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  1. Content type: Research article

    Recent data demonstrate the utility of the string test for the diagnosis of sputum-scarce HIV-associated TB in adults. We hypothesized that, if well-tolerated by children, this simple tool might offer a breakt...

    Authors: Felicia Chow, Nora Espiritu, Robert H Gilman, Rosmery Gutierrez, Sonia Lopez, A Roderick Escombe, Carlton AW Evans and David AJ Moore

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:67

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  2. Content type: Research article

    New tools are required to improve tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment, including enhanced ability to compare new treatment strategies. The ELISPOT assay uses Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens to ...

    Authors: Alexander M Aiken, Philip C Hill, Annette Fox, Keith PWJ McAdam, Dolly Jackson-Sillah, Moses D Lugos, Simon A Donkor, Richard A Adegbola and Roger H Brookes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:66

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Patients with HIV infection are at risk of co-infection with HBV, as the routes of transmission are shared and thus immunization with HBV vaccine could be protective in them. The aim of the present study was t...

    Authors: Neelam Pasricha, Usha Datta, Yogesh Chawla, Surjit Singh, Sunil K Arora, Archana Sud, Ranjana W Minz, Biman Saikia, Haqeeqat Singh, Isaac James and Shobha Sehgal

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:65

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  4. Content type: Research article

    The way various antiretroviral drugs and drug combinations affect HIV-1 infection in the central nervous system is still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) st...

    Authors: Aylin Yilmaz, Dietmar Fuchs, Lars Hagberg, Ulrika Nillroth, Lars Ståhle, Jan-Olof Svensson and Magnus Gisslén

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:63

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  5. Content type: Technical advance

    Streptococcus intermedius belongs to the Streptococcus anginosus group. It is part of the normal flora of the human mouth, but it can be etiologically associated with deep-site infections.

    Authors: Donato Rigante, Teresa Spanu, Lorenzo Nanni, Assunta Tornesello, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Tiziana D'Inzeo, Achille Stabile and Giovanni Fadda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:61

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is an acute febrile, zoonotic disease caused by Rickettsia conorii and transmitted to humans by the brown dogtick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Nearly four hundred cases are reported...

    Authors: Claudia Colomba, Laura Saporito, Valentina Frasca Polara, Raffaella Rubino and Lucina Titone

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:60

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Patients accessing antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes in sub-Saharan Africa frequently have very advanced immunodeficiency. Previous data suggest that such patients may have diminished capacity for CD4 ...

    Authors: Stephen D Lawn, Landon Myer, Linda-Gail Bekker and Robin Wood

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:59

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Influenza is characterized by seasonal outbreaks, often with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. It is also known to be a cause of significant amount secondary bacterial infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae i...

    Authors: Katarzyna Grabowska, Liselotte Högberg, Pasi Penttinen, Åke Svensson and Karl Ekdahl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:58

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains susceptible to penicillin, however, resistance to second-line antimicrobials, clindamycin and erythromycin, has increased since 1996. We describe the age-specific antibiotic su...

    Authors: Stephanie M Borchardt, Joan H DeBusscher, Patricia A Tallman, Shannon D Manning, Carl F Marrs, Terrence A Kurzynski and Betsy Foxman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:57

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  10. Content type: Research article

    For its low cost and ease of handling, the mouse remains the preferred experimental animal for preclinical tests. To avoid the interaction of the animal immune system, in vivo antibiotic pharmacodynamic studie...

    Authors: Andres F Zuluaga, Beatriz E Salazar, Carlos A Rodriguez, Ana X Zapata, Maria Agudelo and Omar Vesga

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:55

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  11. Content type: Research article

    The role of Diabetes mellitus (DM) in the etiology and in the antimicrobial resistance of uropathogens in patients with urinary tract infection has not been well clarified. For this reason we have evaluated th...

    Authors: Mario Bonadio, Silvia Costarelli, Giovanna Morelli and Tiziana Tartaglia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:54

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Bloodstream infection (BSI) due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) has relevant clinical impact especially in relation to drug resistance determinants. The PER-1 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) is a common...

    Authors: Andrea Endimiani, Francesco Luzzaro, Beatrice Pini, Gianfranco Amicosante, Gian Maria Rossolini and Antonio Q Toniolo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:52

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Previous studies have indicated that a recently described anaerobic bacterium, Atopobium vaginae is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV). Thus far the four isolates of this fastidious micro-organism were foun...

    Authors: Ellen De Backer, Rita Verhelst, Hans Verstraelen, Geert Claeys, Gerda Verschraegen, Marleen Temmerman and Mario Vaneechoutte

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:51

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Most of the studies about invasive Candida infections in cancer patients have focused on haematological patients. The aim of this study was to provide information about risk factors for candidaemia in patients wi...

    Authors: Alessandro Comarú Pasqualotto, Daniela Dornelles Rosa, Lidia Rosi Medeiros and Luiz Carlos Severo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:50

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Haematogenous Staphylococcus aureus meningitis is rare but associated with high mortality. Knowledge about the disease is still limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate demographic and clinical progno...

