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Viral diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. Healthcare workers (HCW) are presumed to be at increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection due to occupational exposure to infected patients. However, there has bee...

    Authors: Emily S. Barrett, Daniel B. Horton, Jason Roy, Maria Laura Gennaro, Andrew Brooks, Jay Tischfield, Patricia Greenberg, Tracy Andrews, Sugeet Jagpal, Nancy Reilly, Jeffrey L. Carson, Martin J. Blaser and Reynold A. Panettieri Jr

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:853

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. In December 2019, a new disease (COVID-19) caused by a novel coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 emerged in China and spread to many other countries. There is only limited data about the clinical features of COVID-1...

    Authors: F. Lamazou, P. Oger, R. Dieli-crimi, A. Guerin, V. Letouzey, S. Octernaud, V. Place, P. Calès, P. Descamps and L. Delaroche

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:845

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging viral disease. Here, we report the clinical features, management, and short-term outcomes of COVID-19 patients in Wenzhou, China, an area outside Wuhan.

    Authors: Liang Hong, Enling Ye, Gangqiang Sun, Xiaoyang Wang, Shengguo Zhang, Yanghe Wu, Xiangao Xie, Shichun Xia, Xudong Zheng, Ling Dong, Fujing Cai, Xixian Lou, Renguo Zhao, Yongqi Hu, Zhanwei Ruan, Jiguang Ding…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:841

    Content type: Research article

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  4. A functioning Viral Haemorrhagic Fever (VHF) surveillance system in countries at risk for outbreaks can reduce early transmission in case of an outbreak. Surveillance performance depends on the application of ...

    Authors: Manuel Raab, Lisa M. Pfadenhauer, Vinh-Kim Nguyen, Dansira Doumbouya, Michael Hoelscher and Guenter Froeschl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:838

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The spatial distribution and burden of dengue in sub-Saharan Africa remains highly uncertain, despite high levels of ecological suitability. The goal of this study was to describe the epidemiology of dengue am...

    Authors: Ross M. Boyce, Matthew Collins, Rabbison Muhindo, Regina Nakakande, Emily J. Ciccone, Samantha Grounds, Daniel Espinoza, Yerun Zhu, Michael Matte, Moses Ntaro, Dan Nyehangane, Jonathan J. Juliano and Edgar M. Mulogo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:835

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Carvacrol, as the major components of aromatic plants used for treating human skin diseases including origanum, Satureja, thymus, and coridothymus species, presented a kind of antiviral activity. To explore th...

    Authors: Li Wang, Dan Wang, Xingan Wu, Rui Xu and Yunlan Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:832

    Content type: Research article

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  7. In December 2019, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. It rapidly spread and many cases were identified in multiple countries, posing a global health problem. ...

    Authors: Jian Zhou, Ziqin Cao, Wanchun Wang, Kang Huang, Fang Zheng, Yuanlin Xie, Dixuan Jiang and Zhiguo Zhou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:824

    Content type: Case report

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  8. The highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 virus is one of the causative agents of acute lung injury (ALI) with high mortality rate. Studies on therapeutic administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal s...

    Authors: Resti Yudhawati, Muhammad Amin, Fedik A. Rantam, Rima R. Prasetya, Jezzy R. Dewantari, Aldise M. Nastri, Emmanuel D. Poetranto, Laksmi Wulandari, Maria I. Lusida, Soetjipto Koesnowidagdo, Gatot Soegiarto, Yohko K. Shimizu, Yasuko Mori and Kazufumi Shimizu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:823

    Content type: Research article

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  9. To explore the kinetic changes in virology, specific antibody response and imaging during the clinical course of COVID-19.

    Authors: Qiu-jing Wang, Yan-zhen Yao, Jun-shuai Song, Qiao Wang, Li-yun Xu, Zhou-jun Bao, Dai-wen Mao, Ji-hang Zhou, Zhe-en Zhang, Yan Wang, Yi-wei Li, He-ping Wang, Lue Li, Hai-yan Pan, Guo-qiang Zhang and Shi-bo Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:818

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The COVID-19 spread worldwide quickly. Exploring the epidemiological characteristics could provide a basis for responding to imported cases abroad and to formulate prevention and control strategies in areas wh...

    Authors: Xinyin Xu, Jing Zeng, Runyou Liu, Yang Liu, Xiaobo Zhou, Lijun Zhou, Ting Dong, Yuxin Cha, Zhuo Wang, Ying Deng, Yu Zhang, Liao Feng, Chen Pu, Xianping Wu and Bo Zhong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:807

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Both coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are caused by coronaviruses and have infected people in China and worldwide. We aimed to investigate whether COVID-19 and S...

