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Viral diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. The World Health Organization estimates that the global number of dengue infections range between 80–100 million per year, with some studies estimating approximately three times higher numbers. Furthermore, th...

    Authors: Stephan Karl, Nilimesh Halder, Joel K Kelso, Scott A Ritchie and George J Milne

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:447

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Over the last decade, increases in the number of outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) have shifted the disease into the public health spotlight in China. Children under the age of five years are pa...

    Authors: Xiaoli Wang, Xiaona Wu, Lei Jia, Xitai Li, Jie Li, Shuang Li, Haikun Qian and Quanyi Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:437

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  3. Airborne transmission of respiratory infectious disease in indoor environment (e.g. airplane cabin, conference room, hospital, isolated room and inpatient ward) may cause outbreaks of infectious diseases, whic...

    Authors: Zhuyang Han, Gin Nam Sze To, Sau Chung Fu, Christopher Yu-Hang Chao, Wenguo Weng and Quanyi Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:434

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Almost all diarrhea deaths in young children occur in developing countries. Immunization against rotavirus, the leading cause of childhood severe dehydrating acute diarrhea may reduce the burden of severe diar...

    Authors: Christabel C Enweronu-Laryea, Isaac Boamah, Eric Sifah, Stanley K Diamenu and George Armah

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:431

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Both high and low pathogenic subtype A avian influenza remain ongoing threats to the commercial poultry industry globally. The emergence of a novel low pathogenic H7N9 lineage in China presents itself as a new...

    Authors: Amy Pinsent, Isobel M Blake, Michael T White and Steven Riley

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:427

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Over the past 20 years, Hepatitis A notifications in Italy have been in decline. Since the beginning of 2013 however, Italy has been experiencing a foodborne hepatitis A outbreak caused by genotype IA, involvi...

    Authors: Giuseppina La Rosa, Simonetta Della Libera, Marcello Iaconelli, Anna Rita Ciccaglione, Roberto Bruni, Stefania Taffon, Michele Equestre, Valeria Alfonsi, Caterina Rizzo, Maria Elena Tosti, Maria Chironna, Luisa Romanò, Alessandro Remo Zanetti and Michele Muscillo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:419

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a great disease burden across the whole world, particularly in Southeast Asia. However, in recent decades, the pathogenesis of severe EV71 infection was not well understood. This study...

    Authors: Hao-Yuan Cheng, Yi-Chuan Huang, Ting-Yu Yen, Shao-Hsuan Hsia, Yu-Chia Hsieh, Chung-Chen Li, Luan-Yin Chang and Li-Min Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:417

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Although there have been a number of studies on the pathogenesis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) recently, knowledge on this topic is still insufficient. This study aims to reveal the kinetics of ser...

    Authors: Safak Kaya, Nazif Elaldi, Ayhan Kubar, Nevcihan Gursoy, Meral Yilmaz, Gulderen Karakus, Turabi Gunes, Zubeyde Polat, Mustafa Gokhan Gozel, Aynur Engin, Ilyas Dokmetas, Mehmet Bakir, Neziha Yilmaz and Mehmet Sencan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:416

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The rate of decline of antibody titers to influenza following infection can affect results of serological surveys, and may explain re-infection and recurrent epidemics by the same strain.

    Authors: Jung Pu Hsu, Xiahong Zhao, Mark I-Cheng Chen, Alex R Cook, Vernon Lee, Wei Yen Lim, Linda Tan, Ian G Barr, Lili Jiang, Chyi Lin Tan, Meng Chee Phoon, Lin Cui, Raymond Lin, Yee Sin Leo and Vincent T Chow

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:414

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Increases in human population size, dengue vector-density and human mobility cause rapid spread of dengue virus in Indonesia. We investigated the changes in dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) incidence in Indones...

    Authors: Mulya Rahma Karyanti, Cuno S P M Uiterwaal, Rita Kusriastuti, Sri Rezeki Hadinegoro, Maroeska M Rovers, Hans Heesterbeek, Arno W Hoes and Patricia Bruijning-Verhagen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:412

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Bhutan, the first low/middle-income country to implement a national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme.

    Authors: Ugyen Tshomo, Silvia Franceschi, Dorji Dorji, Iacopo Baussano, Vanessa Tenet, Peter JF Snijders, Chris JLM Meijer, Maaike CG Bleeker, Tarik Gheit, Massimo Tommasino and Gary M Clifford

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:408

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Herpes zoster (HZ) is a painful condition that can have a substantial negative impact on patients’ lives. However, UK-specific data on the debilitating impact of HZ, in terms of patients’ experience of pain an...

