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Viral diseases

Section edited by Jodie McVernon and Julian Tang

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a major communicable disease in children ≤6 years old, particularly in several countries in the Asia-Pacific Region, including Thailand. HFMD impacts public health and th...

    Authors: Panupong Upala, Tawatchai Apidechkul, Wipob Suttana, Niwed Kullawong, Ratipark Tamornpark and Chadaporn Inta

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:630

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is most frequently caused by Enterovirus71 (EV-A71) or Coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16), infants and young children are at greatest risk. Describing the epidemiology of HFMD ca...

    Authors: Lili Xu, Yan Shi, Jeanette J. Rainey, Zhijie Zhang, Huayi Zhang, Jinhua Zhao, Yonghong Li, Huaxiang Rao, Yanming Li, Qiaohong Liao and Yongcheng Ma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:624

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Dengue is one of the most common arboviral diseases with increased outbreaks annually in tropical and subtropical areas. In Ethiopia, there are no data regarding clinical, hematological and biochemical paramet...

    Authors: Getachew Ferede, Moges Tiruneh, Ebba Abate, Yitayih Wondimeneh, Endalamaw Gadisa, Rawleigh Howe, Abraham Aseffa and Belay Tessema

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:616

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Clinical Rabies is a widely distributed almost 100% fatal viral zoonotic disease. Most human rabies cases occur in developing countries, especially in Asia and Africa. It can be prevented by immunization, post...

    Authors: Endalew Yizengaw, Tamyalew Getahun, Wondemagegn Mulu, Mulat Ashagrie, Ibrahim Abdela and Mekuanint Geta

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:597

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Studies on human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have focused primarily on the immunosuppressed population. Few studies have considered immunocompetent and not severely immunocompromised pa...

    Authors: Jianhua Hu, Hong Zhao, Danfeng Lou, Hainv Gao, Meifang Yang, Xuan Zhang, Hongyu Jia and Lanjuan Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:577

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  6. Content type: Case report

    Seoul virus (SEOV) is a member of hantavirus family, which is transmitted to humans by Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus. Diagnosing SEOV infection is difficult because the clinical presentations are often undi...

    Authors: Khie Chen Lie, Mochamad Helmi Aziz, Herman Kosasih, Aaron Neal, Caleb Leonardo Halim, Wahyu Nawang Wulan, Muhammad Karyana and Usman Hadi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:578

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Influenza A H1N1 infections carry a significant mortality risk. This study describes inpatients with suspected and confirmed Influenza A H1N1 infection who were prescribed oseltamivir, the risk factors associa...

    Authors: Talita Rantin Belucci, Alexandre R. Marra, Michael B. Edmond, João Renato Rebello Pinho, Paula Kiyomi Onaga Yokota, Ana Carolina Cintra Nunes Mafra and Oscar Fernando Pavão dos Santos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:579

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis may prevent CMV indirect effects in renal transplant recipients. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of valganciclovir and valacyclovir prophylaxis for CMV after renal tr...

    Authors: Tomas Reischig, Martin Kacer, Petra Hruba, Hana Hermanova, Ondrej Hes, Daniel Lysak, Stanislav Kormunda and Mirko Bouda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:573

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Prior to the 2009 pandemic H1N1, and the unprecedented outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) caused by the H5N1 virus, the World Health Organization (WHO) called upon its Member States to develo...

    Authors: Evanson Z. Sambala, Tiwonge Kanyenda, Chinwe Juliana Iwu, Chidozie Declan Iwu, Anelisa Jaca and Charles S. Wiysonge

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:567

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  10. Content type: Research article

    On 28 March, 2016, the Ministry of Health received a report on three deaths from an unknown disease characterized by fever, jaundice, and hemorrhage which occurred within a one-month period in the same family ...

    Authors: Leocadia Kwagonza, Ben Masiira, Henry Kyobe-Bosa, Daniel Kadobera, Emily B. Atuheire, Bernard Lubwama, Atek Kagirita, Edson Katushabe, John T. Kayiwa, Julius J. Lutwama, Joseph C. Ojwang, Issa Makumbi, Alex Riolexus Ario, Jeff Borchert and Bao-Ping Zhu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:548

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  11. Content type: Research article

    The East African region is endemic with multiple zoonotic diseases and is one of the hotspots for emerging infectious zoonotic diseases with reported multiple outbreaks of epidemic diseases such as Ebola, Marb...

