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Viral diseases

Section edited by Julian Tang

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. Group A Rotavirus (RVA), despite being an important pathogen in hospitalized children, is less studied in pediatric outpatients, and even rarely investigated in adults. This study aims to understand the geneti...

    Authors: Xiaozhou Kuang, Xiaohuan Gong, Xi Zhang, Hao Pan and Zheng Teng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:596

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Antiviral therapy is recommended for patients with immune-active chronic hepatitis B (CHB) to decrease the risk of liver-related complications. However, the outcomes of the pegylated IFN-α (PEG-IFN-α) therapy ...

    Authors: Ruyu Liu, Yanhui Chen, Jiang Guo, Minghui Li, Yao Lu, Lu Zhang, Ge Shen, Shuling Wu, Min Chang, Leiping Hu, Hongxiao Hao, Henghui Zhang and Yao Xie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:590

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is commonly used to detect viral pathogens because of its high sensitivity and specificity. However, conventional PCR methods cannot determine virus infectivity. Virus infec...

    Authors: Yuki Nakaya, Takashi Fukuda, Hiroki Ashiba, Masato Yasuura and Makoto Fujimaki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:585

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a major health event that endangers people health throughout China and the world. Understanding the factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity cou...

    Authors: Songqiao Liu, Huanyuan Luo, Yuancheng Wang, Luis E. Cuevas, Duolao Wang, Shenghong Ju and Yi Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:584

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) remains a major safety concern for blood supplies. Despite many HTLV positive cases being reported in southeastern China, the detection of HTLV has not been prioritized i...

    Authors: Junpeng Zhao, Feixue Zhao, Wei Han, Xiaoxuan Xu, Lilin Wang, Ran Li, Tong Li, Linfeng Wu, Dandan Du, Xuezhen Zeng, Xiujuan Cui, Yunlong Chen, Jinfeng Zeng and Lunan Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:581

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Dengue virus (DENV) causes the hospitalisation of an estimated 500,000 people every year. Outbreaks can severely stress healthcare systems, especially in rural settings. It is difficult to discriminate patient...

    Authors: Wesley de Jong, Tri Pudy Asmarawati, Inge Verbeek, Musofa Rusli, Usman Hadi, Eric van Gorp and Marco Goeijenbier

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:580

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease with the high case-fatality rate, and lack of vaccines. We aimed to systematically analysed the epidemiological characterist...

    Authors: Zhiquan He, Bohao Wang, Yi Li, Yanhua Du, Hongxia Ma, Xingle Li, Wanshen Guo, Bianli Xu and Xueyong Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:575

    Content type: Research article

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  8. To assess the dynamic changes in clinical and CT characteristics of COVID-19 patients with different epidemiology histories.

    Authors: Ruili Li, Guangxue Liu, Xiaojie Huang, Cuiyu Jia, Zhenying Xia, Wenyan Song, Xueqin Li, Xing Wang and Hongjun Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:567

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The recent COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China, has quickly spread throughout the world. In this study, we systematically reviewed the clinical features and outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19.

    Authors: Yi-jie Gao, Lei Ye, Jia-shuo Zhang, Yang-xue Yin, Min Liu, Hong-biao Yu and Rong Zhou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:564

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The novel coronavirus, named as 2019-nCoV or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has recently appeared in China and has spread worldwide, presenting a health threat to the global community. Therefore, it is i...

    Authors: Sa’ed H. Zyoud and Samah W. Al-Jabi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:561

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are a severe health concern worldwide. HBV is a DNA virus with a rapid rate of mutation. Based on heterogeneity of the nucleotide sequence, the HBV strains are divided into n...

    Authors: Yi Yi Kyaw, Aye Aye Lwin, Khin Saw Aye, Hlaing Myat Thu, Moh Moh Htun, Hnin Ohmar Soe, Kay Thi Aye, Kyaw Zin Thant, Hyeon Jeong Hwang and JaeHun Cheong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:552

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Highly pathogenic influenza A (H5N8) viruses have caused several worldwide outbreaks in birds and are of potential risk to humans. Thus, a specific, rapid and sensitive method for detection is urgently needed.

    Authors: Fan Yang, Lihua Xu, Fumin Liu, Hangping Yao, Nanping Wu and Haibo Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:550

    Content type: Research article

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  13. We aimed to report the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in Zengdu District, Hubei Province, China.

