Lombardi, Elena De Vecchi, Giuseppe Giuliani, Rosaria Bartolone and Maria Rita Gismondo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:55

    Content type: Technical advance

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  19. Prion diseases are caused by the accumulation of an aberrantly folded isoform of the prion protein, designated PrPSc. In a cell-based assay, quinacrine inhibits the conversion of normal host prion protein (PrPC) ...

    Authors: Lotus Yung, Yong Huang, Pierre Lessard, Giuseppe Legname, Emil T Lin, Michael Baldwin, Stanley B Prusiner, Chongsuk Ryou and B Joseph Guglielmo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:53

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Literature on the spectrum of opportunistic disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients from developing countries is sparse. The objective of this study was to document the spectrum and det...

    Authors: SK Sharma, Tamilarasu Kadhiravan, Amit Banga, Tarun Goyal, Indrish Bhatia and PK Saha

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:52

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Old, stationary cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis contain a majority of bacteria that can grow in broth cultures but cannot grow on solid medium plates. These may be in a non-replicating, dormant growth phas...

    Authors: Jasvir Dhillon, Douglas B Lowrie and Denis A Mitchison

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:51

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The process of elimination of intracellular pathogens, such as Leishmania, requires a Th1 type immune response, whereas a dominant Th2 response leads to exacerbated disease. Experimental human zinc deficiency dec...

    Authors: Johan Van Weyenbergh, Gisélia Santana, Argemiro D'Oliveira Jr, Anibal F Santos Jr, Carlos H Costa, Edgar M Carvalho, Aldina Barral and Manoel Barral-Netto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:50

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Past estimates have put the prevalence of schistosomiasis between 40% and 50% in the Malawi population overall based on studies undertaken ten years or more ago. More recent surveys in known high risk areas fi...

    Authors: Cameron Bowie, Bernadette Purcell, Bina Shaba, Peter Makaula and Maria Perez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:49

    Content type: Research article

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  24. An increase in the number of attendees due to acute gastroenteritis and fever was noted at one hospital emergency room in Taiwan over a seven-day period from July to August, 2001. Molecular and epidemiological...

    Authors: Po-Liang Lu, In-Jane Hwang, Ya-Lina Tung, Shang-Jyh Hwang, Chun-Lu Lin and LK Siu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:48

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Diagnosis of HIV infection is recently occurring with increasing frequency in middle-aged and in older individuals. As HAART became available, a minimal beneficial effect on immunological outcome in older in r...

    Authors: Mario Tumbarello, Ricardo Rabagliati, Katleen de Gaetano Donati, Silvia Bertagnolio, Eva Montuori, Enrica Tamburrini, Evelina Tacconelli and Roberto Cauda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:46

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Between November 2 and 10, 2002 several patients with psoriasis and personnel staying in the health centre in Gran Canaria, Spain fell ill with diarrhoea, vomiting or both. Patient original came from Norway, S...

    Authors: Hanne M Eriksen, Philippe J Guerin, Karin Nygård, Marika Hjertqvist, Birgitta de Jong, Angela MC Rose, Markku Kuusi, Ulrike Durr, AG Rojas, Cato Mør and Preben Aavitsland

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:45

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Tuberculosis (TB) is increasing in the world and drug-resistant (DR) disease beckons new treatments.

    Authors: Roberto Suárez-Méndez, Idrian García-García, Norma Fernández-Olivera, Magalys Valdés-Quintana, María T Milanés-Virelles, Dalia Carbonell, Delfina Machado-Molina, Carmen M Valenzuela-Silva and Pedro A López-Saura

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:44

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the leading pathogenic cause of nosocomial infections, especially in bacteraemia and sepsis. The essential therapy for MRSA infection is glycopeptides. Therap...

    Authors: Emine Alp, Suveyda Gozukucuk, Ozlem Canoz, Beyhan Kirmaci and Mehmet Doganay

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:43

    Content type: Research article

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  29. For ≈ 24 years the AIDS pandemic has claimed ≈ 30 million lives, causing ≈ 14,000 new HIV-1 infections daily worldwide in 2003. About 80% of infections occur by heterosexual transmission. In the absence of vac...

    Authors: A Robert Neurath, Nathan Strick, Yun-Yao Li and Asim K Debnath

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:41

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Schistosomiasis is one of the major health problems in tropical and sub-tropical countries, with school age children usually being the most affected group. In 1998 the Department of Health of the province of K...

    Authors: Elmar Saathoff, Annette Olsen, Pascal Magnussen, Jane D Kvalsvig, Wilhelm Becker and Chris C Appleton

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:40

    Content type: Research article

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  31. A dengue virus type 2 (DEN-2 Tonga/74) isolated from a 1974 epidemic was characterized by mild illness and belongs to the American genotype of DEN-2 viruses. To prepare a vaccine candidate, a previously descri...

    Authors: Joseph E Blaney Jr, Christopher T Hanson, Kathryn A Hanley, Brian R Murphy and Stephen S Whitehead

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:39

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Chlamydiales are familiar causes of acute and chronic infections in humans and animals. Human pulmonary emphysema is a component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a condition in which chronic i...

