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Viral diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world deeply, with more than 14,000,000 people infected and nearly 600,000 deaths. This review aimed to summarize the epidemiologic traits, clinical spectrum, CT results ...

    Authors: Yewei Xie, Zaisheng Wang, Huipeng Liao, Gifty Marley, Dan Wu and Weiming Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:640

    Content type: Research article

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  2. An ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading globally. Recently, several articles have mentioned that the early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by COVID-19 signific...

    Authors: Jingen Xia, Yingying Feng, Min Li, Xin Yu, Yi Zhang, Jun Duan and Qingyuan Zhan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:637

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Avian influenza A (H7N9) virus was first reported in mainland China in 2013, and alarming in 2016–17 due to the surge across a wide geographic area. Our study aimed to identify and explore the spatial and temp...

    Authors: Xuzheng Shan, Yongqin Wang, Ruihong Song, Wen Wei, Hongxiu Liao, Huang Huang, Chunqiong Xu, Lvlin Chen and Shiyun Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:630

    Content type: Research article

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  4. In this study, the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cervical cancer and vaginal microbiome was evaluated in Chinese cohorts.

    Authors: Yulian Chen, Xingdi Qiu, Wenjing Wang, Dong Li, Anyue Wu, Zubei Hong, Wen Di and Lihua Qiu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:629

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Guidelines emphasize prompt antiviral treatment in severe influenza patients. Although nearly a 50% of severe influenza present with pneumonia, the effect of early (≤ 2 days after illness onset) neuraminidase ...

    Authors: Liang Chen, Xiudi Han, Yan Li Li, Chunxiao Zhang and Xiqian Xing

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:628

    Content type: Research article

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  6. The epidemiological pattern of hepatitis A infection has shown dynamic changes in many parts of the world due to improved socio-economic conditions and the accumulation of seronegative subjects, which leads to...

    Authors: Kaouther Ayouni, Bechir Naffeti, Walid Ben Aribi, Jihène Bettaieb, Walid Hammami, Afif Ben Salah, Hamadi Ammar, Slimane Ben Miled and Henda Triki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:627

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are a severe health concern worldwide. HBV is a DNA virus with a rapid rate of mutation. Based on heterogeneity of the nucleotide sequence, the HBV strains are divided into n...

    Authors: Yi Yi Kyaw, Aye Aye Lwin, Khin Saw Aye, Hlaing Myat Thu, Moh Moh Htun, Hnin Ohmar Soe, Kay Thi Aye, Kyaw Zin Thant, Hyeon Jeong Hwang and JaeHun Cheong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:552

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Millions of lives around the world are being saved annually through blood transfusion. However, blood transfusion is among the essential vehicles for transmitting infections. The overall prevalence of Transfus...

    Authors: Mohamed Aabdien, Nagah Selim, Sayed Himatt, Saloua Hmissi, Zeyd Merenkov, Noora AlKubaisi, Manar E. Abdel-Rahman, Abdelatif Abdelmola, Shadi Khelfa, Elmoubasher Farag, Hamad E. Al-Romaihi, Mohamed Al-Thani, Moutaz Derbala and Saad Al-Kaabi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:617

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The poliovirus has been targeted for eradication since 1988. Kenya reported its last case of indigenous Wild Poliovirus (WPV) in 1984 but suffered from an outbreak of circulating Vaccine-derived Poliovirus typ...

    Authors: Brook Tesfaye, Alieu Sowe, Ngina Kisangau, John Ogange, Stephen Ntoburi, Irene Nekar, Charles Muitherero, Yaya Camara, Carolyne Gathenji, Daniel Langat, Kibet Sergon, Hilary Limo, Rosemary Nzunza, Shem Kiptoon, David Kareko and Iheoma Onuekwusi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:611

    Content type: Research article

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  10. During an evolving outbreak or pandemic, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) including physical distancing, isolation, and mask use may flatten the peak in communities. However, these strategies rely on co...

    Authors: Holly Seale, Clare E. F. Dyer, Ikram Abdi, Kazi M. Rahman, Yanni Sun, Mohammed O. Qureshi, Alexander Dowell-Day, Jonathon Sward and M. Saiful Islam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:607

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Infections due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and Influenza virus (FLU) are leading causes of hospitalization in young children. Yet, there is little data on factors associated with antibiotic use in the...

    Authors: Cihan Papan, Meike Willersinn, Christel Weiß, Michael Karremann, Horst Schroten and Tobias Tenenbaum

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:606

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Herpetic esophagitis (EH) usually affects those who are immunocompromised and is uncommon in immunocompetent patients. In these cases, EH may occasionally present as an acute and self-limited illness. Such cas...