    Authors: Yiping Wei, Weibiao Zeng, Xiangyun Huang, Junyu Li, Xingting Qiu, Huadong Li, Dinghua Liu, Zhaofeng He, Wenzhong Yao, Ping Huang, Chao Li, Min Zhu, Chunlan Zhong, Xingen Zhu and Jiansheng Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:549

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The risk of life-threatening complications, such as visceral disseminated varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, is greater in immunosuppressed individuals, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients.

    Authors: Veronica Vassia, Alessandro Croce, Paolo Ravanini, Monica Leutner, Chiara Saglietti, Stefano Fangazio, Marco Quaglia and Carlo Smirne

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:538

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Twelve students experienced symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI) at a training base in Beijing from August 26 to August 30, 2015. We investigated the cause of this ARI outbreak.

    Authors: Guilan Lu, Xiaomin Peng, Renqing Li, Yimeng Liu, Zhanguo Wu, Xifeng Wang, Daitao Zhang, Jiachen Zhao, Ying Sun, Li Zhang, Peng Yang and Quanyi Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:537

    Content type: Research article

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  16. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread, early, ideally real-time, identification of SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals is pivotal in interrupting infection chains. Volatile organic compounds produced during...

    Authors: Paula Jendrny, Claudia Schulz, Friederike Twele, Sebastian Meller, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede, Albertus Dominicus Marcellinus Erasmus Osterhaus, Janek Ebbers, Veronika Pilchová, Isabell Pink, Tobias Welte, Michael Peter Manns, Anahita Fathi, Christiane Ernst, Marylyn Martina Addo, Esther Schalke and Holger Andreas Volk

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:536

    Content type: Research article

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  17. With the spread of SARS-CoV-2 worldwide, understanding the basic epidemiological parameter values of COVID-19 from real-world data in mega-cities is essential for disease prevention and control.

    Authors: Xiaoli Wang, Yang Pan, Daitao Zhang, Lijuan Chen, Lei Jia, Xinyu Li, Peng Yang, Quanyi Wang and C. Raina Macintyre

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:526

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan and has quickly spread across the world. The mortal...

    Authors: Dan Wang, Ruifang Li, Juan Wang, Qunqun Jiang, Chang Gao, Juan Yang, Lintong Ge and Qing Hu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:519

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a public health emergency of major international concern. Real-time RT-PCR ...

    Authors: Li-Da Chen, Hao Li, Yu-Ming Ye, Zhi Wu, Ya-Ping Huang, Wei-Liang Zhang and Li Lin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:517

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Kenya introduced the monovalent G1P [8] Rotarix® vaccine into the infant immunization schedule in July 2014. We examined trends in rotavirus group A (RVA) genotype distribution pre- (January 2010–June 2014) an...

    Authors: Mike J. Mwanga, Betty E. Owor, John B. Ochieng, Mwanajuma H. Ngama, Billy Ogwel, Clayton Onyango, Jane Juma, Regina Njeru, Elijah Gicheru, Grieven P. Otieno, Sammy Khagayi, Charles N. Agoti, Godfrey M. Bigogo, Richard Omore, O. Yaw Addo, Seheri Mapaseka…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:504

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Pregnant women are at high risk of influenza-related morbidity and mortality. In addition, maternal influenza infection may lead to adverse birth outcomes. However, there is insufficient data on long-term impa...

    Authors: Joon Young Song, Keon Vin Park, Sung Won Han, Min Joo Choi, Ji Yun Noh, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim, Min-Jeong Oh and Geum Joon Cho

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:502

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared as an emerging public health threat by the World Health Organization. As various measures have been taken successfully to combat the epidemi...

    Authors: Xiaoxi Zhou, Jianfeng Zhou and Jianping Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:500

    Content type: Case report

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  23. The spread of airborne infectious diseases such as measles is a critical public health concern. The U.S. was certified measles-free in 2000, but the number of measles cases has increased in recent years breaki...

    Authors: Parham Azimi, Zahra Keshavarz, Jose Guillermo Cedeno Laurent and Joseph G. Allen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:497

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:541

  24. Despite high overall population vaccine coverage, identified clusters of persons refraining from vaccination interfere with pursued measles elimination. Clinical diagnosis of measles is often obvious due to it...

    Authors: Claire Grolhier, Charlotte Pronier, Arielle Belem, Julia Dina, Astrid Vabret, José-Hector Aranda Grau, Pierre Tattevin and Vincent Thibault

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:496

    Content type: Case report

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  25. Washington University polyomavirus (WUPyV) is a novel human polyomavirus detected in childwith acute respiratory infection in 2007. However, the relationship between WUPyV and respiratory diseases has yet to b...

