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Viral diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. Our aim is to detect the infection by Toscana virus (TOSV) and other Phleboviruses in the sera and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) of patients with meningitis in Tunisia. We examined various species of phlebotomus ...

    Authors: Ons Fezaa, Youmna M’ghirbi, Gianni Gori Savellini, Lamia Ammari, Nahed Hogga, Henda Triki, Maria Grazia Cusi and Ali Bouattour

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:598

    Content type: Research article

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  2. To better understand potential transmission risks from contact with the body fluids of children, we monitored the presence and amount of CMV shedding over time in healthy CMV-seropositive children.

    Authors: Michael J Cannon, Jennifer D Stowell, Rebekah Clark, Philip R Dollard, Delaney Johnson, Karen Mask, Cynthia Stover, Karen Wu, Minal Amin, Will Hendley, Jing Guo, D Scott Schmid and Sheila C Dollard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:569

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading infectious cause of birth defects in the United States. To better understand factors that may influence CMV transmission risk, we compared viral and immunologica...

    Authors: Jennifer D Stowell, Karen Mask, Minal Amin, Rebekah Clark, Denise Levis, Will Hendley, Tatiana M Lanzieri, Sheila C Dollard and Michael J Cannon

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:568

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Early detection of complications significantly reduces dengue associated mortality and morbidity. We set out to determine if the NS1 rapid antigen detection test could be used as a point of care test to predic...

    Authors: Shiran Ajith Paranavitane, Laksiri Gomes, Achala Kamaladasa, Thiruni N Adikari, Nilanka Wickramasinghe, Chandima Jeewandara, Narangoda Liyanage Ajantha Shyamali, Graham Stuart Ogg and Gathsaurie Neelika Malavige

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:570

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Data describing the epidemiology and management of viral acute diarrhea (AD) in adults are scant. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence, clinical characteristics, management and risk factor...

    Authors: Christophe Arena, Jean Pierre Amoros, Véronique Vaillant, Katia Ambert-Balay, Roxane Chikhi-Brachet, Nathalie Jourdan-Da Silva, Laurent Varesi, Jean Arrighi, Cécile Souty, Thierry Blanchon, Alessandra Falchi and Thomas Hanslik

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:574

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Bronchiolitis caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and its related complications are common in infants born prematurely, with severe congenital heart disease, or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as well ...

    Authors: Javier Díez-Domingo, Eduardo G Pérez-Yarza, José A Melero, Manuel Sánchez-Luna, María Dolores Aguilar, Antonio Javier Blasco, Noelia Alfaro and Pablo Lázaro

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:544

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Live poultry traders (LPTs) have greater risk to avian influenza due to occupational exposure to poultry. This study investigated knowledge, attitudes and practices of LPTs relating to influenza A (H7N9).

    Authors: Xiaowei Ma, Qiuyan Liao, Jun Yuan, Yufei Liu, Yanhui Liu, Jiandong Chen, Jianping Liu, Wenfeng Cai, Benjamin J Cowling, Biao Di, Richard Fielding, Ming Wang, Zhicong Yang, Gabriel M Leung and Eric HY Lau

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:554

    Content type: Research article

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  8. A novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in eastern China in February 2013. 413 confirmed human cases, including 157 deaths, have been recorded as of July 31, 2014.

    Authors: Jian Fan, David Cui, Siuying Lau, Guoliang Xie, Xichao Guo, Shufa Zheng, Xiaofeng Huang, Shigui Yang, Xianzhi Yang, Zhaoxia Huo, Fei Yu, Jianzhou Lou, Li Tian, Xuefen Li, Yuejiao Dong, Qiaoyun Zhu…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:541

    Content type: Research article

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  9. In a context of change in the demographic profile of the older population, to identify an age threshold for increased risk and burden of herpes zoster (HZ) in 70+ patients.

    Authors: Martin Duracinsky, Marc Paccalin, Gaëtan Gavazzi, Sohéla El Kebir, Jacques Gaillat, Christophe Strady, Didier Bouhassira and Olivier Chassany

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:529

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen associated with endemic and acute viral hepatitis. In this study, we investigate the HEV seroprevalence and putative risk factors by a nationwide cross-sectional...

    Authors: Youngsil Yoon, Hye Sook Jeong, Haesun Yun, Hyeokjin Lee, Yoo-Sung Hwang, Bohyun Park, Chae Jin Lee, Sangwon Lee and Ji-Yeon Hyeon

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:517

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The 1918–19 ‘Spanish’ Influenza was the most devastating pandemic in recent history, with estimates of global mortality ranging from 20 to 50 million. The focal point of the pandemic was India, with an estimat...

