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Viral diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. Dengue fever is the most important vector-borne viral disease. Four serotypes of dengue virus, DENV1 to DENV4, coexist. Infection by one serotype elicits long-lasting immunity to that serotype but not the othe...

    Authors: Nora Zidane, Philippe Dussart, Laetitia Bremand and Hugues Bedouelle

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:302

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the world, estimated nationally at 14.7%. Our study’s objective was to delineate the evidence on the epidemiology of HCV infection among the diffe...

    Authors: Yousra A Mohamoud, Ghina R Mumtaz, Suzanne Riome, DeWolfe Miller and Laith J Abu-Raddad

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:288

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Acute myopericarditis and exertional rhabdomyolysis, two uncommon but well-described diseases with potentially life-threatening effects, are generally considered as independent clinical entities. However, they...

    Authors: Guo-Shiang Tseng, Chung-Yueh Hsieh, Ching-Tsai Hsu, Jung-Chung Lin and Jenq-Shyong Chan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:283

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Acute pharyngitis is frequently seen in primary care. Acute viral pharyngitis may be easily misdiagnosed as acute bacterial pharyngitis. Laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of respiratory viruses is recommended. Th...

    Authors: Li Li, Qiao-Yan Chen, Yun-Ying Li, Yan-Fang Wang, Zi-Feng Yang and Nan-Shan Zhong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:281

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Diagnosis of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection is routinely conducted by clinical laboratories, especially to diagnose infectious mononucleosis. At an estimated general population incidence of 1:200, this rep...

    Authors: Christina Kreuzer, Klaus Udo Nabeck, H Roma Levy and Elisabeth Daghofer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:260

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Day care center attendance has been recognized as a risk factor for acquiring gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, which can be prevented with adequate hand hygiene (HH). Based on previous studies on e...

    Authors: Tizza P Zomer, Vicki Erasmus, Nico Vlaar, Ed F van Beeck, Aimée Tjon-A-Tsien, Jan Hendrik Richardus and Hélène ACM Voeten

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:259

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. With concerns about the disastrous health and economic consequences caused by the influenza pandemic, comprehensively understanding the global host response to influenza virus infection is urgent. The role of ...

    Authors: Hao Song, Qi Wang, Yang Guo, Shunai Liu, Rui Song, Xuesong Gao, Li Dai, Baoshun Li, Deli Zhang and Jun Cheng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:257

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Maternal dengue antibodies are considered to play a significant role in dengue pathogenesis among infants. Determining the transplacental specific antibody transfer is invaluable for establishing the optimal v...

    Authors: Angela FLT Argolo, Valéria CR Féres, Lucimeire A Silveira, Anna Carolina M Oliveira, Luiz A Pereira, João Bosco Siqueira Júnior, Cynthia Braga and Celina MT Martelli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:254

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with high morbidity and increased mortality but many patients avoid initiation of treatment or report challenges with treatment completion. The study object...

    Authors: Lauren Fusfeld, Jyoti Aggarwal, Carly Dougher, Montserrat Vera-Llonch, Stephen Bubb, Mrudula Donepudi and Thomas F Goss

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:234

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The Democratic Republic of Congo experiences regular measles outbreaks. From September 2010, the number of suspected measles cases increased, especially in Katanga province, where Medecins sans Frontieres supp...

    Authors: Lise Grout, Andrea Minetti, Northan Hurtado, Gwenola François, Florence Fermon, Anne Chatelain, Géza Harczi, Jean de Dieu Ilunga Ngoie, Alexandra N’Goran, Francisco J Luquero, Rebecca F Grais and Klaudia Porten

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:232

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The aims of the study were to assess the risk factors in relation to cross border activities, exposure to mosquito bite and preventive measures taken.

    Authors: Ahmad Faudzi Yusoff, Amal Nasir Mustafa, Hani Mat Husaain, Wan Mansor Hamzah, Apandi Mohd Yusof, Rozilawati Harun and Faezah Noor Abdullah

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:211

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Diarrheal diseases represent a major worldwide public health problem particularly in developing countries. Each year, at least four million children under five years of age die from diarrhea. Rotavirus, enteri...

    Authors: Wafa I Elhag, Humodi A Saeed, El Fadhil E Omer and Abdelwahid S Ali

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:209

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Pakistan is considered as an endemic country for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever with numerous outbreaks and sporadic cases reported during the past two decades. Majority of cases are reported from Baluchistan...