    Authors: Naomi Kemunto, Eddy Mogoa, Eric Osoro, Austin Bitek, M. Kariuki Njenga and S. M. Thumbi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:545

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Enteric viruses in surface water pose considerable risk to morbidity in populations living around water catchments and promote outbreaks of waterborne diseases. However, due to poor understanding of the correl...

    Authors: Jing Miao, Xuan Guo, Weili Liu, Dong Yang, Zhiqiang Shen, Zhigang Qiu, Xiang Chen, Kunming Zhang, Hui Hu, Jing Yin, Zhongwei Yang, Junwen Li and Min Jin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:542

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  13. Content type: Technical advance

    In recent years, metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing (mNGS) has increasingly been used for an accurate assumption-free virological diagnosis. However, the systematic workflow evaluation on clinical respirat...

    Authors: A. Bal, M. Pichon, C. Picard, J. S. Casalegno, M. Valette, I. Schuffenecker, L. Billard, S. Vallet, G. Vilchez, V. Cheynet, G. Oriol, S. Trouillet-Assant, Y. Gillet, B. Lina, K. Brengel-Pesce, F. Morfin…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:537

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Fomite mediated transmission can be an important pathway causing significant disease transmission in number of settings such as schools, daycare centers, and long-term care facilities. The importance of these ...

    Authors: Alicia N.M. Kraay, Michael A.L. Hayashi, Nancy Hernandez-Ceron, Ian H. Spicknall, Marisa C. Eisenberg, Rafael Meza and Joseph N.S. Eisenberg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:540

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  15. Content type: Research article

    The effects of maternal influenza infection on the fetus remain unclear. We studied mild influenza and influenza antibodies in relation to birth weight and risks of pre-eclampsia, preterm birth (PTB), and smal...

    Authors: Ida Laake, Gro Tunheim, Anna Hayman Robertson, Olav Hungnes, Kristian Waalen, Siri E. Håberg, Siri Mjaaland and Lill Trogstad

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:525

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Rabies is a significant public health problem in China. Previous spatial epidemiological studies have helped understand the epidemiology of animal and human rabies in China. However, quantification of effects ...

    Authors: Danhuai Guo, Wenwu Yin, Hongjie Yu, Jean-Claude Thill, Weishi Yang, Feng Chen and Deqiang Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:526

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  17. Content type: Case report

    Adenoviruses (AdV) are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses with multiple serotypes, which cause a variety of end-organ disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Some adenoviruse...

    Authors: Rhiannon Ions, Manjith Narayanan, Michael Browning, Erol A. Gaillard, Gary Stiefel and Julian W. Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:529

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  18. Content type: Case report

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus named SFTS virus (SFTSV), which is classified into the genus Phlebovirus and family Phenuiviridae....

    Authors: Jinjing Zhang, Xiaojing Yan, Yan Li, Ran Gao, Pingping Wang and Wenbin Mo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:528

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Human norovirus is the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis globally, and the GII.4 has been the most predominant genotype for decades. This genotype has numerous variants that have caused repeated epidemics...

    Authors: Nicholas Petronella, Jennifer Ronholm, Menka Suresh, Jennifer Harlow, Oksana Mykytczuk, Nathalie Corneau, Sabah Bidawid and Neda Nasheri

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:521

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Prenatal exposure to influenza or fever is associated with risk of congenital malformations. Oseltamivir is used to treat influenza and to provide post-exposure prophylaxis. We examined the association between...

    Authors: Vera Ehrenstein, Nickolaj Risbo Kristensen, Brigitta Ursula Monz, Barry Clinch, Andy Kenwright and Henrik Toft Sørensen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:519

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common illness in children, and rapid diagnosis is required for the optimal management of RTIs, especially severe infections.

