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Viral diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. Many studies have been published about critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the early phases of the pandemic but the characteristic or survival of critically ill Japanese patients have not...

    Authors: Aya Banno, Toru Hifumi, Hiroshi Okamoto, Minori Masaki, Koichiro Seki, Shutaro Isokawa, Norio Otani, Kuniyoshi Hayashi and Shinichi Ishimatsu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:163

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Increasing evidence indicate that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is companied by renal dysfunction. However, the association of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced renal d...

    Authors: Hui-Xian Xiang, Jun Fei, Ying Xiang, Zheng Xu, Ling Zheng, Xiu-Yong Li, Lin Fu and Hui Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:158

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Laboratory data and computed tomography (CT) have been used during the COVID-19 pandemic, mainly to determine patient prognosis and guide clinical management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associat...

    Authors: Simone Canovi, Giulia Besutti, Efrem Bonelli, Valentina Iotti, Marta Ottone, Laura Albertazzi, Alessandro Zerbini, Pierpaolo Pattacini, Paolo Giorgi Rossi, Rossana Colla and Tommaso Fasano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:157

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Due to the rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, it is necessary to ascertain essential immune inflammatory parameters that describe the severity of the disease and provide guidance fo...

    Authors: Wu Yan, Danrong Chen, Francis Manyori Bigambo, Hongcheng Wei, Xu Wang and Yankai Xia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:156

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The outbreak of COVID-19 has resulted in serious concerns in China and abroad. To investigate clinical features of confirmed and suspected patients with COVID-19 in west China, and to examine differences betwe...

    Authors: Wen Wang, Lei Chen, Qiao He, Mingqi Wang, Mei Liu, Taibing Deng, Xiaoju Deng, Jianrong Yang, Ou Jiang, Rongmei Li, Bo Long, Gang Mai, Wenhui Huan, Wenquan Li, Xin Jiang, Zeqiang Wen…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:155

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Knowledge on the etiology of LRTIs is essential for improvement of the clinical diagnosis and accurate treatment. Molecular detection methods were applied to identify a broad range of bacterial and viral patho...

    Authors: Heping Wang, Jiali Gu, Xiaonan Li, Christa E. van der Gaast-de Jongh, Wenjian Wang, Xuehui He, Zhi Xu, Yonghong Yang, Ronald de Groot, Marien I. de Jonge and Yuejie Zheng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:152

    Content type: Research article

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  7. One-fifth of COVID-19 patients are seriously and critically ill cases and have a worse prognosis than non-severe cases. Although there is no specific treatment available for COVID-19, early recognition and sup...

    Authors: Hazal Cansu Acar, Günay Can, Rıdvan Karaali, Şermin Börekçi, İlker İnanç Balkan, Bilun Gemicioğlu, Dildar Konukoğlu, Ethem Erginöz, Mehmet Sarper Erdoğan and Fehmi Tabak

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:148

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) has spread worldwide. The present study aimed to characterize the clinical features and outcomes of imported COVID-19 patients with high body mass index (BMI) and the indepen...

    Authors: Huan Cai, Lisha Yang, Yingfeng Lu, Shanyan Zhang, Chanyuan Ye, Xiaoli Zhang, Guodong Yu, Jueqing Gu, Jiangshan Lian, Shaorui Hao, Jianhua Hu, Yimin Zhang, Ciliang Jin, Jifang Sheng, Yida Yang and Hongyu Jia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:147

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been established as a leading cause of acute lower respiratory illness (ALRI) in infants and children. In 2015, the global disease burden (GBD) study estimated that th...

    Authors: Henshaw Mandi, Bekolo Cavin Epie, Agnes Eyoh, Sindhiya Jan, Sue Ann Costa Clemens, Ralf Clemens and Solomon Yimer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:144

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Large outbreaks of Lassa fever (LF) occur annually in Nigeria. The case fatality rate among hospitalised cases is ~ 20%. The antiviral drug ribavirin along with supportive care and rehydration are the recommen...

    Authors: Nastassya L. Chandra, Hikaru Bolt, Chioma Dan-Nwafor, Oladipupo Ipadeola, Elsie Ilori, Geoffrey Namara, Adebola T. Olayinka, Winifred Ukponu, Akanimo Iniobong, Michael Amedu, Adejoke Akano, Kachikwulu O. Akabike, Uwaifiokun Okhuarobo, Stephen Fagbemi, Emeka Sampson, Sophie Newitt…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:143

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The impact of COVID-19 has been devastating on a global scale. The negative conversion time (NCT) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA is closely related to clinical manifestation and disease progression in COVID-19 patients. Ou...

    Authors: Ya Yang, Xiaogang Hu, Lirong Xiong, Peishu Fu, Wei Feng, Wei Li, Liwen Zhang and Fengjun Sun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:141

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to constitute an international public health concern. Few data are available on the duration and prognostic factors of the disease. We aimed to study th...