    Authors: Muhammad Masroor Alam, Adnan Khurshid, Salmaan Sharif, Shahzad Shaukat, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Mehar Angez and Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:201

    Content type: Research article

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  14. SPRINT-2 demonstrated that boceprevir (BOC), an oral hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural 3 (NS3) protease inhibitor, added to peginterferon alfa-2b (P) and ribavirin (R) significantly increased sustained vir...

    Authors: Shannon Allen Ferrante, Jagpreet Chhatwal, Clifford A Brass, Antoine C El Khoury, Fred Poordad, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki and Elamin H Elbasha

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:190

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infections seem to be associated with the onset of actinic keratosis (AK). This study compares the presence of cutaneous HPV types in eyebrow hairs to those in tissues of n...

    Authors: Ines Schneider, Mandy D Lehmann, Vlada Kogosov, Eggert Stockfleth and Ingo Nindl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:186

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The integration of empirical data in computational frameworks designed to model the spread of infectious diseases poses a number of challenges that are becoming more pressing with the increasing availability o...

    Authors: Anna Machens, Francesco Gesualdo, Caterina Rizzo, Alberto E Tozzi, Alain Barrat and Ciro Cattuto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:185

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Treatment for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is improving but not benefiting individuals unaware to be infected. To inform screening policies we assessed (1) the hepatiti...

    Authors: Susan JM Hahné, Irene K Veldhuijzen, Lucas Wiessing, Tek-Ang Lim, Mika Salminen and Marita van de Laar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:181

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Dengue is a common illness in the tropics. Equally common are neurological complications that stem from dengue infection. However, to date, parkinsonism following dengue has not been reported in medical litera...

    Authors: Shahrul Azmin, Ramesh Sahathevan, Zainudin Suehazlyn, Zhe Kang Law, Remli Rabani, Wan Yahya Nafisah, Hui Jan Tan and Mohamed Ibrahim Norlinah

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:179

    Content type: Case report

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  19. The activity of airborne disinfectants on bacteria, fungi and spores has been reported. However, the issue of the virucidal effect of disinfectants spread by fogging has not been studied thoroughly.

    Authors: Thomas Thevenin, Pierre-Emmanuel Lobert and Didier Hober

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:177

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Confirmed H1N1 cases during late spring and summer 2009 in various countries showed a substantial age shift between importations and local transmission cases, with adults mainly responsible for seeding unaffec...

    Authors: Andrea Apolloni, Chiara Poletto and Vittoria Colizza

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:176

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and mainly affects individuals aged ≥50 years. The forthcoming European launch of a vaccine against HZ (Zostavax®) prompts the n...

    Authors: Sybil Pinchinat, Ana M Cebrián-Cuenca, Hélène Bricout and Robert W Johnson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:170

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Despite the serious consequences of rubella infection during early pregnancy, very little is known about the rubella seroprevalence in a number of African countries including Burkina Faso.

    Authors: Marc C Tahita, Judith M Hübschen, Zekiba Tarnagda, Da Ernest, Emilie Charpentier, Jacques R Kremer, Claude P Muller and Jean B Ouedraogo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:164

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Involvement of trochlear nerve during Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) Infection has been rarely described, and always in association with skin rash.

    Authors: Raffaella Pisapia, Alessia Rianda, Andrea Mariano, Angela Testa, Simonetta Galgani, Laura Vincenzi, Amina Abdeddaim, Alessandra Oliva and Pasquale Narciso

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:138

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Investigations were conducted by the authors to explore an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) reported in 2010 from Al-Mukalla city, the capital of Hadramout in Yemen.

    Authors: Tariq A Madani, El-Tayeb ME Abuelzein, Hussein MS Al-Bar, Esam I Azhar, Moujahed Kao, Haj O Alshoeb and Alabd R Bamoosa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:136

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Over the last decade, major outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) have been reported in Asian countries, resulting in thousands of deaths among children. However, less is known regarding the effect...

    Authors: Yong Huang, Te Deng, Shicheng Yu, Jing Gu, Cunrui Huang, Gexin Xiao and Yuantao Hao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:134

    Content type: Research article

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  26. In populations in which the incidence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection has declined due to socio-economic improvements, better sanitation and hygiene, and vaccination, birth cohorts who have long-term immu...