    Authors: Jin Li, Yue Tao, Mingyu Tang, Bailu Du, Yijun Xia, Xi Mo and Qing Cao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:510

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a painful dermatomal rash caused by reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus surviving in the patient’s sensory ganglia after a previous episode of varicella. The incidence of HZ inc...

    Authors: Desmond Curran, Ruprecht Schmidt-Ott, Ulf Schutter, Jörg Simon, Anastassia Anastassopoulou and Sean Matthews

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:496

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of severe diarrheal disease, and one of the common causes of death in children aged under five years old. The dominant epidemic strains may change in different years in the same ar...

    Authors: Yi Tian, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Zhiyong Gao, Hanqiu Yan, Yanwei Chen, Baiwei Liu, Da Huo, Lei Jia, Quanyi Wang and Chandini Raina MacIntyre

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:497

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus are genera of the virus family Filoviridae. Filoviruses cause rare but fatal viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) in remote villages of equatorial Africa with potential for regional and int...

    Authors: Peace Babirye, Carol Musubika, Samuel Kirimunda, Robert Downing, Julian J Lutwama, Edward K Mbidde, Jacqueline Weyer, Janusz T Paweska, Moses L Joloba and Misaki Wayengera

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:498

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  25. Content type: Research article

    The live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) is licensed using a 0-, 6- and 12-month schedule in dengue-endemic areas. An effective shorter schedule may provide more rapid, optimal protection of ta...

    Authors: Judith Kirstein, William Douglas, Manoj Thakur, Mark Boaz, Thomas Papa, Anna Skipetrova and Eric Plennevaux

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:475

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) are common causes of febrile illnesses in many settings in Senegal. These infections are usually managed presumptively due to lack of appropriate diagnostic tools. This situa...

    Authors: Roger C. Tine, Léon A. Ndiaye, Mbayame N. Niang, Davy E. Kiori, Ndongo Dia, Oumar Gaye and Hélène Broutin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:459

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  27. Content type: Research article

    This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in the Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of children with recurrent wheezing and to identify associations with certain patient clin...

    Authors: Huiming Sun, Shuxiang Li, Yongdong Yan, Zhengrong Chen, Yuqing Wang, Chuangli Hao and Wei Ji

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:458

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  28. Content type: Research article

    The impact of different classes of microbial pathogens on mortality in severe community-acquired pneumonia is not well elucidated. Previous studies have shown significant variation in the incidence of viral, b...

    Authors: Jessica Quah, Boran Jiang, Poh Choo Tan, Chuin Siau and Thean Yen Tan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:451

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Influenza is an acute viral disease of the respiratory tract which is characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, prostration, coryza, sore throat and cough. Globally, an estimated 3 to 5 million cases of sever...

    Authors: Abyot Bekele Woyessa, Mesfin Mengesha, Desalegn Belay, Adamu Tayachew, Workenesh Ayele, Berhane Beyene, Woubayehu Kassa, Etsehiwot Zemelak, Gelila Demissie, Berhanu Amare, Lucy Boulanger, Carolina Granados, Thelma Williams, Israel Tareke, Soatiana Rajatonirina and Daddi Jima

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:449

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Diarrhea is a major source of morbidity and mortality among young children in low-income and middle-income countries. Human adenoviruses (HAdV), particular HAdV species F (40, 41) has been recognized as import...

    Authors: Fang-zhou Qiu, Xin-xin Shen, Gui-xia Li, Li Zhao, Chen Chen, Su-xia Duan, Jing-yun Guo, Meng-chuan Zhao, Teng-fei Yan, Ju-Ju Qi, Le Wang, Zhi-shan Feng and Xue-jun Ma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:450

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  31. Content type: Research article

    International and national travelling has made the rapid spread of infectious diseases possible. Little information is available on the role of major traffic hubs, such as airports, in the transmission of resp...

    Authors: Niina Ikonen, Carita Savolainen-Kopra, Joanne E. Enstone, Ilpo Kulmala, Pertti Pasanen, Anniina Salmela, Satu Salo, Jonathan S. Nguyen-Van-Tam and Petri Ruutu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:437

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  32. Content type: Case report

    Incidence of Dengue infection is on the increase in Sri Lanka with it being associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity in pregnancy.