    Authors: Siddharth Chandra and Eva Kassens-Noor

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:510

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Frequent hand-washing is standard advice for avoidance of respiratory tract infections, but the evidence for a preventive effect in a general community setting is sparse. We therefore set out to quantify, in a...

    Authors: Hanna Merk, Sharon Kühlmann-Berenzon, Annika Linde and Olof Nyrén

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:509

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Changes of miRNAs in exosome have been reported in different disease diagnosis and provided as potential biomarkers. In this study, we compared microRNA profile in exosomes in 5 MHFMD and 5 ESHFMD as well as i...

    Authors: Hong-Ling Jia, Chun-Hui He, Zhuo-Ya Wang, Yu-Fen Xu, Gen-Quan Yin, Li-Jia Mao, Chao-Wu Liu and Li Deng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:506

    Content type: Research article

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  14. A substantial portion of Dutch travellers is comprised of immigrants returning to their country of origin to visit friends and relatives (VFRs), including VFRs returning to dengue-endemic areas such as Surinam...

    Authors: Femke W Overbosch, Anneke van den Hoek, Janke Schinkel and Gerard JB Sonder

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:493

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Cytomegalovirus causes congenital infections all around the world. The seroepidemiology of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women in Mexico is largely unknown. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of...

    Authors: Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Agar Ramos-Nevárez, Sandra Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Sergio Estrada-Martínez, Lucio Martínez-Ramírez, Alma Rosa Pérez-Álamos and Carlos Alberto Guido-Arreola

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:484

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The potential impact of an influenza pandemic can be assessed by calculating a set of transmissibility parameters, the most important being the reproduction number (R), which is defined as the average number o...

    Authors: Matthew Biggerstaff, Simon Cauchemez, Carrie Reed, Manoj Gambhir and Lyn Finelli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:480

    Content type: Research article

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  17. High HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) is mainly found in infected individuals with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). However one third of asymptomatic carriers may have high PVL.

    Authors: Raimundo Coutinho Jr, Maria Fernanda Rios Grassi, Ana Beatriz Korngold, Viviana Nilla Olavarria, Bernardo Galvão-Castro and Rita Elizabeth Mascarenhas

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:453

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance (AFP) is an essential strategy of the WHO’s Polio Eradication Initiative. This is the first study conducted to estimate the incidence, etiology, distribution, and surveilla...

    Authors: Jagar A Jasem, Kawa Marof, Adnan Nawar, Yosra Khalaf, Faisal Al-Hamdani, Sagvan Ali, Andre C Kalil and KM Monirul Islam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:448

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The World Health Organization estimates that the global number of dengue infections range between 80–100 million per year, with some studies estimating approximately three times higher numbers. Furthermore, th...

    Authors: Stephan Karl, Nilimesh Halder, Joel K Kelso, Scott A Ritchie and George J Milne

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:447

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Over the last decade, increases in the number of outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) have shifted the disease into the public health spotlight in China. Children under the age of five years are pa...

    Authors: Xiaoli Wang, Xiaona Wu, Lei Jia, Xitai Li, Jie Li, Shuang Li, Haikun Qian and Quanyi Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:437

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Airborne transmission of respiratory infectious disease in indoor environment (e.g. airplane cabin, conference room, hospital, isolated room and inpatient ward) may cause outbreaks of infectious diseases, whic...

    Authors: Zhuyang Han, Gin Nam Sze To, Sau Chung Fu, Christopher Yu-Hang Chao, Wenguo Weng and Quanyi Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:434

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Almost all diarrhea deaths in young children occur in developing countries. Immunization against rotavirus, the leading cause of childhood severe dehydrating acute diarrhea may reduce the burden of severe diar...

    Authors: Christabel C Enweronu-Laryea, Isaac Boamah, Eric Sifah, Stanley K Diamenu and George Armah

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:431

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Both high and low pathogenic subtype A avian influenza remain ongoing threats to the commercial poultry industry globally. The emergence of a novel low pathogenic H7N9 lineage in China presents itself as a new...

    Authors: Amy Pinsent, Isobel M Blake, Michael T White and Steven Riley

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:427

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Over the past 20 years, Hepatitis A notifications in Italy have been in decline. Since the beginning of 2013 however, Italy has been experiencing a foodborne hepatitis A outbreak caused by genotype IA, involvi...