    Authors: Adam Gater, Linda Abetz-Webb, Stuart Carroll, Azharul Mannan, Mick Serpell and Robert Johnson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:402

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Dengue viral infections are prevalent in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. Clinical manifestations range from a self-limited fever to a poten...

    Authors: Babs Soller, Anon Srikiatkachorn, Fengmei Zou, Alan L Rothman, In-Kyu Yoon, Robert V Gibbons, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Stephen J Thomas and Sharone Green

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:396

    Content type: Technical advance

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  14. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by hantaviruses is a serious public health problem in China. The National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) was established online by China CDC ...

    Authors: Shuo Zhang, Shiwen Wang, Wenwu Yin, Mifang Liang, Jiandong Li, Quanfu Zhang, Zijian Feng and Dexin Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:384

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Early knowledge of influenza outbreaks in the community allows local hospital healthcare workers to recognise the clinical signs of influenza in hospitalised patients and to apply effective precautions. The ob...

    Authors: Solweig Gerbier-Colomban, Véronique Potinet-Pagliaroli and Marie-Hélène Metzger

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:381

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Prediction of timing for the onset and peak of an influenza pandemic is of vital importance for preventive measures. In order to identify common spatiotemporal patterns and climate influences for pandemics in ...

    Authors: Lars Skog, Annika Linde, Helena Palmgren, Hans Hauska and Fredrik Elgh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:378

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Central Africa began only recently, and few data are therefore available on the circulation of influenza virus and other respiratory viruses. In Gabon, a Central...

    Authors: Sonia Etenna Lekana-Douki, Dieudonné Nkoghe, Christian Drosten, Edgar Brice Ngoungou, Jan Felix Drexler and Eric M Leroy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:373

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The impact of socio-demographic factors and baseline health on the mortality burden of seasonal and pandemic influenza remains debated. Here we analyzed the spatial-temporal mortality patterns of the 1918 infl...

    Authors: Gerardo Chowell, Anton Erkoreka, Cécile Viboud and Beatriz Echeverri-Dávila

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:371

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Although it has been suggested that schoolchildren vaccination reduces influenza morbidity and mortality in the community, it is unknown whether geographical heterogeneity would affect vaccine effectiveness.

    Authors: Day-Yu Chao, Kuang-Fu Cheng, Ying-Hen Hsieh, Tsai-Chung Li, Trong-Neng Wu and Chiu-Ying Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:369

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus (SFTSV) in China. Humans of all ages living in endemic areas have high risk of acquiring SFTS. ...

    Authors: Li-Yuan Wang, Ning Cui, Qing-Bin Lu, Ying Wo, Hong-Yu Wang, Wei Liu and Wu-Chun Cao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:366

    Content type: Case report

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  21. Sporadic emergence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infection in humans is a serious concern because of the potential for a pandemic. Conventional or quantitative RT-PCR is the standa...

    Authors: Yasuko Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Kengo Nishimura, Shuhei Misawa, Mie Kobayashi-Ishihara, Hitoshi Takahashi, Ikuyo Takayama, Kazuo Ohnishi, Shigeyuki Itamura, Hang LK Nguyen, Mai TQ Le, Giang T Dang, Long T Nguyen, Masato Tashiro and Tsutomu Kageyama

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:362

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Little is known about the development of cross-reactive antibodies following natural exposure to pathogens. Such knowledge is critical in the development of new universal influenza vaccines.

    Authors: Michal Mandelboim, Michal Bromberg, Hilda Sherbany, Inbar Zucker, Karnit Yaary, Ravit Bassal, Rita Dichtiar, Danny Cohen, Tamar Shohat, Ella Mendelson and Manfred S Green

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:346

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Lassa fever is highly contagious and commonly results in death. It is therefore necessary to diagnose and report any suspected case of Lassa fever to facilitate preventive strategies. This study assessed the p...

    Authors: Samuel Anu Olowookere, Akinola Ayoola Fatiregun, Olalere Omoyosola Gbolahan and Ebenezer Gbenga Adepoju

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:344

    Content type: Research article

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  24. According to the World Health Organisation, influenza A (2009 pdmH1N1) has moved into the post-pandemic phase, but there were still high numbers of infections occurring in the United Kingdom in 2010-11. It is ...

    Authors: Emily A Lees, Enitan D Carrol, Christine Gerrard, Fiona Hardiman, Gareth Howel, Alison Timmis, Kent Thorburn, Malcolm Guiver and Paul S McNamara

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:343

    Content type: Research article

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  25. In 2011, a large outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Vietnam resulted in 113,121 children seeking medical attention, of whom170 died. Understanding the epidemiology of fatal HFMD may improve tre...

