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Viral diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. To determine the prevalence of human enteroviruses (HEVs) among healthy children, their parents, and children with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Authors: Xiaoai Zhang, Hongyu Wang, Shujun Ding, Xianjun Wang, Xiaodan Chen, Ying Wo, Liyuan Wang, Doudou Huang, Wei Liu and Wuchun Cao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:606

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden is not well investigated. There is no Swedish immunization program to prevent varicella zoster virus infections. A vaccine against herpes zoster and its complicati...

    Authors: Marie Studahl, Max Petzold and Tobias Cassel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:586

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common opportunistic infection following lung transplantation. CMV replication in the lung allograft is described as accelerating the development of bronchiolitis obliterans s...

    Authors: Inger Johansson, Gunnar Mårtensson, Ulla Nyström, Salmir Nasic and Rune Andersson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:582

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The common cold and other viral airway infections are highly prevalent in the population, and their treatment often requires the use of medications for symptomatic relief. Paracetamol is as an analgesic and an...

    Authors: Paulo Dornelles Picon, Marisa Boff Costa, Rafael da Veiga Picon, Lucia Costa Cabral Fendt, Maurício Leichter Suksteris, Indara Carmanim Saccilotto, Alicia Dorneles Dornelles and Luis Felipe Carissimi Schmidt

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:556

    Content type: Research article

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  5. We investigated the epidemiological and clinical data of all hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases in a sentinel hospital of Shenzhen, China from 2009 to 2011.

    Authors: Yan-rong Wang, Lu-lu Sun, Wan-ling Xiao, Li-yun Chen, Xian-feng Wang and Dong-ming Pan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:539

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of congenital infections. The maternal immune status plays a major role in the likelihood of congenital infection. The aim of this study is to shed light o...

    Authors: Tahani Neirukh, Ayda Qaisi, Niveen Saleh, Areej Abu Rmaileh, Eman Abu Zahriyeh, Lina Qurei, Firas Dajani, Taghreed Nusseibeh, Hatem Khamash, Sabri Baraghithi and Maysa Azzeh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:528

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Most illnesses caused by pandemic influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus (A/H1N1) infection are acute and self-limiting among children. However, in some children, disease progression is rapid and may require hospitali...

    Authors: Takanori Funaki, Kensuke Shoji, Nobuyuki Yotani, Tomohiro Katsuta, Osamu Miyazaki, Shunsuke Nosaka, Hidekazu Masaki and Akihiko Saitoh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:516

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Hantavirus infections cause potentially life-threatening disease in humans world-wide. Infections with American hantaviruses may lead to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome characterised by severe cardiopulmonary di...

    Authors: Johan Rasmuson, Per Lindqvist, Karen Sörensen, Magnus Hedström, Anders Blomberg and Clas Ahlm

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:501

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The recommendation from the 2009 World Health Organization guidelines for managing dengue suggests that patients with any warning sign can be hospitalized for observation and management. We evaluated the utili...

    Authors: Yee-Sin Leo, Victor C Gan, Ee-Ling Ng, Ying Hao, Lee-Ching Ng, Kwoon-Yong Pok, Frederico Dimatatac, Chi-Jong Go and David C Lye

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:498

    Content type: Research article

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  10. A rapid expansion of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks has occurred and caused deaths in China in recent years, but little is known about the other etiologic agents except enterovirus 71 (EV71) an...

    Authors: Menghua Xu, Liyun Su, Lingfeng Cao, Huaqing Zhong, Niuniu Dong and Jin Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:489

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Enterovirus and herpes simplex viruses are common causes of lymphocytic meningitis. The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of the use molecular testing for Enteroviruses and Herpes simplex viruses...

    Authors: Eduardo Casaroto, Alexandre R Marra, Fernando Morgadinho S Coelho, Joao Renato Rebello Pinho, Roberta Sitnik, Fernando Colombari, Elivane Silva Victor, Nair Hideko Muto, Carlos Senne, Oscar Fernando Pavão dos Santos and Michael B Edmond

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:487

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Parvovirus B19 can cause petechial rashes in the acute phase of illness as well as erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) during convalescence. This petechial rash is often called “gloves and socks” syndrome bec...

    Authors: Masato Takeuchi, Ryosuke Shiozawa, Mayumi Hangai, Junko Takita and Sachiko Kitanaka

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:465

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Epidemiologic data of Herpes Zoster (HZ) disease in Spain are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology of HZ in the Valencian Community (Spain), using outpatient and hospital electron...

