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Viral diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. Since the end of the 1990s, the incidence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) has been increasing dramatically in Changchun, northeastern China. However, it is unknown which, and how, underlying ri...

    Authors: Jing Wu, Dan-Dan Wang, Xin-Lou Li, Sake J de Vlas, Ya-Qin Yu, Jian Zhu, Ying Zhang, Bo Wang, Li Yan, Li-Qun Fang, Ya-Wen Liu and Wu-Chun Cao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:301

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Acute gastroenteritis is a serious cause of child mortality and morbidity in resource-limited countries. A viral etiology is most common, and rotavirus and norovirus are reported to be the leading causative ag...

    Authors: Maria El Qazoui, Hicham Oumzil, Larbi Baassi, Nezha El Omari, Khalid Sadki, Saaid Amzazi, Mohamed Benhafid and Rajae El Aouad

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:300

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Infections by influenza viruses place a heavy burden on public health and economies worldwide. Although vaccines are the best weapons against influenza, antiviral drugs could offer an opportunity to alleviate ...

    Authors: Roberto Gasparini, Piero Luigi Lai, Francesca Casabona, Cecilia Trucchi, Sara Boccalini, Maria Luisa Cristina, Stefania Rossi, Daniela Amicizia and Donatella Panatto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:297

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Human Parainfluenza viruses are a common cause of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections, particularly in children. Of the four Parainfluenza virus serotypes, Parainfluenza 4 is least well character...

    Authors: Seweryn Bialasiewicz, Jodie McVernon, Terry Nolan, Stephen B Lambert, Guoyan Zhao, David Wang, Michael D Nissen and Theo P Sloots

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:275

    Content type: Research article

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  5. We undertook a 2X2 factorial, randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess whether vitamin D3 supplementation (10,000 international units per week) versus placebo and gargling versus no gargling could prevent vira...

    Authors: Emma C Goodall, Andrea C Granados, Kathy Luinstra, Eleanor Pullenayegum, Brenda L Coleman, Mark Loeb and Marek Smieja

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:273

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Renal transplant recipients are at high risk of developing multiple infections, often concomitantly because of their immunocompromised status. Post renal transplant infections are often elusive and require ext...

    Authors: Manish Rathi, Srikant Gundlapalli, Raja Ramachandran, Sandeep Mohindra, Harsimran Kaur, Vivek Kumar, Harbir Singh Kohli, Krishan Lal Gupta and Vinay Sakhuja

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:259

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Activin A and its binding protein follistatin (FS) are increased in inflammatory disorders and sepsis. Overexpression of activin A in the lung causes similar histopathological changes as acute respiratory dist...

    Authors: Rita Linko, Mark P Hedger, Ville Pettilä, Esko Ruokonen, Tero Ala-Kokko, Helen Ludlow and David M de Kretser

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:253

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease typically caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16. The incidence of HFMD appears to be increasing across the Asia Pacific region, wi...

    Authors: Xin-guang Yin, Hui-xing Yi, Jin Shu, Xing-ju Wang, Xiao-jun Wu and Ling-hua Yu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:251

    Content type: Research article

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  9. West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused ongoing seasonal epidemics in the United States since 1999. It is estimated that ≤1% of WNV-infected patients will develop neuroinvasive dis...

    Authors: John Hart Jr, Gail Tillman, Michael A Kraut, Hsueh-Sheng Chiang, Jeremy F Strain, Yufeng Li, Amy G Agrawal, Penny Jester, John W Gnann Jr and Richard J Whitley

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:248

    Content type: Research article

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  10. West Nile Virus (WNV) is an emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that continues to spread and cause disease throughout several parts of the world, including Europe and the Americas. Specific diagnosis of W...

    Authors: Stefan Chabierski, Luisa Barzon, Anna Papa, Matthias Niedrig, Jonathan L Bramson, Justin M Richner, Giorgio Palù, Michael S Diamond and Sebastian Ulbert

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:246

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important pathogen of viral pneumonia in children. The diagnosis of acute HCMV infection is complicated and difficult.

    Authors: Zhidai Liu, Penghui Zhang, Shi Tang, Xiaoyan He, Rong Zhang, Xinbin Wang, Zhaojian Yuan, Junjie Tan, Bin Peng, Enmei Liu, Zhou Fu and Lin Zou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:245

    Content type: Research article

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  12. A novel influenza A virus infection was identified on March 31, 2013 in China and a total of 134 cases were identified in 12 provinces of China between March 25 and September 31, 2013. Of these, 46 cases occur...