    Authors: Scott A McDonald, Marie-Josée J Mangen, Anita Suijkerbuijk, Edoardo Colzani and Mirjam EE Kretzschmar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:120

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Among Influenza neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), oseltamivir corresponds to the most widely used agent to treat influenza disease. However since 2001, several cases of resistance to NAIs have been reported for...

    Authors: Ndongo Dia, Mbayame N Niang, Saadiya A Diadhiou, Déborah G Goudiaby, Abdourahmane Faye, Davy Kiori, Mady Bâ, Rémy Michel and Ousmane M Diop

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:106

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Dengue is an acute febrile illness caused by an arbovirus that is endemic in more than 100 countries. Early diagnosis and adequate management are critical to reduce mortality. This study aims to identify clini...

    Authors: Regina P Daumas, Sonia RL Passos, Raquel VC Oliveira, Rita MR Nogueira, Ingebourg Georg, Keyla BF Marzochi and Patrícia Brasil

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:77

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Low absolute humidity (AH) has been associated with increased influenza virus survival and transmissibility and the onset of seasonal influenza outbreaks. Humidification of indoor environments may mitigate vir...

    Authors: Tyler H Koep, Felicity T Enders, Chris Pierret, Stephen C Ekker, Dale Krageschmidt, Kevin L Neff, Marc Lipsitch, Jeffrey Shaman and W Charles Huskins

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:71

    Content type: Research article

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  30. In 1998, Malaysia experienced its first chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak in the suburban areas followed by another two in 2006 (rural areas) and 2008 (urban areas), respectively. Nevertheless, there is still...

    Authors: Nor Azila Muhammad Azami, Sharifah Azura Salleh, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Hui-min Neoh, Zulhabri Othman, Syed Zulkifli Syed Zakaria and Rahman Jamal

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:67

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The quasispecies composition of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) could have important implications with regard to viral persistence and response to interferon-based therapy. The complete NS5A was analyzed to evaluate w...

    Authors: Ana CG Jardim, Cíntia Bittar, Renata PA Matos, Lílian HT Yamasaki, Rafael A Silva, João RR Pinho, Roberta M Fachini, Claudia MA Carareto, Isabel MVG de Carvalho-Mello and Paula Rahal

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:61

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Hepatitis C chronic liver disease is a major cause of liver transplant in developed countries. This article reports the first nationwide population-based survey conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of HCV ...

    Authors: Leila MMB Pereira, Celina MT Martelli, Regina C Moreira, Edgar Merchan-Hamman, Airton T Stein, Regina Maria A Cardoso, Gerusa M Figueiredo, Ulisses R Montarroyos, Cynthia Braga, Marília D Turchi, Gabriela Coral, Deborah Crespo, Maria Luiza C Lima, Luis Claudio A Alencar, Marcelo Costa, Alex A dos Santos…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:60

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Asthma was the most common co-morbidity among patients hospitalized with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 [pH1N1] infection. The objective was to compare characteristics of hospitalized pH1N1 patients with and ...

    Authors: John J McKenna, Anna M Bramley, Jacek Skarbinski, Alicia M Fry, Lyn Finelli and Seema Jain

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:57

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a major cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality, especially among non-affluent communities. In this study we determine the impact of respiratory viruses and how v...

    Authors: Emerson Rodrigues da Silva, Márcio Condessa Paulo Pitrez, Eurico Arruda, Rita Mattiello, Edgar E Sarria, Flávia Escremim de Paula, José Luis Proença-Modena, Luana Sella Delcaro, Otávio Cintra, Marcus H Jones, José Dirceu Ribeiro and Renato T Stein

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:41

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The effectiveness of preventive measures depends on prevailing attitudes and mindsets within a population. Perceived risk is central to a shift in mindset and behaviour. The present study aims to investigate t...

    Authors: François Taglioni, Michel Cartoux, Koussay Dellagi, Cécile Dalban, Adrian Fianu, Fabrice Carrat and François Favier

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:34

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Coxsackievirus A9 (CA9) was one of the most prevalent serotype of enteroviral infections in Taiwan in 2011. After several patient series were reported in the 1960s and 1970s, few studies have focused on the cl...

    Authors: Yi-Chuan Huang, Ying-Hsia Chu, Ting-Yu Yen, Wen-Chan Huang, Li-Min Huang, Ai-Ling Cheng, Hurng-Yi Wang and Luan-Yin Chang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:33

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are important causes of upper respiratory tract illness (URTI) and lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI). To analyse epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the four ...