    Authors: B. V. K. M. Bopeththa, Sardha Hemapriya, K. K. Gayan Niranga and Danushka S. K. Kotigala

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:427

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  33. Content type: Case report

    Dengue infection is an endemic illness in the tropics and it is associated with a wide variety of post infectious complications. With the increasing prevalence of dengue infection in endemic regions, post-infe...

    Authors: Rakitha Higgoda, Dilshan Perera and Kanapathipillai Thirumavalavan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:415

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  34. Content type: Research article

    On 12 October, 2016 a measles outbreak was reported in Mayuge District, eastern Uganda. We investigated the outbreak to determine its scope, identify risk factors for transmission, evaluate vaccination coverag...

    Authors: Robert Kaos Majwala, Lydia Nakiire, Daniel Kadobera, Alex Riolexus Ario, Joy Kusiima, Joselyn Annet Atuhairwe, Joseph K. B. Matovu and Bao-Ping Zhu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:412

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Influenza causes an estimated 3000 to 50,000 deaths per year in the United States of America (US). Timely and representative data can help local, state, and national public health officials monitor and respond...

    Authors: Kristin Baltrusaitis, John S. Brownstein, Samuel V. Scarpino, Eric Bakota, Adam W. Crawley, Giuseppe Conidi, Julia Gunn, Josh Gray, Anna Zink and Mauricio Santillana

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:403

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  36. Content type: Technical advance

    During the fifth wave of human H7N9 infections, a novel highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 variant emerged with an insertion of multiple basic amino acids in the HA cleavage site. Moreover, a neuraminidase inhibitor ...

    Authors: Yang Yang, Shanqin Li, Gary Wong, Sufang Ma, Zhixiang Xu, Xiaonan Zhao, Hong Li, Wen Xu, Haixia Zheng, Jingyan Lin, Qi Zhao, Wenjun Liu, Yingxia Liu, George F. Gao and Yuhai Bi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:406

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Measles is a highly infectious and serious respiratory viral disease which caused by a virus. It is a significant cause of illness and death worldwide. This data analysis was conducted to describe the trend an...

    Authors: Munira Nasser Hassen, Abyot Bekele Woyessa, Mekonen Getahun, Berhane Beyene, Lucy Buluanger, Ayesheshem Ademe, Alemayehu Bekele, Adamu Addissie, Amha Kebede and Daddi Jima

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:400

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Caring for young children is a known risk factor for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection mainly through exposure to their saliva and urine. In a previous study, 36 CMV-seropositive children 2 mo. to 4 years old we...

    Authors: Minal M. Amin, Jennifer D. Stowell, William Hendley, Philip Garcia, D. Scott Schmid, Michael J. Cannon and Sheila C. Dollard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:391

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Guangxi is the province most seriously affected by rabies virus (RABV) in China. Those most affected by RABV each year are people in rural areas, where dogs are the main cause of human infection with the virus.

    Authors: Xian-Kai Wei, Yi Xiong, Xiao-Ning Li, Min Zheng, Yan Pan, Xiao-Xia He, Jing-Jing Liang, Cheng Liu, Yi-Zhi Zhong, Lian-Bin Zou, Lie-Feng Zheng, Jian-Gang Guo, Chang-Ting Li, Sheng-Bin Huang, Jia-Zhong Gan, Zhen-Mu Meng…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:386

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  40. Content type: Case report

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a recently emerged arbovirus, which infection during pregnancy is associated with a series of congenital malformations, collectively denominated Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS). Following i...

    Authors: Carlos A. A. Brito, Adélia Henriques-Souza, Cynthia R. P. Soares, Priscila M. S. Castanha, Laís C. Machado, Mylena R. Pereira, Mariana C. M. Sobral, Antonio R. Lucena-Araujo, Gabriel L. Wallau and Rafael F. O. Franca

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:388

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  41. Content type: Research article

    World Health Organization (WHO), the World Bank, UN System Influenza Coordination (UNSIC) and other international organizations released a series of documents to fight against the influenza pandemic. Those doc...