    Authors: Xi Zhang, Huaxiang Rao, Yuwan Wu, Yubei Huang and Hongji Dai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:805

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) is a mosquito-borne orthobunyavirus that causes acute febrile illness, meningitis, and meningoencephalitis, mainly among adults. JCV is widely distributed in North America and the ...

    Authors: Hirofumi Kato, Masaaki Satoh, Madoka Kawahara, Satoshi Kitaura, Tomoki Yoshikawa, Shuetsu Fukushi, Kristina Dimitrova, Heidi Wood, Masayuki Saijo and Mutsuyo Takayama-Ito

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:790

    Content type: Research article

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  13. A cluster of acute respiratory illness, now known as Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic. Aged population with cardiovascular diseas...

    Authors: Shiqiang Xiong, Lin Liu, Feng Lin, Jinhu Shi, Lei Han, Huijian Liu, Lewei He, Qijun Jiang, Zeyang Wang, Wenbo Fu, Zhigang Li, Qing Lu, Zhinan Chen and Shifang Ding

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:787

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected people in many countries worldwide. Discovering an effective treatment for this disease, particularly in severe cases, has become the subject of intense scienti...

    Authors: Naser Gharebaghi, Rahim Nejadrahim, Seyed Jalil Mousavi, Seyyed-Reza Sadat-Ebrahimi and Reza Hajizadeh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:786

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:895

  15. A cost effective and efficient diagnostic tool for COVID-19 as near to the point of care (PoC) as possible would be a game changer in the current pandemic. We tested reverse transcription loop mediated isother...

    Authors: Marc F. Österdahl, Karla A. Lee, Mary Ni Lochlainn, Stuart Wilson, Sam Douthwaite, Rachel Horsfall, Alyce Sheedy, Simon D. Goldenberg, Christopher J. Stanley, Tim D. Spector and Claire J. Steves

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:783

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Primary herpetic gingivostomatitis (PHGS) in children, though usually self-limited, might mimic bacterial and enteroviral pharyngitis clinically. We conducted a study to define the clinical features of PHGS in...

    Authors: Chen-Wei Huang, Chi-Hsien Hsieh, Ming-Ru Lin and Yhu-Chering Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:782

    Content type: Research article

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  17. In December 2019, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spread to other regions. We aimed to further describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics o...

    Authors: Sheng Lin, Hao Pan, Huanyu Wu, Xiao Yu, Peng Cui, Ruobing Han, Chenyan Jiang, Dechuan Kong, Yaxu Zheng, Xiaohuan Gong, Wenjia Xiao, Shenghua Mao, Bihong Jin, Yiyi Zhu and Xiaodong Sun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:780

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has become a public health emergency of international concern. SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection is the diagnostic criterion for coronavirus diseas...

    Authors: Jialin Xiang, Zuyi Chen, Jie Zhou, Di Tian, Xiusheng Ran, Zhimin Zhang, Shi Shi, Daimin Xiao and Yuanzhong Zhou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:779

    Content type: Research article

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  19. International organizations advocate for the elimination of dog-mediated rabies, but there is only limited guidance on interpreting surveillance data for managing elimination programmes. With the regional prog...

    Authors: Kristyna Rysava, Tamara Mancero, Eduardo Caldas, Mary Freire de Carvalho, André P. B. Castro, Veronica Gutiérrez, Daniel T. Haydon, Paul C. D. Johnson, Rebecca Mancy, Lúcia R. Montebello, Silene M. Rocha, Jesús F. Gonzalez Roldan, Marco Antonio Natal Vigilato, Victor Del Rio Vilas and Katie Hampson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:778

    Content type: Research article

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  20. There are limited data on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes at a national level, and none after 60 days of follow up. The aim of this study was to describe national, 60-day all-cause mortality assoc...

    Authors: Ali S. Omrani, Muna A. Almaslamani, Joanne Daghfal, Rand A. Alattar, Mohamed Elgara, Shahd H. Shaar, Tawheeda B. H. Ibrahim, Ahmed Zaqout, Dana Bakdach, Abdelrauof M. Akkari, Anas Baiou, Bassem Alhariri, Reem Elajez, Ahmed A. M. Husain, Mohamed N. Badawi, Fatma Ben Abid…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:777

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Since December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged as a novel etiologic agent of viral pneumonia. We aimed to compare clinical features of 165 Italian patients with l...

    Authors: Giulia De Angelis, Brunella Posteraro, Federico Biscetti, Gianluca Ianiro, Lorenzo Zileri Dal Verme, Paola Cattani, Francesco Franceschi, Maurizio Sanguinetti and Antonio Gasbarrini

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:775

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Thrombocytopenia was common in the coronavirus disease (Covid-19) patients during the infection, especially in severe COVID-19 patients, but was less in the non-severe Covid-19 patients. However, the platelet ...