    Authors: Chahida Harizi, Ines Cherif, Nourhene Najar, Molka Osman, Rym Mallekh, Oumaima Ben Ayed, Yosr Ayedi, Sonia Dhaouadi, Aicha Hchaichi, Mouna Safer, Hejer Letaief, Ilhem Bouaziz, Sondes Derouiche, Donia Gharbi, Leila Bouabid, Souha Bougatef…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:140

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Bronchiolitis is a clinical syndrome commonly encountered in practice, particularly among infants and young children. To investigate the prevalence of pathogens in hospitalized children with bronchiolitis and ...

    Authors: Jiahong Tan, Jinfeng Wu, Wujun Jiang, Li Huang, Wei Ji, Yongdong Yan, Meijuan Wang and Xuejun Shao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:135

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The outbreak of COVID-19 has rapidly spread to Italy, including Pesaro-Urbino province. Data on young to middle age adults with COVID-19 are lacking. We report the characteristics, management and health-relate...

    Authors: Chiara Temperoni, Stefania Grieco, Zeno Pasquini, Benedetta Canovari, Antonio Polenta, Umberto Gnudi, Roberto Montalti and Francesco Barchiesi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:134

    Content type: Research article

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  15. While our knowledge about COVID-19 in adults has rapidly increased, data on the course of disease and outcome in children with different comorbidities is still limited.

    Authors: Jonathan Remppis, Tina Ganzenmueller, Malte Kohns Vasconcelos, Oliver Heinzel, Rupert Handgretinger and Hanna Renk

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:133

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Blood transfusion is one of the routine therapeutic interventions in hospitals that can be lifesaving. However, this intervention is related to several transfusion-related infections. Hepatitis C viral infecti...

    Authors: Eyasu Alem Lake, Robera Olana Fite, Lielt Gebreselassie Gebrekirstos, Meron Hadis Gebremedhin, Mohammed Suleiman Obsa and Kelemu Abebe Gelaw

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:131

    Content type: Research article

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  17. To investigate the CT imaging and clinical features of three atypical presentations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), namely (1) asymptomatic, (2) CT imaging-negative, and (3) re-detectable positive (RP)...

    Authors: Zhiqi Yang, Xiaofeng Chen, Ruibin Huang, Shengkai Li, Daiying Lin, Zhijian Yang, Hongfu Sun, Guorui Liu, Jinming Qiu, Yanyan Tang, Jianning Xiao, Yuting Liao, Xianheng Wu, Renhua Wu, Xiangguang Chen and Zhuozhi Dai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:127

    Content type: Research article

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  18. SARS-CoV-2 virus which targets the pulmonary vasculature is supposed to induce an intrapulmonary right to left shunt with an increased pulmonary blood flow. Such vascular injury is difficult to observe because...

    Authors: Vincent Jounieaux, Damien Basille, Osama Abou-Arab, Marie-Pierre Guillaumont, Claire Andrejak, Yazine Mahjoub and Daniel Oscar Rodenstein

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:122

    Content type: Case report

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  19. To investigate the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) administration to hypertension patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induce...

    Authors: Wenjun Wang, Xiaohui Zhao, Wei Wei, Weiwang Fan, Kai Gao, Shengxiu He and Xijing Zhuang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:114

    Content type: Research article

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  20. G12 rotaviruses were first observed in sub-Saharan Africa in 2004 and since then have continued to emerge and spread across the continent and are reported as a significant human rotavirus genotype in several A...

    Authors: Kebareng G. Rakau, Martin M. Nyaga, Maemu P. Gededzha, Jason M. Mwenda, M. Jeffrey Mphahlele, L. Mapaseka Seheri and A. Duncan Steele

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:107

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Dengue virus (DENV) infection is increasingly common in southern China and can be transmitted through blood transfusion but is not currently part of donor screening throughout the region. We assessed DENV prev...

    Authors: Ling Li, Ying Li, Shaofang Lu, Jing Dong, Haixia Xu, Qian Zhang, Rong Weng, Yundi Yin, Rui He, Peng Fang, Hua Shi, Yinghan Yu, Ji Wu, Zhong Liu and John R. Hess

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:104

    Content type: Research article

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  22. In non-uremic subjects, IFNL4 rs368234815 predicts HCV clearance. We investigated whether rs368234815 is associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in haemodialysis patients and whether it is a stronger predictor ...

    Authors: Alicja E. Grzegorzewska, Adrianna Mostowska, Monika K. Świderska, Wojciech Marcinkowski, Ireneusz Stolarek, Marek Figlerowicz and Paweł P. Jagodziński

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:102

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Dengue virus infection has been an important and serious public health concern in Taiwan, where local outbreaks of dengue fever occurred almost every year. To our knowledge, no nationwide investigation has bee...