    Authors: Feng Liang, Peng Guan, Wei Wu, Jing Liu, Ning Zhang, Bao-Sen Zhou and De-Sheng Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:383

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  42. Content type: Research article

    In 2013 and 2014, Singapore experienced its worst dengue outbreak known-to-date. Mosquito breeding in construction sites stood out as a probable risk factor due to its association with major dengue clusters in...

    Authors: Shaohong Liang, Hapuarachchige Chanditha Hapuarachchi, Jayanthi Rajarethinam, Carmen Koo, Choon-Siang Tang, Chee-Seng Chong, Lee-Ching Ng and Grace Yap

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:382

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Dengue virus infection results in a broad spectrum of clinical outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic infection through to severe dengue. Although prior infection with another viral serotype, i.e. secondary dengu...

    Authors: Thi Hanh Tien Nguyen, Hannah E. Clapham, Khanh Lam Phung, Thanh Kieu Nguyen, The Trung DInh, Than Ha Quyen Nguyen, Van Ngoc Tran, Stephen Whitehead, Cameron Simmons, Marcel Wolbers and Bridget Wills

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:375

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  44. Content type: Case report

    Human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV-3) is known to cause cold-like symptoms, diarrhea, or severe infections such as sepsis in infants and children. In adults, HPeV-3 infection is rarely diagnosed because the sympt...

    Authors: Kiwamu Nakamura, Kyoichi Saito, Yasuka Hara, Tetsuji Aoyagi, Kadzuhiro Kitakawa, Yoshinobu Abe, Hiromu Takemura, Fumihito Ikeda, Mitsuo Kaku and Keiji Kanemitsu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:381

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  45. Content type: Research article

    The resurgence of mumps around the world occurs frequently in recent years. As the country with the largest number of cases in the world, the status of mumps epidemics in China is not yet clear. This study, ta...

    Authors: Guoqi Yu, Rencong Yang, Yi Wei, Dongmei Yu, Wenwen Zhai, Jiansheng Cai, Bingshuang Long, Shiyi Chen, Jiexia Tang, Ge Zhong and Jian Qin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:360

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  46. Content type: Research article

    In clinical studies involving a healthy volunteer human challenge model, a valid and reliable measure to assess the evolution of patient-reported symptom type and severity following viral exposure is necessary...

    Authors: Alison Han, Jiat-Ling Poon, John H. Powers III, Nancy K. Leidy, Ren Yu and Matthew J. Memoli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:353

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Dengue viruses (DENV) have emerged and reemerged in Brazil in the past 30 years causing explosive epidemics. The disease may range from clinically asymptomatic infections to severe and fatal outcomes. We aimed...

    Authors: Priscila Conrado Guerra Nunes, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Monique Queiroz da Rocha Lima, Nieli Rodrigues da Costa Faria, Fernanda de Bruycker-Nogueira, Jaqueline Bastos Santos, Manoela Heringer, Thaís Chouin-Carneiro, Dinair Couto-Lima, Bianca de Santis Gonçalves, Simone Alves Sampaio, Eliane Saraiva Machado de Araújo, Juan Camilo Sánchez-Arcila, Flávia Barreto dos Santos and Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:346

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Asking people how they would seek healthcare in a hypothetical situation can be an efficient way to estimate healthcare utilization, but it is unclear how intended healthcare use corresponds to actual healthca...

    Authors: Karen K. Wong, Adam L. Cohen, Neil A. Martinson, Shane A. Norris, Stefano Tempia, Claire von Mollendorf, Sibongile Walaza, Shabir A. Madhi, Meredith L. McMorrow and Cheryl Cohen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:344

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  49. Content type: Research article

    In late 2016, an uncommon recombinant NoV genotype called GII.P16-GII.2 caused a sharp increase in outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in different countries of Asia and Europe, including China. However, we did...

    Authors: Jiankang Han, Xiaofang Wu, Liping Chen, Yun Fu, Deshun Xu, Peng Zhang and Lei Ji

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:342

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