    Authors: Alba M. Diezma-Martín, Esther Gigante-Miravalles, Juan Diego Castro Limo, Carlos Andrés Quimbayo Arcila and Juan José Puche Paniagua

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:605

    Content type: Case report

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  13. BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) is a relatively common cause of renal dysfunction in the first six months after renal transplantation. It arises from reactivation of the latent and usually harmless BK ...

    Authors: Thomas Crowhurst, James Nolan, Randall Faull, Mark Holmes and Chien-Li Holmes-Liew

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:600

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Group A Rotavirus (RVA), despite being an important pathogen in hospitalized children, is less studied in pediatric outpatients, and even rarely investigated in adults. This study aims to understand the geneti...

    Authors: Xiaozhou Kuang, Xiaohuan Gong, Xi Zhang, Hao Pan and Zheng Teng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:596

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Antiviral therapy is recommended for patients with immune-active chronic hepatitis B (CHB) to decrease the risk of liver-related complications. However, the outcomes of the pegylated IFN-α (PEG-IFN-α) therapy ...

    Authors: Ruyu Liu, Yanhui Chen, Jiang Guo, Minghui Li, Yao Lu, Lu Zhang, Ge Shen, Shuling Wu, Min Chang, Leiping Hu, Hongxiao Hao, Henghui Zhang and Yao Xie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:590

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is commonly used to detect viral pathogens because of its high sensitivity and specificity. However, conventional PCR methods cannot determine virus infectivity. Virus infec...

    Authors: Yuki Nakaya, Takashi Fukuda, Hiroki Ashiba, Masato Yasuura and Makoto Fujimaki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:585

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a major health event that endangers people health throughout China and the world. Understanding the factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity cou...

    Authors: Songqiao Liu, Huanyuan Luo, Yuancheng Wang, Luis E. Cuevas, Duolao Wang, Shenghong Ju and Yi Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:584

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) remains a major safety concern for blood supplies. Despite many HTLV positive cases being reported in southeastern China, the detection of HTLV has not been prioritized i...

    Authors: Junpeng Zhao, Feixue Zhao, Wei Han, Xiaoxuan Xu, Lilin Wang, Ran Li, Tong Li, Linfeng Wu, Dandan Du, Xuezhen Zeng, Xiujuan Cui, Yunlong Chen, Jinfeng Zeng and Lunan Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:581

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Dengue virus (DENV) causes the hospitalisation of an estimated 500,000 people every year. Outbreaks can severely stress healthcare systems, especially in rural settings. It is difficult to discriminate patient...

    Authors: Wesley de Jong, Tri Pudy Asmarawati, Inge Verbeek, Musofa Rusli, Usman Hadi, Eric van Gorp and Marco Goeijenbier

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:580

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease with the high case-fatality rate, and lack of vaccines. We aimed to systematically analysed the epidemiological characterist...

    Authors: Zhiquan He, Bohao Wang, Yi Li, Yanhua Du, Hongxia Ma, Xingle Li, Wanshen Guo, Bianli Xu and Xueyong Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:575

    Content type: Research article

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  21. To assess the dynamic changes in clinical and CT characteristics of COVID-19 patients with different epidemiology histories.

    Authors: Ruili Li, Guangxue Liu, Xiaojie Huang, Cuiyu Jia, Zhenying Xia, Wenyan Song, Xueqin Li, Xing Wang and Hongjun Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:567

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The recent COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China, has quickly spread throughout the world. In this study, we systematically reviewed the clinical features and outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19.

    Authors: Yi-jie Gao, Lei Ye, Jia-shuo Zhang, Yang-xue Yin, Min Liu, Hong-biao Yu and Rong Zhou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:564

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The novel coronavirus, named as 2019-nCoV or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has recently appeared in China and has spread worldwide, presenting a health threat to the global community. Therefore, it is i...

    Authors: Sa’ed H. Zyoud and Samah W. Al-Jabi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:561

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Highly pathogenic influenza A (H5N8) viruses have caused several worldwide outbreaks in birds and are of potential risk to humans. Thus, a specific, rapid and sensitive method for detection is urgently needed.

    Authors: Fan Yang, Lihua Xu, Fumin Liu, Hangping Yao, Nanping Wu and Haibo Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:550

    Content type: Research article

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  25. We aimed to report the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in Zengdu District, Hubei Province, China.