    Authors: Nuria Morant-Talamante, Javier Diez-Domingo, Sergio Martínez-Úbeda, Joan Puig-Barberá, Sara Alemán-Sánchez and Lina Pérez-Breva

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:463

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The number of cases of hantavirus disease caused by Puumala virus is increasing enormously in Germany within the last years. Men are overrepresented in hantavirus disease and differences in course and symptoms...

    Authors: Ellen Krautkrämer, Stephan Grouls, Eva Urban, Paul Schnitzler and Martin Zeier

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:457

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Novel influenza in 2009 caused by H1N1, as well as the seasonal influenza, still are a challenge for the public health sectors worldwide. An increasing number of publications referring to this infectious disea...

    Authors: Ralph Fricke, Stefanie Uibel, Doris Klingelhoefer and David A Groneberg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:454

    Content type: Research article

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  16. An association between influenza A viruses and myocarditis was noted during the 1918 influenza pandemic. Since then, the link between the influenza B virus and fulminant myocarditis or cardiogenic shock has be...

    Authors: Mahnaz Taremi, Anthony Amoroso, Heather L Nace and Bruce L Gilliam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:452

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Accurate knowledge of incubation period is important to investigate and to control infectious diseases and their transmission, however statements of incubation period in the literature are often uncited, incon...

    Authors: Rachel M Lee, Justin Lessler, Rose A Lee, Kara E Rudolph, Nicholas G Reich, Trish M Perl and Derek AT Cummings

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:446

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Pneumonia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Viruses contribute significantly to pneumonia burden, although data for low-income and tropical countries are scarce. The ai...

    Authors: Paul Turner, Claudia Turner, Wanitda Watthanaworawit, Verena Carrara, Naw Cicelia, Carole Deglise, Christina Phares, Luis Ortega and Francois Nosten

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:434

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Non-severe acute respiratory syndrome (non-SARS)-related human coronaviruses (HCoVs), including HCoV-229E, -HKU1, -NL63, and -OC43, have been detected in respiratory tract samples from children and adults. How...

    Authors: Weimin Zhou, Wen Wang, Huijuan Wang, Roujian Lu and Wenjie Tan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:433

    Content type: Research article

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  20. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of gancyclovir (GCV) treatment for severe cytomegalovirus (CMV)-associated pneumonia in immunocompetent children.

    Authors: Thanh Thi Mai Doan, Thuy Thi Bich Phung, Hung Viet Pham, Son Hong Pham and Liem Thanh Nguyen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:424

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children, especially those <5 years old. Identifying the viral agents is critical to the development of effective preventive measures. This study aimed to deter...

    Authors: Zengzhi Ren, Yuanmei Kong, Jun Wang, Qianqian Wang, Ailong Huang and Hongmei Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:412

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Early and rapid detection of dengue virus (DENV) infection during the febrile period is crucial for proper patient management and prevention of disease spread. An easy to perform and highly sensitive method is...

    Authors: Boon-Teong Teoh, Sing-Sin Sam, Kim-Kee Tan, Jefree Johari, Mohammed Bashar Danlami, Poh-Sim Hooi, Rafi Md-Esa and Sazaly AbuBakar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:387

    Content type: Research article

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  23. With the remarkable increase of microbial and viral sequence data obtained from high-throughput DNA sequencers, novel tools are needed for comprehensive analysis of the big sequence data. We have developed “Ba...

    Authors: Yuki Iwasaki, Takashi Abe, Yoshiko Wada, Kennosuke Wada and Toshimichi Ikemura

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:386

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Australia uses acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance to monitor its polio-free status. The World Health Organization criterion for a sensitive AFP surveillance system is the annual detection of at least o...

    Authors: Linda K Hobday, Bruce R Thorley, Janet Alexander, Thomas Aitken, Peter D Massey, Michelle Cretikos, Anthony Slater and David N Durrheim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:384

    Content type: Research article

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  25. To clarify the molecular mechanisms that participate in the severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) infected by Enterovirus 71 and to detect any related protein biomarkers, we performed proteomic analysis o...

    Authors: Li Deng, Hong-Ling Jia, Chao-Wu Liu, Yu-Fen Xu, Li-Jia Mao, Chun-Hui He, Gen-Quan Yin, Jun-Hong Lin, Jian-Ping Tao and Li Zhu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:383

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Increasing virulence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen is of grave concern because it causes a neurotrophic killer disease Japanese Encephalitis (JE) which, in turn, is r...