    Authors: Ngoc TB Nguyen, Hau V Pham, Cuong Q Hoang, Tien M Nguyen, Long T Nguyen, Hung C Phan, Lan T Phan, Long N Vu and Nguyen N Tran Minh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:341

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), a virus-induced infectious disease that usually affects infants and children, has an increased incidence in China in recent years. This study attempted to investigate the r...

    Authors: Zhen Jiang Bai, Yi Ping Li, Jie Huang, Yong Jun Xiang, Chun Yu Lu, Xiao Xing Kong, Jian Mei Tian, Jiang Huai Wang and Jian Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:337

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The fatality attributed to pandemic influenza A H1N1 was not clear in the literature. We described the predictors for fatality related to pandemic influenza A H1N1 infection among hospitalized adult patients.

    Authors: Önder Ergönül, Servet Alan, Öznur Ak, Fatman Sargın, Arzu Kantürk, Alper Gündüz, Derya Engin, Oral Öncül, Ilker Inanc Balkan, Bahadir Ceylan, Nur Benzonana, Saadet Yazıcı, Funda Şimşek, Nuray Uzun, Asuman İnan, Eren Gulhan…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:317

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Epidemiological data about congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) are scarce and rubella vaccine is not yet included in the childhood immunization schedule in Sudan. This study aimed to identify and describe CRS ca...

    Authors: Omer Adam, Ahmed KM Ali, Judith M Hübschen and Claude P Muller

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:305

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Since the end of the 1990s, the incidence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) has been increasing dramatically in Changchun, northeastern China. However, it is unknown which, and how, underlying ri...

    Authors: Jing Wu, Dan-Dan Wang, Xin-Lou Li, Sake J de Vlas, Ya-Qin Yu, Jian Zhu, Ying Zhang, Bo Wang, Li Yan, Li-Qun Fang, Ya-Wen Liu and Wu-Chun Cao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:301

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Acute gastroenteritis is a serious cause of child mortality and morbidity in resource-limited countries. A viral etiology is most common, and rotavirus and norovirus are reported to be the leading causative ag...

    Authors: Maria El Qazoui, Hicham Oumzil, Larbi Baassi, Nezha El Omari, Khalid Sadki, Saaid Amzazi, Mohamed Benhafid and Rajae El Aouad

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:300

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Infections by influenza viruses place a heavy burden on public health and economies worldwide. Although vaccines are the best weapons against influenza, antiviral drugs could offer an opportunity to alleviate ...

    Authors: Roberto Gasparini, Piero Luigi Lai, Francesca Casabona, Cecilia Trucchi, Sara Boccalini, Maria Luisa Cristina, Stefania Rossi, Daniela Amicizia and Donatella Panatto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:297

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Human Parainfluenza viruses are a common cause of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections, particularly in children. Of the four Parainfluenza virus serotypes, Parainfluenza 4 is least well character...

    Authors: Seweryn Bialasiewicz, Jodie McVernon, Terry Nolan, Stephen B Lambert, Guoyan Zhao, David Wang, Michael D Nissen and Theo P Sloots

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:275

    Content type: Research article

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  33. We undertook a 2X2 factorial, randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess whether vitamin D3 supplementation (10,000 international units per week) versus placebo and gargling versus no gargling could prevent vira...

    Authors: Emma C Goodall, Andrea C Granados, Kathy Luinstra, Eleanor Pullenayegum, Brenda L Coleman, Mark Loeb and Marek Smieja

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:273

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Renal transplant recipients are at high risk of developing multiple infections, often concomitantly because of their immunocompromised status. Post renal transplant infections are often elusive and require ext...

    Authors: Manish Rathi, Srikant Gundlapalli, Raja Ramachandran, Sandeep Mohindra, Harsimran Kaur, Vivek Kumar, Harbir Singh Kohli, Krishan Lal Gupta and Vinay Sakhuja

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:259

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Activin A and its binding protein follistatin (FS) are increased in inflammatory disorders and sepsis. Overexpression of activin A in the lung causes similar histopathological changes as acute respiratory dist...

    Authors: Rita Linko, Mark P Hedger, Ville Pettilä, Esko Ruokonen, Tero Ala-Kokko, Helen Ludlow and David M de Kretser

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:253

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease typically caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16. The incidence of HFMD appears to be increasing across the Asia Pacific region, wi...

    Authors: Xin-guang Yin, Hui-xing Yi, Jin Shu, Xing-ju Wang, Xiao-jun Wu and Ling-hua Yu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:251

    Content type: Research article

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  37. West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused ongoing seasonal epidemics in the United States since 1999. It is estimated that ≤1% of WNV-infected patients will develop neuroinvasive dis...