    Authors: Zhenyu Gong, Huakun Lv, Hua Ding, Jiankang Han, Jimin Sun, Chengliang Chai, Jian Cai, Zhao Yu and Enfu Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:244

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The VP1 protein of enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important immunodominant protein which is responsible for host-receptor binding. Nevertheless, the relationship between VP1 and neurovirulence is still poorly und...

    Authors: Bao Zhang, Xianbo Wu, Keyong Huang, Ling Li, Li Zheng, Chengsong Wan, Ming-Liang He and Wei Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:243

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Norovirus infection is increasingly recognized as an important cause of persistent gastroenteritis in immunocompromised hosts and can be a potential cause of morbidity in these populations.

    Authors: Anne-Marie Ronchetti, Benoit Henry, Katia Ambert-Balay, Pierre Pothier, Justine Decroocq, Véronique Leblond and Damien Roos-Weil

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:239

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Influenza and Influenza-like-illness (ILI) represents a substantial public health problem, but it is difficult to measure the overall burden as many cases do not access health care. Community cohorts have the ...

    Authors: Alma J Adler, Ken TD Eames, Sebastian Funk and W John Edmunds

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:232

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are common in outpatient practice, and the severity of symptoms contributes to the overall burden of illness. We examined the association between a subjective symptom severi...

    Authors: Jeffrey J VanWormer, Maria E Sundaram, Jennifer K Meece and Edward A Belongia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:231

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Transfusion-transmitted infections are a major problem associated with blood transfusion. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence and trends of HBV, HCV and HIV in blood donors in Argentina.

    Authors: Diego M Flichman, Jorgelina L Blejer, Beatriz I Livellara, Viviana E Re, Sonia Bartoli, Juan A Bustos, Claudia P Ansola, Susana Hidalgo, Martin E Cerda, Alicia E Levin, Adriana Huenul, Victoria Riboldi, Elena MC Treviño, Horacio J Salamone, Felix A Nuñez, Robert J Fernández…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:218

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Rabies reemerged in China during the 1990s with a gradual increase in the number and geographical dispersion of cases. As a consequence, a national surveillance program was introduced in 2005 to investigate th...

    Authors: Miao Song, Qing Tang, Simon Rayner, Xiao-Yan Tao, Hao Li, Zhen-Yang Guo, Xin-Xin Shen, Wen-Tao Jiao, Wei Fang, Jun Wang and Guo-Dong Liang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:212

    Content type: Research article

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  19. School closure is a non-pharmaceutical intervention that was considered in many national pandemic plans developed prior to the start of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, and received considerable attention ...

    Authors: Simon Cauchemez, Maria D Van Kerkhove, Brett N Archer, Martin Cetron, Benjamin J Cowling, Peter Grove, Darren Hunt, Mira Kojouharova, Predrag Kon, Kumnuan Ungchusak, Hitoshi Oshitani, Andrea Pugliese, Caterina Rizzo, Guillaume Saour, Tomimase Sunagawa, Amra Uzicanin…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:207

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Few studies have comprehensively described tropical respiratory disease surveillance in military populations. There is also a lack of studies comparing clinical characteristics of the non-influenza pathogens w...

    Authors: Xin Quan Tan, Xiahong Zhao, Vernon J Lee, Jin Phang Loh, Boon Huan Tan, Wee Hong Victor Koh, Sock Hoon Ng, Mark I-Cheng Chen and Alex Richard Cook

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:204

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:326

  21. Well-characterized mice models will afford a cheaper, easy-handling opportunity for a more comprehensive understanding of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus’s pathogenesis potential. We aimed to provide a robust de...

    Authors: Jin Lv, Dan Wang, Yan-Hong Hua, Shi-Jia Pei, Jin Wang, Wen-Wei Hu, Xi-Liang Wang, Na Jia and Qi-Sheng Jiang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:197

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus has been shown to infect organs other than the lung, and this is likely to be mediated by systemic spread resulting from viremia which has been detected in blood in se...

    Authors: Xue Wang, Jiying Tan, Jiangqin Zhao, Zhiping Ye and Indira Hewlett

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:192

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) has become an important public health concern because of the high incidence and mortality rates, and limited treatment and vaccination. Until now, clinical studies ...

    Authors: Hong Du, Ping-Zhong Wang, Jing Li, Lu Bai, Huan Li, Hai-Tao Yu, Wei Jiang, Ye Zhang, Jun-Ning Wang and Xue-Fan Bai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:191

    Content type: Research article

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  24. In Africa, especially in West Africa, studies about the prevalence and diversity of respiratory viruses (influenza and others) in elderly people are largely lacking. In studies done elsewhere, it is well estab...