    Authors: Arindam Sarkar, Avishek Banik, Bani K Pathak, Subhra K Mukhopadhyay and Shyamalendu Chatterjee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:368

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Dengue cases have been classified according to disease severity into dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Although DF is considered a non-severe manifestation of dengue, it has been recently d...

    Authors: Fernanda A Orsi, Rodrigo N Angerami, Bruna M Mazetto, Susan KP Quaino, Fernanda Santiago-Bassora, Vagner Castro, Erich V de Paula and Joyce M Annichino-Bizzacchi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:350

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Several studies have shown that serum IL-10, IFNγ and MIF are elevated in patients in severe dengue (SD) and could be used as potential biomarkers. We proceeded to determine if these cytokines could be used as...

    Authors: Gathsaurie Neelika Malavige, Laksiri Gomes, Lukmall Alles, Thashi Chang, Maryam Salimi, Sachie Fernando, Kushan DL Nanayakkara, SD Jayaratne and Graham S Ogg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:341

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The human norovirus (NV) circulates worldwide and is a major cause of epidemics, which have increased in Taiwan since 2002. NV in acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and non-acute gastroenteritis (asymptomatic) patien...

    Authors: Meng-Bin Tang, Chien-Hsien Chen, Shou-Chien Chen, Yu-Ching Chou and Chia-Peng Yu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:338

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Palivizumab has been shown to decrease the incidence of hospitalization due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in infants at risk of severe RSV disease. We examined the association between compliance with pa...

    Authors: Dan L Stewart, Kellie J Ryan, Jerry G Seare, Brett Pinsky, Laura Becker and Michael Frogel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:334

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Human cytomegalovirus infections are still significant causes of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. The use of antiviral agents is limited by toxicity and evolving resistance in immunocompromise...

    Authors: Axel Schubert, Karoline Ehlert, Susanne Schuler-Luettmann, Eva Gentner, Thomas Mertens and Detlef Michel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:330

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric illness. Mainly induced by the Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A 16 infections, the frequently occurred HFMD outbreaks have become a serious public h...

    Authors: Wei Li, Lina Yi, Juan Su, Jing Lu, Hanri Zeng, Dawei Guan, Cong Ma, Wanly Zhang, Hong xiao, Hui Li, Yonghui Zhang, Jinyan Lin and Changwen Ke

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:322

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide including Bangladesh. Unlike what was seen in high-income countries, the licensed rotavirus vaccines did not show high ...

    Authors: Mokibul Hassan Afrad, Zahid Hassan, Saiada Farjana, Sayra Moni, Subarna Barua, Sumon Kumar Das, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Tasnim Azim and Mustafizur Rahman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:320

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Based on sequence variation in the UL55 gene that encodes glycoprotein B (gB), human cytomegalovirus (CMV) can be classified into four gB genotypes. Previous studies have suggested an association between CMV gB g...

    Authors: Débora C Dieamant, Sandra HA Bonon, Renata MB Peres, Claudia RC Costa, Dúlcinéia M Albuquerque, Eliana CM Miranda, Francisco JP Aranha, Gislaine Oliveira-Duarte, Virginio CA Fernandes, Carmino A De Souza, Sandra CB Costa and Afonso C Vigorito

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:310

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Etiological epidemiology and diagnosis are important issues in adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and identifying pathogens based on patient clinical features is especially a challenge. CAP-associated m...

    Authors: Ya-Fen Liu, Yan Gao, Mei-Fang Chen, Bin Cao, Xiao-Hua Yang and Lai Wei

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:309

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Arthropod-borne viral encephalitis of diverse origins shows similar clinical symptoms, histopathology and magnetic resonance imaging, indicating that the patho mechanisms may be similar. There is no specific t...

    Authors: Daniel Růžek, Gerhard Dobler and Hans Helmut Niller

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:306

    Content type: Debate

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  37. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important public health problem in mainland China. HFRS is particularly endemic in Changsha, the capital city of Hunan Province, with one of the highest incid...

    Authors: Hong Xiao, Xiaoling Lin, Lidong Gao, Cunrui Huang, Huaiyu Tian, Na Li, Jianxin Qin, Peijuan Zhu, Biyun Chen, Xixing Zhang and Jian Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:305

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Dengue fever is the most important vector-borne viral disease. Four serotypes of dengue virus, DENV1 to DENV4, coexist. Infection by one serotype elicits long-lasting immunity to that serotype but not the othe...