    Authors: Giuseppina La Rosa, Simonetta Della Libera, Marcello Iaconelli, Anna Rita Ciccaglione, Roberto Bruni, Stefania Taffon, Michele Equestre, Valeria Alfonsi, Caterina Rizzo, Maria Elena Tosti, Maria Chironna, Luisa Romanò, Alessandro Remo Zanetti and Michele Muscillo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:419

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a great disease burden across the whole world, particularly in Southeast Asia. However, in recent decades, the pathogenesis of severe EV71 infection was not well understood. This study...

    Authors: Hao-Yuan Cheng, Yi-Chuan Huang, Ting-Yu Yen, Shao-Hsuan Hsia, Yu-Chia Hsieh, Chung-Chen Li, Luan-Yin Chang and Li-Min Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:417

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Although there have been a number of studies on the pathogenesis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) recently, knowledge on this topic is still insufficient. This study aims to reveal the kinetics of ser...

    Authors: Safak Kaya, Nazif Elaldi, Ayhan Kubar, Nevcihan Gursoy, Meral Yilmaz, Gulderen Karakus, Turabi Gunes, Zubeyde Polat, Mustafa Gokhan Gozel, Aynur Engin, Ilyas Dokmetas, Mehmet Bakir, Neziha Yilmaz and Mehmet Sencan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:416

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The rate of decline of antibody titers to influenza following infection can affect results of serological surveys, and may explain re-infection and recurrent epidemics by the same strain.

    Authors: Jung Pu Hsu, Xiahong Zhao, Mark I-Cheng Chen, Alex R Cook, Vernon Lee, Wei Yen Lim, Linda Tan, Ian G Barr, Lili Jiang, Chyi Lin Tan, Meng Chee Phoon, Lin Cui, Raymond Lin, Yee Sin Leo and Vincent T Chow

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:414

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Increases in human population size, dengue vector-density and human mobility cause rapid spread of dengue virus in Indonesia. We investigated the changes in dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) incidence in Indones...

    Authors: Mulya Rahma Karyanti, Cuno S P M Uiterwaal, Rita Kusriastuti, Sri Rezeki Hadinegoro, Maroeska M Rovers, Hans Heesterbeek, Arno W Hoes and Patricia Bruijning-Verhagen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:412

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Bhutan, the first low/middle-income country to implement a national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme.

    Authors: Ugyen Tshomo, Silvia Franceschi, Dorji Dorji, Iacopo Baussano, Vanessa Tenet, Peter JF Snijders, Chris JLM Meijer, Maaike CG Bleeker, Tarik Gheit, Massimo Tommasino and Gary M Clifford

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:408

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Herpes zoster (HZ) is a painful condition that can have a substantial negative impact on patients’ lives. However, UK-specific data on the debilitating impact of HZ, in terms of patients’ experience of pain an...

    Authors: Adam Gater, Linda Abetz-Webb, Stuart Carroll, Azharul Mannan, Mick Serpell and Robert Johnson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:402

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Dengue viral infections are prevalent in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. Clinical manifestations range from a self-limited fever to a poten...

    Authors: Babs Soller, Anon Srikiatkachorn, Fengmei Zou, Alan L Rothman, In-Kyu Yoon, Robert V Gibbons, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Stephen J Thomas and Sharone Green

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:396

    Content type: Technical advance

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  32. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by hantaviruses is a serious public health problem in China. The National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) was established online by China CDC ...

    Authors: Shuo Zhang, Shiwen Wang, Wenwu Yin, Mifang Liang, Jiandong Li, Quanfu Zhang, Zijian Feng and Dexin Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:384

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Early knowledge of influenza outbreaks in the community allows local hospital healthcare workers to recognise the clinical signs of influenza in hospitalised patients and to apply effective precautions. The ob...

    Authors: Solweig Gerbier-Colomban, Véronique Potinet-Pagliaroli and Marie-Hélène Metzger

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:381

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Prediction of timing for the onset and peak of an influenza pandemic is of vital importance for preventive measures. In order to identify common spatiotemporal patterns and climate influences for pandemics in ...

    Authors: Lars Skog, Annika Linde, Helena Palmgren, Hans Hauska and Fredrik Elgh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:378

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Central Africa began only recently, and few data are therefore available on the circulation of influenza virus and other respiratory viruses. In Gabon, a Central...

