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Viral diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. Early and rapid detection of dengue virus (DENV) infection during the febrile period is crucial for proper patient management and prevention of disease spread. An easy to perform and highly sensitive method is...

    Authors: Boon-Teong Teoh, Sing-Sin Sam, Kim-Kee Tan, Jefree Johari, Mohammed Bashar Danlami, Poh-Sim Hooi, Rafi Md-Esa and Sazaly AbuBakar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:387

    Content type: Research article

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  2. With the remarkable increase of microbial and viral sequence data obtained from high-throughput DNA sequencers, novel tools are needed for comprehensive analysis of the big sequence data. We have developed “Ba...

    Authors: Yuki Iwasaki, Takashi Abe, Yoshiko Wada, Kennosuke Wada and Toshimichi Ikemura

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:386

    Content type: Research article

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  3. To clarify the molecular mechanisms that participate in the severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) infected by Enterovirus 71 and to detect any related protein biomarkers, we performed proteomic analysis o...

    Authors: Li Deng, Hong-Ling Jia, Chao-Wu Liu, Yu-Fen Xu, Li-Jia Mao, Chun-Hui He, Gen-Quan Yin, Jun-Hong Lin, Jian-Ping Tao and Li Zhu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:383

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Increasing virulence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen is of grave concern because it causes a neurotrophic killer disease Japanese Encephalitis (JE) which, in turn, is r...

    Authors: Arindam Sarkar, Avishek Banik, Bani K Pathak, Subhra K Mukhopadhyay and Shyamalendu Chatterjee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:368

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Dengue cases have been classified according to disease severity into dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Although DF is considered a non-severe manifestation of dengue, it has been recently d...

    Authors: Fernanda A Orsi, Rodrigo N Angerami, Bruna M Mazetto, Susan KP Quaino, Fernanda Santiago-Bassora, Vagner Castro, Erich V de Paula and Joyce M Annichino-Bizzacchi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:350

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Several studies have shown that serum IL-10, IFNγ and MIF are elevated in patients in severe dengue (SD) and could be used as potential biomarkers. We proceeded to determine if these cytokines could be used as...

    Authors: Gathsaurie Neelika Malavige, Laksiri Gomes, Lukmall Alles, Thashi Chang, Maryam Salimi, Sachie Fernando, Kushan DL Nanayakkara, SD Jayaratne and Graham S Ogg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:341

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The human norovirus (NV) circulates worldwide and is a major cause of epidemics, which have increased in Taiwan since 2002. NV in acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and non-acute gastroenteritis (asymptomatic) patien...

    Authors: Meng-Bin Tang, Chien-Hsien Chen, Shou-Chien Chen, Yu-Ching Chou and Chia-Peng Yu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:338

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Palivizumab has been shown to decrease the incidence of hospitalization due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in infants at risk of severe RSV disease. We examined the association between compliance with pa...

    Authors: Dan L Stewart, Kellie J Ryan, Jerry G Seare, Brett Pinsky, Laura Becker and Michael Frogel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:334

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Human cytomegalovirus infections are still significant causes of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. The use of antiviral agents is limited by toxicity and evolving resistance in immunocompromise...

    Authors: Axel Schubert, Karoline Ehlert, Susanne Schuler-Luettmann, Eva Gentner, Thomas Mertens and Detlef Michel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:330

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric illness. Mainly induced by the Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A 16 infections, the frequently occurred HFMD outbreaks have become a serious public h...

    Authors: Wei Li, Lina Yi, Juan Su, Jing Lu, Hanri Zeng, Dawei Guan, Cong Ma, Wanly Zhang, Hong xiao, Hui Li, Yonghui Zhang, Jinyan Lin and Changwen Ke

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:322

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide including Bangladesh. Unlike what was seen in high-income countries, the licensed rotavirus vaccines did not show high ...

    Authors: Mokibul Hassan Afrad, Zahid Hassan, Saiada Farjana, Sayra Moni, Subarna Barua, Sumon Kumar Das, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Tasnim Azim and Mustafizur Rahman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:320

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Based on sequence variation in the UL55 gene that encodes glycoprotein B (gB), human cytomegalovirus (CMV) can be classified into four gB genotypes. Previous studies have suggested an association between CMV gB g...