    Authors: Michael Pedersen, Thomas L Benfield, Peter Skinhoej and Allan G Jensen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:49

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  16. Content type: Research article

    The whole-blood interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is recommended in some settings as an alternative to the tuberculin skin test (TST). Outcomes from field implementation of the IGRA for routine tuberculosi...

    Authors: Puneet Kumar Dewan, Jennifer Grinsdale, Sally Liska, Ernest Wong, Robert Fallstad and L Masae Kawamura

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:47

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  17. Content type: Research article

    It is known that there is significant morbidity associated with urinary tract infection and with renal dysfunction in sickle cell disease (SCD). However, it is not known if there are potential adverse outcomes...

    Authors: Vanessa Cumming, Susanna Ali, Terrence Forrester, Karen Roye-Green and Marvin Reid

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:46

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Digital clubbing is a sign of chest disease known since the time of Hippocrates. Its association with tuberculosis (TB) has not been well studied, particularly in Africa where TB is common. The prevalence of c...

    Authors: Henry Ddungu, John L Johnson, Marek Smieja and Harriet Mayanja-Kizza

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:45

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts are used for intracranial pressure management and temporary cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage. Infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is a major cause of morbidity and ...

    Authors: Suzan Sacar, Huseyin Turgut, Semra Toprak, Bayram Cirak, Erdal Coskun, Ozlem Yilmaz and Koray Tekin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:43

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Screening and active case finding for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is recommended to prevent reproductive morbidity. However insight in community prevalence of gonococcal infections and co-infections with Neisseria...

    Authors: Jan EAM van Bergen, Joke Spaargaren, Hannelore M Götz, Irene K Veldhuijzen, Patrick JE Bindels, Ton J Coenen, Jan Broer, Fetzen de Groot, Christian JPA Hoebe, Jan-Hendrik Richardus, Daniel van Schaik and Marije Verhooren

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:42

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  21. Content type: Research article

    HTLV-1 infection is currently restricted to endemic areas. To define the prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in patients living in Italy, we first carried out a retrospective serological analysis in a group of peop...

    Authors: Francesca Vitone, Davide Gibellini, Pasqua Schiavone, Antonietta D'Antuono, Lorenzo Gianni, Isabella Bon and Maria Carla Re

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:41

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Continuous outbreaks of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A in Asia has resulted in an urgent effort to improve current diagnostics to aid containment of the virus and lower the threat of a influenza ...

    Authors: Lisa FP Ng, Ian Barr, Tung Nguyen, Suriani Mohd Noor, Rosemary Sok-Pin Tan, Lora V Agathe, Sanjay Gupta, Hassuzana Khalil, Thanh Long To, Sharifah Syed Hassan and Ee-Chee Ren

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:40

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  23. Content type: Research article

    As most of the studies in HIV patients with diarrhea were cross sectional, focusing on the etiological agents, we are reporting data on the rate of diarrhea, associations between diarrhea and CD4 counts and va...

    Authors: Suresh VS Attili, AK Gulati, VP Singh, DV Varma, M Rai and Shyam Sundar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:39

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  24. Content type: Case report

    Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype typhi, which is acquired by ingestion of contaminated food and water. Each year the disease affects a...

    Authors: Claudia Colomba, Laura Saporito, Laura Infurnari, Salvatore Tumminia and Lucina Titone

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:38

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is crucial to facilitate early treatment of infectious cases and thus to reduce its spread. To improve the diagnosis of TB, more rapid diagnostic techniques su...

    Authors: Gozde Ongut, Dilara Ogunc, Filiz Gunseren, Candan Ogus, Levent Donmez, Dilek Colak and Meral Gultekin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:37

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus is a rare infection in humans associated with contact with horses or consumption of unpasteurized milk products. On October 23, 2003, the National Public Health Instit...

    Authors: Markku Kuusi, Elina Lahti, Anni Virolainen, Maija Hatakka, Risto Vuento, Leila Rantala, Jaana Vuopio-Varkila, Eija Seuna, Matti Karppelin, Marjaana Hakkinen, Johanna Takkinen, Veera Gindonis, Kyosti Siponen and Kaisa Huotari

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:36

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Neutropenic enterocolitis is a life-threatening complication most frequently occurring after intensive chemotherapy in acute leukaemias. Gramnegative bacteria constitute the most important group of causative p...

    Authors: Marcus Gorschlüter, Ulrich Mey, John Strehl, Volker Schmitz, Christian Rabe, Katharina Pauls, Carsten Ziske, Ingo GH Schmidt-Wolf and Axel Glasmacher

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:35

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  28. Content type: Research article

    End-stage liver disease is currently a major concern among HIV-positive individuals due to co-infection with hepatotropic virus. Hepatitis C has been pointed out as a remarkable factor for that. More recently,...

    Authors: Rui Alberto Roldão de Almeida Pereira, Aparecida Duarte Hg Mussi, Vergínia Correa de Azevedo e Silva and Francisco José Dutra Souto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:34

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Delay in start of tuberculosis (TB) treatment has an impact at both the individual level, by increasing the risk of morbidity and mortality, and at the community level, by increasing the risk of transmission. ...