    Authors: Yiping Wei, Weibiao Zeng, Xiangyun Huang, Junyu Li, Xingting Qiu, Huadong Li, Dinghua Liu, Zhaofeng He, Wenzhong Yao, Ping Huang, Chao Li, Min Zhu, Chunlan Zhong, Xingen Zhu and Jiansheng Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:549

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The risk of life-threatening complications, such as visceral disseminated varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, is greater in immunosuppressed individuals, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients.

    Authors: Veronica Vassia, Alessandro Croce, Paolo Ravanini, Monica Leutner, Chiara Saglietti, Stefano Fangazio, Marco Quaglia and Carlo Smirne

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:538

    Content type: Case report

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  27. Twelve students experienced symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI) at a training base in Beijing from August 26 to August 30, 2015. We investigated the cause of this ARI outbreak.

    Authors: Guilan Lu, Xiaomin Peng, Renqing Li, Yimeng Liu, Zhanguo Wu, Xifeng Wang, Daitao Zhang, Jiachen Zhao, Ying Sun, Li Zhang, Peng Yang and Quanyi Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:537

    Content type: Research article

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  28. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread, early, ideally real-time, identification of SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals is pivotal in interrupting infection chains. Volatile organic compounds produced during...

    Authors: Paula Jendrny, Claudia Schulz, Friederike Twele, Sebastian Meller, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede, Albertus Dominicus Marcellinus Erasmus Osterhaus, Janek Ebbers, Veronika Pilchová, Isabell Pink, Tobias Welte, Michael Peter Manns, Anahita Fathi, Christiane Ernst, Marylyn Martina Addo, Esther Schalke and Holger Andreas Volk

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:536

    Content type: Research article

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  29. With the spread of SARS-CoV-2 worldwide, understanding the basic epidemiological parameter values of COVID-19 from real-world data in mega-cities is essential for disease prevention and control.

    Authors: Xiaoli Wang, Yang Pan, Daitao Zhang, Lijuan Chen, Lei Jia, Xinyu Li, Peng Yang, Quanyi Wang and C. Raina Macintyre

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:526

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan and has quickly spread across the world. The mortal...

    Authors: Dan Wang, Ruifang Li, Juan Wang, Qunqun Jiang, Chang Gao, Juan Yang, Lintong Ge and Qing Hu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:519

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a public health emergency of major international concern. Real-time RT-PCR ...

    Authors: Li-Da Chen, Hao Li, Yu-Ming Ye, Zhi Wu, Ya-Ping Huang, Wei-Liang Zhang and Li Lin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:517

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Kenya introduced the monovalent G1P [8] Rotarix® vaccine into the infant immunization schedule in July 2014. We examined trends in rotavirus group A (RVA) genotype distribution pre- (January 2010–June 2014) an...

    Authors: Mike J. Mwanga, Betty E. Owor, John B. Ochieng, Mwanajuma H. Ngama, Billy Ogwel, Clayton Onyango, Jane Juma, Regina Njeru, Elijah Gicheru, Grieven P. Otieno, Sammy Khagayi, Charles N. Agoti, Godfrey M. Bigogo, Richard Omore, O. Yaw Addo, Seheri Mapaseka…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:504

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Pregnant women are at high risk of influenza-related morbidity and mortality. In addition, maternal influenza infection may lead to adverse birth outcomes. However, there is insufficient data on long-term impa...

    Authors: Joon Young Song, Keon Vin Park, Sung Won Han, Min Joo Choi, Ji Yun Noh, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim, Min-Jeong Oh and Geum Joon Cho

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:502

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared as an emerging public health threat by the World Health Organization. As various measures have been taken successfully to combat the epidemi...

    Authors: Xiaoxi Zhou, Jianfeng Zhou and Jianping Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:500

    Content type: Case report

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  35. The spread of airborne infectious diseases such as measles is a critical public health concern. The U.S. was certified measles-free in 2000, but the number of measles cases has increased in recent years breaki...

    Authors: Parham Azimi, Zahra Keshavarz, Jose Guillermo Cedeno Laurent and Joseph G. Allen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:497

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:541

  36. Despite high overall population vaccine coverage, identified clusters of persons refraining from vaccination interfere with pursued measles elimination. Clinical diagnosis of measles is often obvious due to it...

    Authors: Claire Grolhier, Charlotte Pronier, Arielle Belem, Julia Dina, Astrid Vabret, José-Hector Aranda Grau, Pierre Tattevin and Vincent Thibault

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:496

    Content type: Case report

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  37. Washington University polyomavirus (WUPyV) is a novel human polyomavirus detected in childwith acute respiratory infection in 2007. However, the relationship between WUPyV and respiratory diseases has yet to b...