    Authors: Ying-Hsuan Lee, Yu-Chia Hsieh, Chih-Jung Chen, Tzou-Yien Lin and Yhu-Chering Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:96

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Group A rotavirus (RVA), despite being a leading cause of gastroenteritis in infants and young children, is less studied in Shanxi Province, China. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence a...

    Authors: Lifeng Zhao, Xiaohong Shi, Dequan Meng, Jiane Guo, Yiping Li, Lirong Liang, Xiaofang Guo, Ran Tao, Xiaohua Zhang, Ruihong Gao, Li Gao and Jitao Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:94

    Content type: Research article

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  25. There are limited data on Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in solid organ transplant patients, especially in heart transplant recipients, with only a few case reports and case series described so far. Heart...

    Authors: Vincent Tchana-Sato, Arnaud Ancion, Julien Tridetti, Natzi Sakalihasan, Marie Pierre Hayette, Olivier Detry, Philippe Delvenne, Philippe Amabili, Marc Senard, Olivier Hougrand, Delphine Szecel, Jean-Paul Lavigne, Elie Minga Lowampa, Charlotte Ponte, Isabelle Maquoi, Philippe Morimont…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:89

    Content type: Case report

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  26. The treatment of critically ill patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized in Wuhan has been reported. However, the clinical characteristics of patients who died of COVID-19 in regions with relatively scarce...

    Authors: Jijia Hu, Yingang Zhang, Wei Wang, Zhihe Tao, Juan Tian, Ning Shao, Nian Liu, Hui Wei and Hao Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:88

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:119

  27. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has collapsed health systems worldwide. In adults, the virus causes severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), while in children the dis...

    Authors: Mònica Girona-Alarcon, Sara Bobillo-Perez, Anna Sole-Ribalta, Lluisa Hernandez, Carmina Guitart, Ricardo Suarez, Mònica Balaguer, Francisco-Jose Cambra and Iolanda Jordan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:87

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Diabetes is a risk factor for infection with coronaviruses. This study describes the demographic, clinical data, and outcomes of critically ill patients with diabetes and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS).

    Authors: Jesna Jose, Hasan M. Al-Dorzi, Awad Al-Omari, Yasser Mandourah, Fahad Al-Hameed, Musharaf Sadat, Eman Al Qasim, Basem Alraddadi, Abdulrahman Al Harthy, Ghaleb A. Al Mekhlafi, Abdullah Almotairi, Kasim Al Khatib, Ahmed Abdulmomen, Ismael Qushmaq, Anees A. Sindi, Ahmed Mady…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:84

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major concern for blood safety in high-prevalence HBV countries such as China. In Shenzhen, dual hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (E...

    Authors: Xianlin Ye, Tong Li, Ran Li, Heng Liu, Junpeng Zhao and Jinfeng Zeng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:83

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Early identification of patients who are at high risk of poor clinical outcomes is of great importance in saving the lives of patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the context of limited m...

    Authors: Zhi-Yong Zeng, Shao-Dan Feng, Gong-Ping Chen and Jiang-Nan Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:80

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The lack of knowledge regarding the pathogenesis and host immune response during SARS-CoV-2 infection has limited the development of effective treatments. Thus, we longitudinally investigated the dynamic chang...

    Authors: Yangli Liu, Weiping Tan, Haihong Chen, Ying Zhu, Li Wan, Ke Jiang, Yubiao Guo, Kejing Tang, Canmao Xie, Hui Yi, Yukun Kuang and Yifeng Luo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:79

    Content type: Research article

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  32. African-Americans/Blacks have suffered higher morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 than all other racial groups. This study aims to identify the causes of this health disparity, determine prognostic indicator...

    Authors: Raavi Gupta, Raag Agrawal, Zaheer Bukhari, Absia Jabbar, Donghai Wang, John Diks, Mohamed Alshal, Dokpe Yvonne Emechebe, F. Charles Brunicardi, Jason M. Lazar, Robert Chamberlain, Aaliya Burza and M. A. Haseeb

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:78

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Hydroxychloroquine has not been associated with improved survival among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the majority of observational studies and similarly was not identified as an effective prophylaxis foll...

    Authors: Andrew Ip, Jaeil Ahn, Yizhao Zhou, Andre H. Goy, Eric Hansen, Andrew L. Pecora, Brittany A. Sinclaire, Urszula Bednarz, Michael Marafelias, Ihor S. Sawczuk, Joseph P. Underwood III, David M. Walker, Rajiv Prasad, Robert L. Sweeney, Marie G. Ponce, Samuel La Capra…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:72

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus that was first discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. With the growi...

    Authors: Ran Jing, Rama Rao Vunnam, Elizabeth Schnaubelt, Chad Vokoun, Allison Cushman-Vokoun, David Goldner and Srinivas Rao Vunnam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:68

    Content type: Case report

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  35. West Nile virus (WNV) infections have become increasingly prevalent in certain European countries, including Hungary. Although most human infections do not cause severe symptoms, in approximately 1% of cases W...