    Authors: Débora C Dieamant, Sandra HA Bonon, Renata MB Peres, Claudia RC Costa, Dúlcinéia M Albuquerque, Eliana CM Miranda, Francisco JP Aranha, Gislaine Oliveira-Duarte, Virginio CA Fernandes, Carmino A De Souza, Sandra CB Costa and Afonso C Vigorito

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:310

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Etiological epidemiology and diagnosis are important issues in adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and identifying pathogens based on patient clinical features is especially a challenge. CAP-associated m...

    Authors: Ya-Fen Liu, Yan Gao, Mei-Fang Chen, Bin Cao, Xiao-Hua Yang and Lai Wei

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:309

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Arthropod-borne viral encephalitis of diverse origins shows similar clinical symptoms, histopathology and magnetic resonance imaging, indicating that the patho mechanisms may be similar. There is no specific t...

    Authors: Daniel Růžek, Gerhard Dobler and Hans Helmut Niller

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:306

    Content type: Debate

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  15. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important public health problem in mainland China. HFRS is particularly endemic in Changsha, the capital city of Hunan Province, with one of the highest incid...

    Authors: Hong Xiao, Xiaoling Lin, Lidong Gao, Cunrui Huang, Huaiyu Tian, Na Li, Jianxin Qin, Peijuan Zhu, Biyun Chen, Xixing Zhang and Jian Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:305

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Dengue fever is the most important vector-borne viral disease. Four serotypes of dengue virus, DENV1 to DENV4, coexist. Infection by one serotype elicits long-lasting immunity to that serotype but not the othe...

    Authors: Nora Zidane, Philippe Dussart, Laetitia Bremand and Hugues Bedouelle

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:302

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the world, estimated nationally at 14.7%. Our study’s objective was to delineate the evidence on the epidemiology of HCV infection among the diffe...

    Authors: Yousra A Mohamoud, Ghina R Mumtaz, Suzanne Riome, DeWolfe Miller and Laith J Abu-Raddad

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:288

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Acute myopericarditis and exertional rhabdomyolysis, two uncommon but well-described diseases with potentially life-threatening effects, are generally considered as independent clinical entities. However, they...

    Authors: Guo-Shiang Tseng, Chung-Yueh Hsieh, Ching-Tsai Hsu, Jung-Chung Lin and Jenq-Shyong Chan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:283

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Acute pharyngitis is frequently seen in primary care. Acute viral pharyngitis may be easily misdiagnosed as acute bacterial pharyngitis. Laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of respiratory viruses is recommended. Th...

    Authors: Li Li, Qiao-Yan Chen, Yun-Ying Li, Yan-Fang Wang, Zi-Feng Yang and Nan-Shan Zhong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:281

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Diagnosis of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection is routinely conducted by clinical laboratories, especially to diagnose infectious mononucleosis. At an estimated general population incidence of 1:200, this rep...

    Authors: Christina Kreuzer, Klaus Udo Nabeck, H Roma Levy and Elisabeth Daghofer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:260

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Day care center attendance has been recognized as a risk factor for acquiring gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, which can be prevented with adequate hand hygiene (HH). Based on previous studies on e...

    Authors: Tizza P Zomer, Vicki Erasmus, Nico Vlaar, Ed F van Beeck, Aimée Tjon-A-Tsien, Jan Hendrik Richardus and Hélène ACM Voeten

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:259

    Content type: Study protocol

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  22. With concerns about the disastrous health and economic consequences caused by the influenza pandemic, comprehensively understanding the global host response to influenza virus infection is urgent. The role of ...

    Authors: Hao Song, Qi Wang, Yang Guo, Shunai Liu, Rui Song, Xuesong Gao, Li Dai, Baoshun Li, Deli Zhang and Jun Cheng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:257

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Maternal dengue antibodies are considered to play a significant role in dengue pathogenesis among infants. Determining the transplacental specific antibody transfer is invaluable for establishing the optimal v...

    Authors: Angela FLT Argolo, Valéria CR Féres, Lucimeire A Silveira, Anna Carolina M Oliveira, Luiz A Pereira, João Bosco Siqueira Júnior, Cynthia Braga and Celina MT Martelli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:254

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with high morbidity and increased mortality but many patients avoid initiation of treatment or report challenges with treatment completion. The study object...

    Authors: Lauren Fusfeld, Jyoti Aggarwal, Carly Dougher, Montserrat Vera-Llonch, Stephen Bubb, Mrudula Donepudi and Thomas F Goss

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:234

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The Democratic Republic of Congo experiences regular measles outbreaks. From September 2010, the number of suspected measles cases increased, especially in Katanga province, where Medecins sans Frontieres supp...