    Authors: John Hart Jr, Gail Tillman, Michael A Kraut, Hsueh-Sheng Chiang, Jeremy F Strain, Yufeng Li, Amy G Agrawal, Penny Jester, John W Gnann Jr and Richard J Whitley

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:248

    Content type: Research article

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  38. West Nile Virus (WNV) is an emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that continues to spread and cause disease throughout several parts of the world, including Europe and the Americas. Specific diagnosis of W...

    Authors: Stefan Chabierski, Luisa Barzon, Anna Papa, Matthias Niedrig, Jonathan L Bramson, Justin M Richner, Giorgio Palù, Michael S Diamond and Sebastian Ulbert

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:246

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important pathogen of viral pneumonia in children. The diagnosis of acute HCMV infection is complicated and difficult.

    Authors: Zhidai Liu, Penghui Zhang, Shi Tang, Xiaoyan He, Rong Zhang, Xinbin Wang, Zhaojian Yuan, Junjie Tan, Bin Peng, Enmei Liu, Zhou Fu and Lin Zou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:245

    Content type: Research article

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  40. A novel influenza A virus infection was identified on March 31, 2013 in China and a total of 134 cases were identified in 12 provinces of China between March 25 and September 31, 2013. Of these, 46 cases occur...

    Authors: Zhenyu Gong, Huakun Lv, Hua Ding, Jiankang Han, Jimin Sun, Chengliang Chai, Jian Cai, Zhao Yu and Enfu Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:244

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The VP1 protein of enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important immunodominant protein which is responsible for host-receptor binding. Nevertheless, the relationship between VP1 and neurovirulence is still poorly und...

    Authors: Bao Zhang, Xianbo Wu, Keyong Huang, Ling Li, Li Zheng, Chengsong Wan, Ming-Liang He and Wei Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:243

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Norovirus infection is increasingly recognized as an important cause of persistent gastroenteritis in immunocompromised hosts and can be a potential cause of morbidity in these populations.

    Authors: Anne-Marie Ronchetti, Benoit Henry, Katia Ambert-Balay, Pierre Pothier, Justine Decroocq, Véronique Leblond and Damien Roos-Weil

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:239

    Content type: Case report

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  43. Influenza and Influenza-like-illness (ILI) represents a substantial public health problem, but it is difficult to measure the overall burden as many cases do not access health care. Community cohorts have the ...

    Authors: Alma J Adler, Ken TD Eames, Sebastian Funk and W John Edmunds

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:232

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are common in outpatient practice, and the severity of symptoms contributes to the overall burden of illness. We examined the association between a subjective symptom severi...

    Authors: Jeffrey J VanWormer, Maria E Sundaram, Jennifer K Meece and Edward A Belongia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:231

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Transfusion-transmitted infections are a major problem associated with blood transfusion. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence and trends of HBV, HCV and HIV in blood donors in Argentina.

    Authors: Diego M Flichman, Jorgelina L Blejer, Beatriz I Livellara, Viviana E Re, Sonia Bartoli, Juan A Bustos, Claudia P Ansola, Susana Hidalgo, Martin E Cerda, Alicia E Levin, Adriana Huenul, Victoria Riboldi, Elena MC Treviño, Horacio J Salamone, Felix A Nuñez, Robert J Fernández…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:218

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Rabies reemerged in China during the 1990s with a gradual increase in the number and geographical dispersion of cases. As a consequence, a national surveillance program was introduced in 2005 to investigate th...

    Authors: Miao Song, Qing Tang, Simon Rayner, Xiao-Yan Tao, Hao Li, Zhen-Yang Guo, Xin-Xin Shen, Wen-Tao Jiao, Wei Fang, Jun Wang and Guo-Dong Liang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:212

    Content type: Research article

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  47. School closure is a non-pharmaceutical intervention that was considered in many national pandemic plans developed prior to the start of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, and received considerable attention ...

    Authors: Simon Cauchemez, Maria D Van Kerkhove, Brett N Archer, Martin Cetron, Benjamin J Cowling, Peter Grove, Darren Hunt, Mira Kojouharova, Predrag Kon, Kumnuan Ungchusak, Hitoshi Oshitani, Andrea Pugliese, Caterina Rizzo, Guillaume Saour, Tomimase Sunagawa, Amra Uzicanin…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:207

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Few studies have comprehensively described tropical respiratory disease surveillance in military populations. There is also a lack of studies comparing clinical characteristics of the non-influenza pathogens w...

    Authors: Xin Quan Tan, Xiahong Zhao, Vernon J Lee, Jin Phang Loh, Boon Huan Tan, Wee Hong Victor Koh, Sock Hoon Ng, Mark I-Cheng Chen and Alex Richard Cook

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:204

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:326

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.