    Authors: Mohamed Guled Farah, Jens Henning Rygh, Tore W Steen, Randi Selmer, Einar Heldal and Gunnar Bjune

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:33

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  30. Content type: Research article

    To apply clarithromycin as an immunomodulatory treatment in experimental urosepsis by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Authors: Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Anastasia Antonopoulou, Maria Raftogiannis, Pantelis Koutoukas, Thomas Tsaganos, Vassiliki Tziortzioti, Charalambos Panagou, Theodoros Adamis and Helen Giamarellou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:31

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  31. Content type: Research article

    The occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has gradually become more frequent in most countries of the world. Sweden has remained one of few exceptions to the high occurrence of MRSA in ...

    Authors: Mikael Stenhem, Åke Örtqvist, Håkan Ringberg, Leif Larsson, Barbro Olsson-Liljequist, Sara Hæggman and Karl Ekdahl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:30

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Measles remains a major public health problem in Mozambique despite significant efforts to control the disease. Currently, health authorities base their outbreak control on data from the routine surveillance s...

    Authors: Jagrati V Jani, Ilesh V Jani, Carolina Araújo, Sundeep Sahay, Jorge Barreto and Gunnar Bjune

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:29

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  33. Content type: Study protocol

    While hearing loss in HIV-infected people after beginning nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) has been reported, there have been no prospective studies that measured hearing changes longitudina...

    Authors: Jeffrey T Schouten, David W Lockhart, Thomas S Rees, Ann C Collier and Christina M Marra

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:28

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  34. Content type: Research article

    HPV infection in women from developing countries is an important public health problem. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalences of HPV infection and HPV genotypes in a female population of Durango Ci...

    Authors: Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Miguel Arturo Reyes-Romero and Margarita Carrera-Rodríguez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:27

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  35. Content type: Case report

    The current recommended therapy for diffuse coccidioidal pneumonia involves initial treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate or high-dose fluconazole, followed by an azole after clinical improvement. Amphote...

    Authors: Dae Won Park, Jang Wook Sohn, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim, Min Ja Kim, Je Hyeong Kim and Chol Shin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:26

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Meningococcal disease is infrequently found in Taiwan, a country with 23 million people. Between 1996 and 2002, 17 to 81 clinical cases of the disease were reported annually. Reported cases dramatically increa...

    Authors: Chien-Shun Chiou, Jui-Cheng Liao, Tsai-Ling Liao, Chun-Chin Li, Chen-Ying Chou, Hsiu-Li Chang, Shu-Man Yao and Yeong-Sheng Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:25

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  37. Content type: Research article

    The frequency of ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections (BSI) is high in Brazilian hospitals, however little is known regarding what role, if any, resistance plays in the expected outcome in ...

    Authors: Alexandre R Marra, Sérgio B Wey, Adauto Castelo, Ana Cristina Gales, Ruy Guilherme R Cal, José R do Carmo Filho, Michael B Edmond and Carlos Alberto P Pereira

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:24

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) are medically significant infectious agents associated with various chronic human pathologies. Nevertheless, specific roles in disease progression or init...

    Authors: Frances Cirino, Wilmore C Webley, Corrie West, Nancy L Croteau, Chester Andrzejewski Jr and Elizabeth S Stuart

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:23

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:165

  39. Content type: Research article

    Syndromic management of STIs has been advocated as simplified and cheap approach. Youth have been reported to be at increased risk of acquiring STIs which can facilitate HIV transmission. We have investigated ...

    Authors: Guerino Chalamilla, Judica Mbwana, Fred Mhalu, Eunice Mmari, Mtebe Majigo, Andrew Swai, Willy Urassa and Eric Sandstrom

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:22

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Infection represents a frequent complication among patients in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and mortality is high. In particular, the incidence of fungal infections, especially due to Candida spp., has been increa...

    Authors: Matteo Bassetti, Elda Righi, Alessandro Costa, Roberta Fasce, Maria Pia Molinari, Raffaella Rosso, Franco Bobbio Pallavicini and Claudio Viscoli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:21

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  41. Content type: Technical advance

    We have previously developed a test for the diagnosis and prognostic assessment of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) based on the detection of the SARS-coronavirus RNA in serum by real-time quantita...

    Authors: Rossa WK Chiu, Yongjie Jin, Grace TY Chung, Wing-bong Lui, Anthony TC Chan, Wilina Lim and YM Dennis Lo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:20

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Thrombocytopenia is commonly observed in severe leptospirosis. However, previous studies on coagulation alterations during leptospirosis resulted in inconsistent conclusions. Some findings showed that the prom...

    Authors: Hong-Liang Yang, Xu-Cheng Jiang, Xiang-Yan Zhang, Wen-Jun LI, Bao-Yu HU, Guo-Ping Zhao and Xiao-Kui Guo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:19

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  43. Content type: Research article

    The WHO recommends that adults with uncomplicated P. falciparum successfully treated with a blood schizonticide receive a single dose of primaquine (PQ) 45 mg as a gametocytocidal agent. An earlier pilot study...

    Authors: NJ Gogtay, KD Kamtekar, SS Dalvi, SS Mehta, AR Chogle, U Aigal and NA Kshirsagar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:16

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