    Authors: Márton Koch, Éva Pozsgai, Viktor Soós, Anna Nagy, János Girán, Norbert Nyisztor, Tibor Martyin, Zsófia Müller, Melánia Fehér, Edit Hajdú and Csaba Varga

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:65

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Although traditional diagnostic techniques of infection are mature and price favorable at present, most of them are time-consuming and with a low positivity. Metagenomic next⁃generation sequencing (mNGS) was s...

    Authors: Hongxia Duan, Xuan Li, Aihong Mei, Ping Li, Yang Liu, Xiaofeng Li, Weiwei Li, Changhui Wang and Shuanshuan Xie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:62

    Content type: Research article

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  37. In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, Hubei, China. Moreover, it has become a global pandemic. This is o...

    Authors: Xue-song Wen, Dan Jiang, Lei Gao, Jian-zhong Zhou, Jun Xiao, Xiao-cheng Cheng, Bin He, Yue Chen, Peng Lei, Xiao-wei Tan, Shu Qin and Dong-ying Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:57

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a high-risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Cellular immune responses are essential for HCC development, and the CD4+ and CD8+ T subtypes are identified as the pr...

    Authors: Ruoyu Wang, Dong Zhang, Kewei Sun, Jianping Peng, Wenfang Zhu, Sihan Yin, Dan Tang and Yunan Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:56

    Content type: Research article

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  39. An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred in a kindergarten located Shenzhen City on March 4, 2018. We were invited to investigate to the risk factors associated with this outbreak.

    Authors: Yuan Li, Xiangbo Fan, Guangqing Yu, Peinan Wei, Yong Wang and Hongxiong Guo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:54

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Workplace absenteeism increases significantly during influenza epidemics. Sick leave records may facilitate more timely detection of influenza outbreaks, as trends in increased sick leave may precede alerts is...

    Authors: Tom Duchemin, Jonathan Bastard, Pearl Anne Ante-Testard, Rania Assab, Oumou Salama Daouda, Audrey Duval, Jérôme-Philippe Garsi, Radowan Lounissi, Narimane Nekkab, Helene Neynaud, David R. M. Smith, William Dab, Kevin Jean, Laura Temime and Mounia N. Hocine

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:52

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The spread of a highly pathogenic, novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a once-in-a-century pandemic, having already infected over 63 million people worldwide. Novel therapies are urgently needed. Jan...

    Authors: Lucas Walz, Avi J. Cohen, Andre P. Rebaza, James Vanchieri, Martin D. Slade, Charles S. Dela Cruz and Lokesh Sharma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:47

    Content type: Research article

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  42. COVID-19 studies are primarily from the inpatient setting, skewing towards severe disease. Race and comorbidities predict hospitalization, however, ambulatory presentation of milder COVID-19 disease and charac...

    Authors: Laura Vaughan, Darlene Veruttipong, Jonathan G. Shaw, Noemie Levy, Lauren Edwards and Marcy Winget

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:40

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its associated disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a worldwide emergency. Demographic, comorbidity and laboratory determinants of de...

    Authors: Jon Gitz Holler, Robert Eriksson, Tomas Østergaard Jensen, Maarten van Wijhe, Thea Kølsen Fischer, Ole Schmeltz Søgaard, Simone Bastrup Israelsen, Rajesh Mohey, Thilde Fabricius, Frederik Jøhnk, Lothar Wiese, Stine Johnsen, Christian Søborg, Henrik Nielsen, Ole Kirk, Birgitte Lindegaard Madsen…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:39

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. However, a lack of epidemiological data remains for this pathology, and the performances of the influenza-like illness (ILI) case definitions us...

    Authors: Mamadou Aliou Barry, Florent Arinal, Cheikh Talla, Boris Gildas Hedible, Fatoumata Diene Sarr, Ibrahim Oumar Ba, Boly Diop, Ndongo Dia and Muriel Vray

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:31

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Severe fever thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is the causative agent of severe fever thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS). SFTS is an emerging infectious disease, characterized by high fever, gastrointestin...

    Authors: Hyungdon Lee, Woo Young Choi, Choon Mee Kim, Na-Ra Yun, Dong-Min Kim, Sang-Hyun Pyun, Byung Jun Yu and You Mi Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:25

    Content type: Case report

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  46. Hydroa Vacciniforme-like Lymphoproliferative Disorder (HV-LPD) is the name given to a group of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated diseases. It resembles hydroa vacciniforme (HV), the rarest form of photosensi...

    Authors: Xiankun Wang, Peng Wang, Aibin Wang, Yanli Xu, Lin Wang and Zhihai Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:17

    Content type: Case report

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