    Authors: Lise Grout, Andrea Minetti, Northan Hurtado, Gwenola François, Florence Fermon, Anne Chatelain, Géza Harczi, Jean de Dieu Ilunga Ngoie, Alexandra N’Goran, Francisco J Luquero, Rebecca F Grais and Klaudia Porten

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:232

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The aims of the study were to assess the risk factors in relation to cross border activities, exposure to mosquito bite and preventive measures taken.

    Authors: Ahmad Faudzi Yusoff, Amal Nasir Mustafa, Hani Mat Husaain, Wan Mansor Hamzah, Apandi Mohd Yusof, Rozilawati Harun and Faezah Noor Abdullah

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:211

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Diarrheal diseases represent a major worldwide public health problem particularly in developing countries. Each year, at least four million children under five years of age die from diarrhea. Rotavirus, enteri...

    Authors: Wafa I Elhag, Humodi A Saeed, El Fadhil E Omer and Abdelwahid S Ali

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:209

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Pakistan is considered as an endemic country for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever with numerous outbreaks and sporadic cases reported during the past two decades. Majority of cases are reported from Baluchistan...

    Authors: Muhammad Masroor Alam, Adnan Khurshid, Salmaan Sharif, Shahzad Shaukat, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Mehar Angez and Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:201

    Content type: Research article

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  29. SPRINT-2 demonstrated that boceprevir (BOC), an oral hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural 3 (NS3) protease inhibitor, added to peginterferon alfa-2b (P) and ribavirin (R) significantly increased sustained vir...

    Authors: Shannon Allen Ferrante, Jagpreet Chhatwal, Clifford A Brass, Antoine C El Khoury, Fred Poordad, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki and Elamin H Elbasha

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:190

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infections seem to be associated with the onset of actinic keratosis (AK). This study compares the presence of cutaneous HPV types in eyebrow hairs to those in tissues of n...

    Authors: Ines Schneider, Mandy D Lehmann, Vlada Kogosov, Eggert Stockfleth and Ingo Nindl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:186

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The integration of empirical data in computational frameworks designed to model the spread of infectious diseases poses a number of challenges that are becoming more pressing with the increasing availability o...

    Authors: Anna Machens, Francesco Gesualdo, Caterina Rizzo, Alberto E Tozzi, Alain Barrat and Ciro Cattuto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:185

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Treatment for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is improving but not benefiting individuals unaware to be infected. To inform screening policies we assessed (1) the hepatiti...

    Authors: Susan JM Hahné, Irene K Veldhuijzen, Lucas Wiessing, Tek-Ang Lim, Mika Salminen and Marita van de Laar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:181

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Dengue is a common illness in the tropics. Equally common are neurological complications that stem from dengue infection. However, to date, parkinsonism following dengue has not been reported in medical litera...

    Authors: Shahrul Azmin, Ramesh Sahathevan, Zainudin Suehazlyn, Zhe Kang Law, Remli Rabani, Wan Yahya Nafisah, Hui Jan Tan and Mohamed Ibrahim Norlinah

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:179

    Content type: Case report

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  34. The activity of airborne disinfectants on bacteria, fungi and spores has been reported. However, the issue of the virucidal effect of disinfectants spread by fogging has not been studied thoroughly.

    Authors: Thomas Thevenin, Pierre-Emmanuel Lobert and Didier Hober

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:177

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Confirmed H1N1 cases during late spring and summer 2009 in various countries showed a substantial age shift between importations and local transmission cases, with adults mainly responsible for seeding unaffec...

    Authors: Andrea Apolloni, Chiara Poletto and Vittoria Colizza

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:176

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and mainly affects individuals aged ≥50 years. The forthcoming European launch of a vaccine against HZ (Zostavax®) prompts the n...

    Authors: Sybil Pinchinat, Ana M Cebrián-Cuenca, Hélène Bricout and Robert W Johnson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:170

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Despite the serious consequences of rubella infection during early pregnancy, very little is known about the rubella seroprevalence in a number of African countries including Burkina Faso.

    Authors: Marc C Tahita, Judith M Hübschen, Zekiba Tarnagda, Da Ernest, Emilie Charpentier, Jacques R Kremer, Claude P Muller and Jean B Ouedraogo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:164

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Involvement of trochlear nerve during Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) Infection has been rarely described, and always in association with skin rash.