    Authors: Xia Wu, Dongxia Luo, Yaling Liu, Yilan Zeng and Yuping Gong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:774

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  23. Norwegian children are more frequently hospitalized with influenza than adults. Little is known about the characteristics of these children. Our aim was to investigate the presence of pre-existing risk conditi...

    Authors: Siri Helene Hauge, Inger Johanne Bakken, Birgitte Freiesleben de Blasio and Siri Eldevik Håberg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:769

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:197

  24. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a double stranded DNA virus and ubiquitous in nature. Association of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and CMV is well known but CMV acute myositis is a rare condition. Restriction of move...

    Authors: Varatharajan Sakthivadivel, Palanisamy Naveenraj, Arjun Kachhwaha, Deepak Kumar, Puneeth Babu Anne, Poonam Elhence and Mahadev Meena

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:768

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  25. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), may lead to severe systemic inflammatory response, pulmonary damage, and even...

    Authors: Sergio Fragoso-Saavedra, David A. Iruegas-Nunez, Alejandro Quintero-Villegas, H. Benjamín García-González, Isaac Nuñez, Sergio L. Carbajal-Morelos, Belem M. Audelo-Cruz, Sarahi Arias-Martínez, Yanink Caro-Vega, Juan José Calva, Verónica Luqueño-Martínez, Alejandra González-Duarte, Brenda Crabtree-Ramírez, José C. Crispín, Juan Sierra-Madero, Pablo F. Belaunzarán-Zamudio…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:765

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  26. Herpes esophagitis is uncommon disease caused by Herpes simplex virus (HSV). While the disease most often occurs in immunocompromised patients, including post-chemotherapy, immunosuppression with organ transpl...

    Authors: Nabil Antaki, Ziad Aljarad, Howayda Dabbas, Walid Haddad, M. Amin Akil and Ahmad Sankari Tarabishi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:754

    Content type: Case report

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  27. Sudden exacerbations and respiratory failure are major causes of death in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) pneumonia, but indicators for the prediction and treatment of severe patients a...

    Authors: Yi Wang, Lin Yao, Jian-Ping Zhang, Pei-Jun Tang, Zhi-Jian Ye, Xing-Hua Shen, Jun-Chi Xu, Mei-Ying Wu and Xin Yu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:747

    Content type: Research article

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  28. From 2016, the Government of India introduced the oral rotavirus vaccine into the national immunization schedule. Currently, two indigenously developed vaccines (ROTAVAC, Bharat Biotech; ROTASIIL, Serum Instit...

    Authors: Sidhartha Giri, C. P. Girish Kumar, Shainey Alokit Khakha, Mamta Chawla-Sarkar, Varanasi Gopalkrishna, Shobha D. Chitambar, Pratima Ray, S. Venkatasubramanian, Biswa Jyoti Borkakoty, Subarna Roy, Jyothi Bhat, Bhagirathi Dwibedi, Pradeep Das, Vijayachari Paluru, Sasirekha Ramani, Sudhir Babji…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:740

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is ongoing and associated with high mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous injection of...

    Authors: Bo Wang, Diandian Li, Tao Liu, Haohua Wang, Fengming Luo and Yanbin Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:723

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Ross River virus (RRV) is responsible for the most common vector-borne disease of humans reported in Australia. The virus circulates in enzootic cycles between multiple species of mosquitoes, wildlife reservoi...

    Authors: Amanda K. Murphy, Julie A. Clennon, Gonzalo Vazquez-Prokopec, Cassie C. Jansen, Francesca D. Frentiu, Louise M. Hafner, Wenbiao Hu and Gregor J. Devine

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:722

    Content type: Research article

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  31. A healthy 25-year-old woman developed COVID-19 disease with clinical characteristics resembling Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), a rare form of COVID-19 described primarily in children un...

    Authors: Aaron D. Kofman, Emma K. Sizemore, Joshua F. Detelich, Benjamin Albrecht and Anne L. Piantadosi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:716

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  32. The clinical features, course and outcome of hantavirus infection is highly variable. Symptoms of the central nervous system may occur, but often present atypically and diagnostically challenging. Even though ...

    Authors: Sebastian Schwab, Simon Lissmann, Niklas Schäfer, Alexander Isaak, Dietrich Klingmüller, Ulrike Attenberger, Anna M. Eis-Hübinger, Jörg Hofmann, Christian P. Strassburg and Philipp Lutz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:713

    Content type: Case report

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  33. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 has spread rapidly worldwide and disease spread is currently increasing. Data on the clinical picture of transp...

    Authors: Jing Li, Gang Chen, Mingmin Zhang, Shenghao Tu and Chao Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:707

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  34. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first detected in China at the end of 2019 and it has since spread in few months all over the World. Italy was one of the first Western coun...