    Authors: Dirk Theegarten, Olaf Anhenn, Helmut Hotzel, Mathias Wagner, Alessandro Marra, Georgios Stamatis, Grigori Mogilevski and Konrad Sachse

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:38

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Despite Noroviruses (NV, previously "Norwalk-like viruses") being a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks, the impact of NV infection is at present unknown and little information is available about str...

    Authors: Rosa Prato, Pier Luigi Lopalco, Maria Chironna, Giovanna Barbuti, Cinzia Germinario and Michele Quarto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:37

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Salmonella spp. with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones have higher than usual MICs to these agents but are still considered "susceptible" by NCCLS criteria. Delayed treatment response to fluoroquinolone...

    Authors: Robert Slinger, Marc Desjardins, Anne E McCarthy, Karam Ramotar, Peter Jessamine, Christiane Guibord and Baldwin Toye

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:36

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Clinicians at Haydom Lutheran Hospital, a rural hospital in northern Tanzania noted an unusually high case-fatality rate of pediatric meningitis and suspected an outbreak of an unknown agent or an organism res...

    Authors: Hogne Vaagland, Bjørn Blomberg, Carsten Krüger, Naftali Naman, Roland Jureen and Nina Langeland

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:35

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The molecular basis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) induced pathology is still largely unclear. Many SARS patients suffer respiratory distress brought on by interstitial infiltrat...

    Authors: Lisa FP Ng, Martin L Hibberd, Eng-Eong Ooi, Kin-Fai Tang, Soek-Ying Neo, Jenny Tan, Karuturi R Krishna Murthy, Vinsensius B Vega, Jer-Ming Chia, Edison T Liu and Ee-Chee Ren

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:34

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Avidity determination of antigen-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies is an established serological method to differentiate acute from past infections. In order to compare the avidity of varicella-zoster...

    Authors: Ralf-Herbert Kneitz, Jörg Schubert, Franz Tollmann, Wolfgang Zens, Klaus Hedman and Benedikt Weissbrich

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:33

    Content type: Technical advance

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  38. The SARS coronavirus is the etiologic agent for the epidemic of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. The recent emergence of this new pathogen, the careful tracing of its transmission patterns, and the abili...

    Authors: Vinsensius B Vega, Yijun Ruan, Jianjun Liu, Wah Heng Lee, Chia Lin Wei, Su Yun Se-Thoe, Kin Fai Tang, Tao Zhang, Prasanna R Kolatkar, Eng Eong Ooi, Ai Ee Ling, Lawrence W Stanton, Philip M Long and Edison T Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:32

    Content type: Research article

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  39. To assess the economic aspects of HBV (hepatitis B virus) transmission prevention for premarriage individuals in a country with cultural backgrounds like Iran and intermediate endemicity of HBV infection.

    Authors: Peyman Adibi, Mohammadreza Rezailashkajani, Delnaz Roshandel, Negar Behrouz, Shahin Ansari, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Saeed Shahraz and Mohammad Reza Zali

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:31

    Content type: Research article

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  40. In many countries breeding programs for resistance to scrapie in sheep are established. Therefore, the demand on genotyping capacities of the polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (prnp) relevant to presently k...

    Authors: Johannes Buitkamp and Jördis Semmer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:30

    Content type: Technical advance

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  41. Lamivudine inhibits replication of both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and is commonly used as part of antiretroviral therapy. The main limitation in the use of lamivudine is re...

    Authors: Eneida A Santos, Michel VF Sucupira, Juçara Arabe and Selma A Gomes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:29

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, has been used in plastic and reconstructive surgery, to relieve venous congestion and to improve the microrevascularization of flaps. In many countries, wild leeches are still...

    Authors: Atakan Aydin, Hasan Nazik, Samet Vasfi Kuvat, Nezahat Gurler, Betigul Ongen, Serdar Tuncer, Emre Hocaoglu and Sinan Nur Kesim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:28

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Geohelminth infection is a major health problem of children from rural areas of developing countries. In an attempt to reduce this burden, the Department of Health of the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) establ...

    Authors: Elmar Saathoff, Annette Olsen, Jane D Kvalsvig and Chris C Appleton

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:27

    Content type: Research article

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  44. The strikingly young age of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (vCJD) cases remains unexplained. Age dependent susceptibility to infection has been put forward, but differential dietary exposure to contamin...

    Authors: Pierre-Yves Boëlle, Jean-Yves Cesbron and Alain-Jacques Valleron

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:26

    Content type: Research article

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  45. data on HIV epidemiology and preventive measures in Islamic countries is limited. This study describes the results of 18-year of HIV surveillance in Saudi Arabia (SA) and the preventive measures implemented fr...

    Authors: Tariq A Madani, Yagob Y Al-Mazrou, Mohammad H Al-Jeffri and Naser S Al Huzaim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:25

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Fusobacterium necrophorum may cause a number of clinical syndromes, collectively known as necrobacillosis. Meningitis is a significant cause of mortality, rarely reported in the adult population.

    Authors: SreeNeelima Garimella, Aparna Inaparthy and Thomas Herchline

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2004 4:24

    Content type: Case report

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