    Authors: Raffaella Pisapia, Alessia Rianda, Andrea Mariano, Angela Testa, Simonetta Galgani, Laura Vincenzi, Amina Abdeddaim, Alessandra Oliva and Pasquale Narciso

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:138

    Content type: Case report

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  39. Investigations were conducted by the authors to explore an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) reported in 2010 from Al-Mukalla city, the capital of Hadramout in Yemen.

    Authors: Tariq A Madani, El-Tayeb ME Abuelzein, Hussein MS Al-Bar, Esam I Azhar, Moujahed Kao, Haj O Alshoeb and Alabd R Bamoosa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:136

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Over the last decade, major outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) have been reported in Asian countries, resulting in thousands of deaths among children. However, less is known regarding the effect...

    Authors: Yong Huang, Te Deng, Shicheng Yu, Jing Gu, Cunrui Huang, Gexin Xiao and Yuantao Hao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:134

    Content type: Research article

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  41. In populations in which the incidence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection has declined due to socio-economic improvements, better sanitation and hygiene, and vaccination, birth cohorts who have long-term immu...

    Authors: Scott A McDonald, Marie-Josée J Mangen, Anita Suijkerbuijk, Edoardo Colzani and Mirjam EE Kretzschmar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:120

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Among Influenza neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), oseltamivir corresponds to the most widely used agent to treat influenza disease. However since 2001, several cases of resistance to NAIs have been reported for...

    Authors: Ndongo Dia, Mbayame N Niang, Saadiya A Diadhiou, Déborah G Goudiaby, Abdourahmane Faye, Davy Kiori, Mady Bâ, Rémy Michel and Ousmane M Diop

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:106

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Dengue is an acute febrile illness caused by an arbovirus that is endemic in more than 100 countries. Early diagnosis and adequate management are critical to reduce mortality. This study aims to identify clini...

    Authors: Regina P Daumas, Sonia RL Passos, Raquel VC Oliveira, Rita MR Nogueira, Ingebourg Georg, Keyla BF Marzochi and Patrícia Brasil

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:77

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Low absolute humidity (AH) has been associated with increased influenza virus survival and transmissibility and the onset of seasonal influenza outbreaks. Humidification of indoor environments may mitigate vir...

    Authors: Tyler H Koep, Felicity T Enders, Chris Pierret, Stephen C Ekker, Dale Krageschmidt, Kevin L Neff, Marc Lipsitch, Jeffrey Shaman and W Charles Huskins

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:71

    Content type: Research article

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  45. In 1998, Malaysia experienced its first chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak in the suburban areas followed by another two in 2006 (rural areas) and 2008 (urban areas), respectively. Nevertheless, there is still...

    Authors: Nor Azila Muhammad Azami, Sharifah Azura Salleh, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Hui-min Neoh, Zulhabri Othman, Syed Zulkifli Syed Zakaria and Rahman Jamal

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:67

    Content type: Research article

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  46. The quasispecies composition of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) could have important implications with regard to viral persistence and response to interferon-based therapy. The complete NS5A was analyzed to evaluate w...

    Authors: Ana CG Jardim, Cíntia Bittar, Renata PA Matos, Lílian HT Yamasaki, Rafael A Silva, João RR Pinho, Roberta M Fachini, Claudia MA Carareto, Isabel MVG de Carvalho-Mello and Paula Rahal

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:61

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Hepatitis C chronic liver disease is a major cause of liver transplant in developed countries. This article reports the first nationwide population-based survey conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of HCV ...

    Authors: Leila MMB Pereira, Celina MT Martelli, Regina C Moreira, Edgar Merchan-Hamman, Airton T Stein, Regina Maria A Cardoso, Gerusa M Figueiredo, Ulisses R Montarroyos, Cynthia Braga, Marília D Turchi, Gabriela Coral, Deborah Crespo, Maria Luiza C Lima, Luis Claudio A Alencar, Marcelo Costa, Alex A dos Santos…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:60

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Asthma was the most common co-morbidity among patients hospitalized with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 [pH1N1] infection. The objective was to compare characteristics of hospitalized pH1N1 patients with and ...

    Authors: John J McKenna, Anna M Bramley, Jacek Skarbinski, Alicia M Fry, Lyn Finelli and Seema Jain

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:57

    Content type: Research article

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COVID-19 Announcement

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.