    Authors: Wen-Kuan Liu, Qian Liu, De-Hui Chen, Huan-Xi Liang, Xiao-Kai Chen, Wen-Bo Huang, Sheng Qin, Zi-Feng Yang and Rong Zhou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:28

    Content type: Research article

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  38. In April 2009, public health surveillance detected an increased number of influenza-like illnesses in Mexico City’s hospitals. The etiological agent was subsequently determined to be a spread of a worldwide no...

    Authors: Rodolfo Ocadiz-Delgado, Martha Estela Albino-Sanchez, Enrique Garcia-Villa, Maria Guadalupe Aguilar-Gonzalez, Carlos Cabello, Dora Rosete, Fidencio Mejia, Maria Eugenia Manjarrez-Zavala, Carmen Ondarza-Aguilera, Rosa Ma Rivera-Rosales and Patricio Gariglio

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:20

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Injection drug users (IDUs) represent a significant proportion of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). The low treatment uptake among these patients results in a low treatment effectiveness and a limited p...

    Authors: André Seidenberg, Thomas Rosemann and Oliver Senn

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:9

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Historically, Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs) have been more severely affected by influenza pandemics than any other part of the world. We herein describe the emergence and epidemiologic chara...

    Authors: Jacobus Leen Kool, Boris Igor Pavlin, Jennie Musto and Akanisi Dawainavesi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:6

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV) are recently found pathogens causing two rare skin disorders, Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and trichodysplasia spinulo...

    Authors: Mohammadreza Sadeghi, Matti Aronen, Tingting Chen, Laura Jartti, Tuomas Jartti, Olli Ruuskanen, Maria Söderlund-Venermo and Klaus Hedman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:383

    Content type: Research article

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  42. More than 50% of patients infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) do not respond to treatment with conventional interferon (IFN) combined with ribavirin (RBV). The aim of our study was to evaluate the ef...

    Authors: Simara Artico, Karine Medeiros Amaral, Candice Beatriz Treter Gonçalves and Paulo Dornelles Picon

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:377

    Content type: Research article

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  43. The Interleukin 28B (IL28B) rs12979860 polymorphisms was recently reported to be associated with the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral load (PvL) and the development of the HTLV-1-associated...

    Authors: Sabri Saeed Sanabani, Youko Nukui, Juliana Pereira, Antonio Charlys da Costa, Ana Carolina Soares de Oliveira, Rodrigo Pessôa, Fabio Eudes Leal, Aluisio C Segurado, Esper Georges Kallas and Ester Cerdeira Sabino

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:374

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Acute viral respiratory infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. The etiological backgrounds of these infections remain unconfirmed in most clinical cases. The aim of t...

    Authors: Monika Jevšnik, Tina Uršič, Nina Žigon, Lara Lusa, Uroš Krivec and Miroslav Petrovec

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:365

    Content type: Research article

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  45. In 2009 a new influenza serotype (AH1N1) was identified in Mexico that spread rapidly generating worldwide alarm. San Luis Potosi (SLP) was the third state with more cases reported in that year. The clinical i...

    Authors: Juan Pablo Castillo-Palencia, Lucie Laflamme and Joel Monárrez-Espino

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:363

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Two formulations of Pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) are on the market for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of Peg-IFN α-2a ver...

    Authors: Nicola Coppola, Mariantonietta Pisaturo, Gilda Tonziello, Caterina Sagnelli, Evangelista Sagnelli and Italo F Angelillo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:357

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) often leads to severe disability or death. Factors usually associated with outcome include Simplified Acute Physiology Score, age and delay of initiation of acyclovir treatment.

    Authors: Julien Poissy, Karen Champenois, Anny Dewilde, Hugues Melliez, Hugues Georges, Eric Senneville and Yazdan Yazdanpanah

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:356

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Household transmission of influenza-like illness (ILI) may vary with viral and demographic characteristics. We examined the effect of these factors in a population-based sample of adults with ILI.

    Authors: James M McCaw, Peter F Howard, Peter C Richmond, Michael Nissen, Theo Sloots, Stephen B Lambert, Michael Lai, Michael Greenberg, Terry Nolan and Jodie McVernon

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:345

    Content type: Research article

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