    Authors: Ndongo Dia, Vincent Richard, Davy Kiori, El Hadj Abdoul Khadir Cisse, Fatoumata Diène Sarr, Abdourahmane Faye, Déborah G Goudiaby, Ousmane M Diop and Mbayame N Niang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:189

    Content type: Research article

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  25. A recent longitudinal study in the Dadaab refugee camp near the Kenya-Somalia border identified unusual biannual respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemics. We characterized the genetic variability of the ass...

    Authors: Charles N Agoti, Lillian M Mayieka, James R Otieno, Jamal A Ahmed, Barry S Fields, Lilian W Waiboci, Raymond Nyoka, Rachel B Eidex, Nina Marano, Wagacha Burton, Joel M Montgomery, Robert F Breiman and D James Nokes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:178

    Content type: Research article

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  26. We examined the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 30 cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Hangzhou and investigated their external environments to provide evidence for c...

    Authors: Hua Ding, Li Xie, Zhou Sun, Qing-Jun Kao, Ren-Jie Huang, Xu-Hui Yang, Chun-ping Huang, Yuan-Yuan Wen, Jing-Cao Pan, Xiao-Ying Pu, Tao Jin, Xiao-Hong Zhou, Lin Zheng, Jian Li and Feng-Juan Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:175

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Few studies have investigated associations between psychological and behavioral indices throughout a major epidemic. This study was aimed to compare the strength of associations between different cognitive and...

    Authors: Qiuyan Liao, Benjamin J Cowling, Wendy WT Lam, Diane MW Ng and Richard Fielding

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:169

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Many studies have found associations between climatic conditions and dengue transmission. However, there is a debate about the future impacts of climate change on dengue transmission. This paper reviewed epide...

    Authors: Suchithra Naish, Pat Dale, John S Mackenzie, John McBride, Kerrie Mengersen and Shilu Tong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:167

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Japan experienced two rubella outbreaks in the past decade (2004 and 2012 – 2013), resulting in 10 and 20 infants with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), respectively. This study was performed to determine whe...

    Authors: Takahiro Yamada, Junko Mochizuki, Masachi Hanaoka, Eriko Hashimoto, Akihide Ohkuchi, Mika Ito, Takahiko Kubo, Akihito Nakai, Shigeru Saito, Nobuya Unno, Shigeki Matsubara and Hisanori Minakami

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:152

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is almost ubiquitous in humans and generally occurs at two ages: infantile, which is usually asymptomatic and associated with poorer socioeconomic conditions, and adoles...

    Authors: Elizabeth Visser, Denis Milne, Ian Collacott, David McLernon, Carl Counsell and Mark Vickers

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:151

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The immunologic profiles of patients with human adenovirus serotype 55 (HAdV-55) infections were characterized in subjects diagnosed with silent infections (n = 30), minor infections (n = 27), severe infection...

    Authors: Wei-Wei Chen, Wei-Min Nie, Wen Xu, Yang-Xin Xie, Bo Tu, Peng Zhao, En-Qiang Qin, Yun-Hui Zhang, Xiu Zhang, Wen-Gang Li, Zhi-Ping Zhou, Ji-Yun Lv and Min Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:147

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Dengue infection carries a potential risk of death despite stringent management of plasma leak and haemorrhage. It appears that the extent of liver dysfunction determines the outcome.

    Authors: SAM Kularatne, IVB Imbulpitiya, RA Abeysekera, RN Waduge, RPVJ Rajapakse and KGAD Weerakoon

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:141

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Contact surveys and diaries have conventionally been used to measure contact networks in different settings for elucidating infectious disease transmission dynamics of respiratory infections. More recently, te...

    Authors: Timo Smieszek, Victoria C Barclay, Indulaxmi Seeni, Jeanette J Rainey, Hongjiang Gao, Amra Uzicanin and Marcel Salathé

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:136

    Content type: Research article

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  34. To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and pathogenic molecular characteristics of an hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreak caused by enterovirus 71 in Linyi City, Shandong Province, China duri...

    Authors: Nan Liu, Jing Xie, Xiaoli Qiu, Leili Jia, Zhihao Wu, Yuhua Ma, Zhongqiang Wang, Peng Li, Xingbin Ren, Rongzhang Hao, Ligui Wang, Yong Wang, Shaofu Qiu and Hongbin Song

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:123

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Laboratory-confirmed norovirus illness is reportable in Germany since 2001. Reported case numbers are known to be undercounts, and a valid estimate of the actual incidence in Germany does not exist. An increas...

    Authors: Helen Bernard, Dirk Werber and Michael Höhle

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:116

    Content type: Research article

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  36. After being polio free for more than 10 years, an outbreak occurred in China in 2011 in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) following the importation of wild poliovirus (WPV) originating from neighbori...