    Authors: Chao Wang, Tianli Wei, Yiman Huang, Qiong Guo, Zhiping Xie, Jingdong Song, Aijun Chen and Lishu Zheng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:488

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is a serious public health problem not only in South East Asia but also in European and African countries. Scientists are using network biology to dig deep into the essential ...

    Authors: Qurat ul Ain Farooq, Zeeshan Shaukat, Sara Aiman, Tong Zhou and Chunhua Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:480

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Extended use of oseltamivir in an immunocompromised host could reportedly induce neuraminidase gene mutation possibly leading to oseltamivir-resistant influenza A/H3N2 virus. To our knowledge, no report is ava...

    Authors: Naonori Harada, Wataru Shibata, Hideo Koh, Emi Takashita, Seiichiro Fujisaki, Hiroshi Okamura, Satoru Nanno, Koichi Yamada, Hirohisa Nakamae, Masayuki Hino and Hiroshi Kakeya

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:478

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Mumps is an acute respiratory infectious disease with obvious regional and seasonal differences. Exploring the impact of climate factors on the incidence of mumps and predicting its incidence trend on this bas...

    Authors: Wen-ting Zha, Wei-tong LI, Nan Zhou, Jia-jia Zhu, Ruihua Feng, Tong Li, Yan-bing Du, Ying Liu, Xiu-qin Hong and Yuan Lv

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:468

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Dengue fever is a major public health problem in Colombia. A fever surveillance study was conducted for evaluation of the clinical, epidemiological, and molecular patterns of dengue, prior to Chikungunya and Z...

    Authors: Jacqueline Kyungah Lim, Mabel Carabali, Erwin Camacho, Diana Carolina Velez, Andrea Trujillo, Jorge Egurrola, Kang-Sung Lee, Ivan Dario Velez and Jorge E. Osorio

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:466

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Since 2011, the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network (GIHSN) has used active surveillance to prospectively collect epidemiological and virological data on patients hospitalized with influenza virus i...

    Authors: Bruno Lina, Alexandre Georges, Elena Burtseva, Marta C. Nunes, Melissa K. Andrew, Shelly A. McNeil, Guillermo M. Ruiz-Palacios, Luzhao Feng, Jan Kyncl, Philippe Vanhems, Justin R. Ortiz, John Paget and Robert C. Reiner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:465

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Uganda has experienced seven Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks and four Marburg Virus Disease (MVD) outbreaks between 2000 and 2019. We investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors for Marburg virus and ...

    Authors: Luke Nyakarahuka, Ilana J. Schafer, Stephen Balinandi, Sophia Mulei, Alex Tumusiime, Jackson Kyondo, Barbara Knust, Julius Lutwama, Pierre Rollin, Stuart Nichol and Trevor Shoemaker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:461

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella primarily in childhood, and some rare adults also report varicella. Herpes zoster mainly occurs in adults by endogenous reactivation of latent VZV. Until now, vari...

    Authors: Guangcheng Xie, Qiongling Wei, Wenping Guo, Dan Li, Pingping Sun, Jiangli Wang and Houguang Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:454

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  45. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a global cause of severe respiratory morbidity and mortality in infants. While preventive and therapeutic interventions are being developed, including antivirals, vaccines ...

    Authors: Annefleur C. Langedijk, Robert Jan Lebbink, Christiana Naaktgeboren, Anouk Evers, Marco C. Viveen, Anne Greenough, Terho Heikkinen, Renato T. Stein, Peter Richmond, Federico Martinón-Torres, Marta Nunes, Mitsuaki Hosoya, Christian Keller, Monika Bauck, Robert Cohen, Jesse Papenburg…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:450

    Content type: Study protocol

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  46. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading worldwide. Although 10–20% of patients with COVID-19 have severe symptoms, little is known about the risk factors related to the aggravation of COVID-19 symp...

    Authors: Min Cheol Chang, Yu-Kyung Park, Bong-Ok Kim and Donghwi Park

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:445

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) presents a major threat to public health and has rapidly spread worldwide since the outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in 2019. To date, there have been few reports ...

    Authors: Mingliang Ying, Bin Lu, Jiangfeng Pan, Guanghong Lu, Shaobin Zhou, Dingjun Wang, Lu Li, Junkang Shen and Jiner Shu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:437

    Content type: Case report

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  48. The aseptic meningitis caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation was less described in the literature, most of which were detected by means of polymerase chain reaction. The authors presented 4 adult...

    Authors: Lanlan Chen, Yao Xu, Chunfeng Liu, Hong Huang, Xingxing Zhong, Cancan Ma, Haina Zhao and Yingzhu Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:435

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

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