    Authors: Sonia Etenna Lekana-Douki, Dieudonné Nkoghe, Christian Drosten, Edgar Brice Ngoungou, Jan Felix Drexler and Eric M Leroy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:373

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The impact of socio-demographic factors and baseline health on the mortality burden of seasonal and pandemic influenza remains debated. Here we analyzed the spatial-temporal mortality patterns of the 1918 infl...

    Authors: Gerardo Chowell, Anton Erkoreka, Cécile Viboud and Beatriz Echeverri-Dávila

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:371

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Although it has been suggested that schoolchildren vaccination reduces influenza morbidity and mortality in the community, it is unknown whether geographical heterogeneity would affect vaccine effectiveness.

    Authors: Day-Yu Chao, Kuang-Fu Cheng, Ying-Hen Hsieh, Tsai-Chung Li, Trong-Neng Wu and Chiu-Ying Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:369

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus (SFTSV) in China. Humans of all ages living in endemic areas have high risk of acquiring SFTS. ...

    Authors: Li-Yuan Wang, Ning Cui, Qing-Bin Lu, Ying Wo, Hong-Yu Wang, Wei Liu and Wu-Chun Cao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:366

    Content type: Case report

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  39. Sporadic emergence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infection in humans is a serious concern because of the potential for a pandemic. Conventional or quantitative RT-PCR is the standa...

    Authors: Yasuko Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Kengo Nishimura, Shuhei Misawa, Mie Kobayashi-Ishihara, Hitoshi Takahashi, Ikuyo Takayama, Kazuo Ohnishi, Shigeyuki Itamura, Hang LK Nguyen, Mai TQ Le, Giang T Dang, Long T Nguyen, Masato Tashiro and Tsutomu Kageyama

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:362

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Little is known about the development of cross-reactive antibodies following natural exposure to pathogens. Such knowledge is critical in the development of new universal influenza vaccines.

    Authors: Michal Mandelboim, Michal Bromberg, Hilda Sherbany, Inbar Zucker, Karnit Yaary, Ravit Bassal, Rita Dichtiar, Danny Cohen, Tamar Shohat, Ella Mendelson and Manfred S Green

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:346

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Lassa fever is highly contagious and commonly results in death. It is therefore necessary to diagnose and report any suspected case of Lassa fever to facilitate preventive strategies. This study assessed the p...

    Authors: Samuel Anu Olowookere, Akinola Ayoola Fatiregun, Olalere Omoyosola Gbolahan and Ebenezer Gbenga Adepoju

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:344

    Content type: Research article

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  42. According to the World Health Organisation, influenza A (2009 pdmH1N1) has moved into the post-pandemic phase, but there were still high numbers of infections occurring in the United Kingdom in 2010-11. It is ...

    Authors: Emily A Lees, Enitan D Carrol, Christine Gerrard, Fiona Hardiman, Gareth Howel, Alison Timmis, Kent Thorburn, Malcolm Guiver and Paul S McNamara

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:343

    Content type: Research article

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  43. In 2011, a large outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Vietnam resulted in 113,121 children seeking medical attention, of whom170 died. Understanding the epidemiology of fatal HFMD may improve tre...

    Authors: Ngoc TB Nguyen, Hau V Pham, Cuong Q Hoang, Tien M Nguyen, Long T Nguyen, Hung C Phan, Lan T Phan, Long N Vu and Nguyen N Tran Minh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:341

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), a virus-induced infectious disease that usually affects infants and children, has an increased incidence in China in recent years. This study attempted to investigate the r...

    Authors: Zhen Jiang Bai, Yi Ping Li, Jie Huang, Yong Jun Xiang, Chun Yu Lu, Xiao Xing Kong, Jian Mei Tian, Jiang Huai Wang and Jian Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:337

    Content type: Research article

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  45. The fatality attributed to pandemic influenza A H1N1 was not clear in the literature. We described the predictors for fatality related to pandemic influenza A H1N1 infection among hospitalized adult patients.

    Authors: Önder Ergönül, Servet Alan, Öznur Ak, Fatman Sargın, Arzu Kantürk, Alper Gündüz, Derya Engin, Oral Öncül, Ilker Inanc Balkan, Bahadir Ceylan, Nur Benzonana, Saadet Yazıcı, Funda Şimşek, Nuray Uzun, Asuman İnan, Eren Gulhan…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:317

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Epidemiological data about congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) are scarce and rubella vaccine is not yet included in the childhood immunization schedule in Sudan. This study aimed to identify and describe CRS ca...

    Authors: Omer Adam, Ahmed KM Ali, Judith M Hübschen and Claude P Muller

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:305

    Content type: Research article

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