    Authors: Diego Giuliani, Maria Michela Dickson, Giuseppe Espa and Flavio Santi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:700

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Infection is a leading cause of morbidity and death in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). The increased susceptibility to infection is complicated and multifactorial. However, no studies have explored the sp...

    Authors: Chenyao Lin, Hui Shen, Shuimei Zhou, Minghui Liu, Anjie Xu, Shuang Huang, Changxin Shen and Fuling Zhou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:699

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. A new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has escalated to a pandemic since its first outbreak in Wuhan, China. A small proportion of patients may have difficulty in generating IgM or IgG antibodies against SA...

    Authors: Jian Wang, Chong Chen, Qilin Li, Pengcheng Cai, Zheng Wang and Lin Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:698

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  37. Dengue fever usually presents as a self-limiting acute febrile illness with worsening thrombocytopenia, with a small minority of patients developing hemorrhagic or life-threatening complications. Organ specifi...

    Authors: Jun Yang Ho, Yee Kent Liew, Jiashen Loh and Pothiawala Sohil

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:696

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  38. With the widespread outbreak of novel coronavirus diseases 2019(COVID-19), more and more death cases were reported, however, limited data are available for the patients who died. We aimed to explore the clinic...

    Authors: Tao Yao, Yan Gao, Qin Cui, Bo Peng, Yan Chen, Jiansheng Li, Chao Huang, Chunping He, Jie Pu, Jiajun Wei, Yanqiang Zhan, Jie Yan, Jinghua Tian, Zhaohui Zhang and Zhichao Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:695

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently the peak season of common respiratory viral infections. However, the ...

    Authors: Yanjun Si, Zhenzhen Zhao, Rong Chen, Huiyu Zhong, Tangyuheng Liu, Minjin Wang, Xingbo Song, Weimin Li and Binwu Ying

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:688

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Since December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 12,322,000 people and killed over 556,000 people worldwide. However, Differential diagnosis remains difficult for suspected c...

    Authors: Qiong Chi, Xinjian Dai, Xiangao Jiang, Lefei Zhu, Junyan Du, Yuxi Chen, Jiyang Zheng and Jianping Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:679

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The 2014/15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa resulted in 11,000 deaths and massive strain on local health systems, and the ongoing outbreak in Democratic Republic of Congo has afflicted more than 3000 people. Acc...

    Authors: Zelda Moran, William Rodriguez, Doré Ahmadou, Barré Soropogui, N’ Faly Magassouba, Cassandra Kelly-Cirino and Yanis Ben Amor

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:670

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) that was firstly reported in Wuhan, China, with cases now confirmed in more than 100 countries. However, COVID-19 pneumonia with spontaneous pneumothorax is unk...

    Authors: Xiaoxing Chen, Guqin Zhang, Yueting Tang, Zhiyong Peng and Huaqin Pan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:662

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  43. More than 80,000 dengue cases including 215 deaths were reported nationally in less than 7 months between 2016 and 2017, a fourfold increase in the number of reported cases compared to the average number over ...

    Authors: Ying Zhang, Jefferson Riera, Kayla Ostrow, Sauleh Siddiqui, Harendra de Silva, Sahotra Sarkar, Lakkumar Fernando and Lauren Gardner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:649

    Content type: Research article

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  44. The family cluster is one of most important modes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission throughout China, and more details are needed about how family clusters cause the ...

    Authors: Yiling Zhang, Cheng Zhang, Ying Hu, Hongmei Yao, Xianchun Zeng, Changrong Hu, Li Zhao, Xiangyan Zhang and Xianwei Ye

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:647

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  45. To explore the clinical features and CT findings of clinically cured coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with viral RNA positive anal swab results after discharge.

    Authors: Hui Zhou, Liping Zhu, Yueshuang Leng, Dongcui Wang, Harrison X. Bai, Zeng Xiong, Linbo Shi and Weihua Liao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:644

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Evidence suggested that vaginal microbiome played a functional role in the progression of cervical lesions in female infected by HPV. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of common vaginal infection on...

    Authors: Mei Yang, Lin Li, Chunfan Jiang, Xiaomin Qin, Min Zhou, Xiaogang Mao and Hui Xing

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:642

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world deeply, with more than 14,000,000 people infected and nearly 600,000 deaths. This review aimed to summarize the epidemiologic traits, clinical spectrum, CT results ...

    Authors: Yewei Xie, Zaisheng Wang, Huipeng Liao, Gifty Marley, Dan Wu and Weiming Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:640

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  48. Dengue fever is an arthropod vector-borne disease transmitted to humans by infected Aedes mosquitoes. Ethiopia has a favorable ecology for arthropods and report high burden of acute febrile illnesses. However,...

    Authors: Daniel Eshetu, Techalew Shimelis, Eshetu Nigussie, Girma Shumie, Wakwoya Chali, Biruck Yeshitela, Abraham Assefa and Endalamaw Gadisa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:639

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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