    Authors: Nora Zidane, Philippe Dussart, Laetitia Bremand and Hugues Bedouelle

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:302

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the world, estimated nationally at 14.7%. Our study’s objective was to delineate the evidence on the epidemiology of HCV infection among the diffe...

    Authors: Yousra A Mohamoud, Ghina R Mumtaz, Suzanne Riome, DeWolfe Miller and Laith J Abu-Raddad

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:288

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Acute myopericarditis and exertional rhabdomyolysis, two uncommon but well-described diseases with potentially life-threatening effects, are generally considered as independent clinical entities. However, they...

    Authors: Guo-Shiang Tseng, Chung-Yueh Hsieh, Ching-Tsai Hsu, Jung-Chung Lin and Jenq-Shyong Chan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:283

    Content type: Case report

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  41. Acute pharyngitis is frequently seen in primary care. Acute viral pharyngitis may be easily misdiagnosed as acute bacterial pharyngitis. Laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of respiratory viruses is recommended. Th...

    Authors: Li Li, Qiao-Yan Chen, Yun-Ying Li, Yan-Fang Wang, Zi-Feng Yang and Nan-Shan Zhong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:281

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Diagnosis of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection is routinely conducted by clinical laboratories, especially to diagnose infectious mononucleosis. At an estimated general population incidence of 1:200, this rep...

    Authors: Christina Kreuzer, Klaus Udo Nabeck, H Roma Levy and Elisabeth Daghofer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:260

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Day care center attendance has been recognized as a risk factor for acquiring gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, which can be prevented with adequate hand hygiene (HH). Based on previous studies on e...

    Authors: Tizza P Zomer, Vicki Erasmus, Nico Vlaar, Ed F van Beeck, Aimée Tjon-A-Tsien, Jan Hendrik Richardus and Hélène ACM Voeten

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:259

    Content type: Study protocol

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  44. With concerns about the disastrous health and economic consequences caused by the influenza pandemic, comprehensively understanding the global host response to influenza virus infection is urgent. The role of ...

    Authors: Hao Song, Qi Wang, Yang Guo, Shunai Liu, Rui Song, Xuesong Gao, Li Dai, Baoshun Li, Deli Zhang and Jun Cheng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:257

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Maternal dengue antibodies are considered to play a significant role in dengue pathogenesis among infants. Determining the transplacental specific antibody transfer is invaluable for establishing the optimal v...

    Authors: Angela FLT Argolo, Valéria CR Féres, Lucimeire A Silveira, Anna Carolina M Oliveira, Luiz A Pereira, João Bosco Siqueira Júnior, Cynthia Braga and Celina MT Martelli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:254

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with high morbidity and increased mortality but many patients avoid initiation of treatment or report challenges with treatment completion. The study object...

    Authors: Lauren Fusfeld, Jyoti Aggarwal, Carly Dougher, Montserrat Vera-Llonch, Stephen Bubb, Mrudula Donepudi and Thomas F Goss

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:234

    Content type: Research article

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  47. The Democratic Republic of Congo experiences regular measles outbreaks. From September 2010, the number of suspected measles cases increased, especially in Katanga province, where Medecins sans Frontieres supp...

    Authors: Lise Grout, Andrea Minetti, Northan Hurtado, Gwenola François, Florence Fermon, Anne Chatelain, Géza Harczi, Jean de Dieu Ilunga Ngoie, Alexandra N’Goran, Francisco J Luquero, Rebecca F Grais and Klaudia Porten

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:232

    Content type: Research article

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  48. The aims of the study were to assess the risk factors in relation to cross border activities, exposure to mosquito bite and preventive measures taken.

    Authors: Ahmad Faudzi Yusoff, Amal Nasir Mustafa, Hani Mat Husaain, Wan Mansor Hamzah, Apandi Mohd Yusof, Rozilawati Harun and Faezah Noor Abdullah

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:211

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Diarrheal diseases represent a major worldwide public health problem particularly in developing countries. Each year, at least four million children under five years of age die from diarrhea. Rotavirus, enteri...

    Authors: Wafa I Elhag, Humodi A Saeed, El Fadhil E Omer and Abdelwahid S Ali

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:209

    Content type: Research article

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