    Authors: Ning Wen, Chun-Xiang Fan, Jian-Ping Fu, Jing Ning, Yi-Xin Ji, Hui-Ming Luo, Hua-Qing Wang, Shuang-Li Zhu, Wen-Zhou Yu, Hai-Bo Wang, Hui Zhu, Fu-Qiang Cui, De-Xin Li, Shi-Wen Wang, Wen-Bo Xu, Li-Xin Hao…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:113

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The first case of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus was identified in March, 2013 and the new H7N9 virus infected 134 patients and killed 45 people in China as of September 30, 2013. Family c...

    Authors: Ti Liu, Zhenqiang Bi, Xianjun Wang, Zhong Li, Shujun Ding, Zhenwang Bi, Liansen Wang, Yaowen Pei, Shaoxia Song, Shengyang Zhang, Jianxing Wang, Dapeng Sun, Bo Pang, Lin Sun, Xiaolin Jiang, Jie Lei…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:98

    Content type: Case report

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  38. Studies indicate that asymptomatic infections do indeed occur frequently for both seasonal and pandemic influenza, accounting for about one-third of influenza infections. Studies carried out during the 2009 pH...

    Authors: Ying-Hen Hsieh, Chen-An Tsai, Chien-Yu Lin, Jin-Hua Chen, Chwan-Chuen King, Day-Yu Chao and Kuang-Fu Cheng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:80

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is sexually transmitted, leading to blisters and ulcers in the genito-anal region. After primary infection the virus is present in a latent state in neurons in sensory gangl...

    Authors: Lars Haarr, Arvid Nilsen, Per M Knappskog and Nina Langeland

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:63

    Content type: Research article

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  40. As the population ages, the burden on the healthcare system might increase and require changed public health priorities. As infections are often more severe at older age, we rank notifiable infectious diseases...

    Authors: Anneke Steens, Hanne-Merete Eriksen and Hans Blystad

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:57

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Human adenoviruses of species B, C, and E (HAdV-B, –C, -E) are frequent causative agents of acute respiratory infections worldwide. As part of a surveillance program aimed at identifying the etiology of influe...

    Authors: Pola N Demian, Katherine C Horton, Adriana Kajon, Rania Siam, Amel Mohamed Nageib Hasanin, Amany Elgohary Sheta, Claire Cornelius and Anne M Gaynor

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:50

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The immunoneuroendocrine axis plays a major role in the regulation of the host’s response to infection, but its role in severe H7N9 pneumonia is still unknown. Therefore, this study is carried out to explore t...

    Authors: Jin Yao, Linhua Liu, Gang Chen and Leng Lin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:44

    Content type: Case report

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  43. Reliable assessment for the severity of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza is critical for evaluation of vaccination strategies for future pandemics. This study aims to estimate the age-specific hospitalization ...

    Authors: Xi-Ling Wang, Chit-Ming Wong, Kwok-Hung Chan, King-Pan Chan, Pei-Hua Cao, JS Malik Peiris and Lin Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:32

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Carefully conducted, community-based, longitudinal studies are required to gain further understanding of the nature and timing of respiratory viruses causing infections in the population. However, such studies...

    Authors: Asma N Alsaleh, David M Whiley, Seweryn Bialasiewicz, Stephen B Lambert, Robert S Ware, Michael D Nissen, Theo P Sloots and Keith Grimwood

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:15

    Content type: Research article

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  45. As of 30 May 2013, 132 human infections with avian influenza A (H7N9) had been reported in 10 Chinese cities. On 17 May 2013, because a chicken infection with H7 subtype avian influenza virus was detected in G...

    Authors: Tiegang Li, Jing Feng, Pengzhe Qing, Xiaomei Fan, Weisi Liu, MeiXia Li and Ming Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:4

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Early diagnosis of dengue infection is crucial for better management of the disease. Diagnostic tests based on the detection of dengue virus (DENV) Non Structural Protein 1 (NS1) antigen are commercially avail...

    Authors: Aryati Aryati, Hidayat Trimarsanto, Benediktus Yohan, Puspa Wardhani, Sukmal Fahri and R Tedjo Sasmono

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:611

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Aedes aegypti is extensively spread throughout South America where it has been responsible for large dengue epidemics during the last decades. Intriguingly, dengue transmission has not been reported in Uruguay a...

    Authors: Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Anubis Vega Rua, Darío Vezzani, Gabriela Willat, Marie Vazeille, Laurence Mousson and Anna Bella Failloux

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:610

    Content type: Research article

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  48. To determine the prevalence of human enteroviruses (HEVs) among healthy children, their parents, and children with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Authors: Xiaoai Zhang, Hongyu Wang, Shujun Ding, Xianjun Wang, Xiaodan Chen, Ying Wo, Liyuan Wang, Doudou Huang, Wei Liu and Wuchun Cao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:606

    Content type: Research article

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