    Authors: Chao Wang, Tianli Wei, Yiman Huang, Qiong Guo, Zhiping Xie, Jingdong Song, Aijun Chen and Lishu Zheng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:488

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is a serious public health problem not only in South East Asia but also in European and African countries. Scientists are using network biology to dig deep into the essential ...

    Authors: Qurat ul Ain Farooq, Zeeshan Shaukat, Sara Aiman, Tong Zhou and Chunhua Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:480

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Extended use of oseltamivir in an immunocompromised host could reportedly induce neuraminidase gene mutation possibly leading to oseltamivir-resistant influenza A/H3N2 virus. To our knowledge, no report is ava...

    Authors: Naonori Harada, Wataru Shibata, Hideo Koh, Emi Takashita, Seiichiro Fujisaki, Hiroshi Okamura, Satoru Nanno, Koichi Yamada, Hirohisa Nakamae, Masayuki Hino and Hiroshi Kakeya

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:478

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Mumps is an acute respiratory infectious disease with obvious regional and seasonal differences. Exploring the impact of climate factors on the incidence of mumps and predicting its incidence trend on this bas...

    Authors: Wen-ting Zha, Wei-tong LI, Nan Zhou, Jia-jia Zhu, Ruihua Feng, Tong Li, Yan-bing Du, Ying Liu, Xiu-qin Hong and Yuan Lv

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:468

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Dengue fever is a major public health problem in Colombia. A fever surveillance study was conducted for evaluation of the clinical, epidemiological, and molecular patterns of dengue, prior to Chikungunya and Z...

    Authors: Jacqueline Kyungah Lim, Mabel Carabali, Erwin Camacho, Diana Carolina Velez, Andrea Trujillo, Jorge Egurrola, Kang-Sung Lee, Ivan Dario Velez and Jorge E. Osorio

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:466

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Since 2011, the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network (GIHSN) has used active surveillance to prospectively collect epidemiological and virological data on patients hospitalized with influenza virus i...

    Authors: Bruno Lina, Alexandre Georges, Elena Burtseva, Marta C. Nunes, Melissa K. Andrew, Shelly A. McNeil, Guillermo M. Ruiz-Palacios, Luzhao Feng, Jan Kyncl, Philippe Vanhems, Justin R. Ortiz, John Paget and Robert C. Reiner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:465

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Uganda has experienced seven Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks and four Marburg Virus Disease (MVD) outbreaks between 2000 and 2019. We investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors for Marburg virus and ...

    Authors: Luke Nyakarahuka, Ilana J. Schafer, Stephen Balinandi, Sophia Mulei, Alex Tumusiime, Jackson Kyondo, Barbara Knust, Julius Lutwama, Pierre Rollin, Stuart Nichol and Trevor Shoemaker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:461

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella primarily in childhood, and some rare adults also report varicella. Herpes zoster mainly occurs in adults by endogenous reactivation of latent VZV. Until now, vari...

    Authors: Guangcheng Xie, Qiongling Wei, Wenping Guo, Dan Li, Pingping Sun, Jiangli Wang and Houguang Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:454

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a global cause of severe respiratory morbidity and mortality in infants. While preventive and therapeutic interventions are being developed, including antivirals, vaccines ...

    Authors: Annefleur C. Langedijk, Robert Jan Lebbink, Christiana Naaktgeboren, Anouk Evers, Marco C. Viveen, Anne Greenough, Terho Heikkinen, Renato T. Stein, Peter Richmond, Federico Martinón-Torres, Marta Nunes, Mitsuaki Hosoya, Christian Keller, Monika Bauck, Robert Cohen, Jesse Papenburg…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:450

    Content type: Study protocol

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  34. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading worldwide. Although 10–20% of patients with COVID-19 have severe symptoms, little is known about the risk factors related to the aggravation of COVID-19 symp...

    Authors: Min Cheol Chang, Yu-Kyung Park, Bong-Ok Kim and Donghwi Park

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:445

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) presents a major threat to public health and has rapidly spread worldwide since the outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in 2019. To date, there have been few reports ...

    Authors: Mingliang Ying, Bin Lu, Jiangfeng Pan, Guanghong Lu, Shaobin Zhou, Dingjun Wang, Lu Li, Junkang Shen and Jiner Shu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:437

    Content type: Case report

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  36. The aseptic meningitis caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation was less described in the literature, most of which were detected by means of polymerase chain reaction. The authors presented 4 adult...

    Authors: Lanlan Chen, Yao Xu, Chunfeng Liu, Hong Huang, Xingxing Zhong, Cancan Ma, Haina Zhao and Yingzhu Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:435

    Content type: Case report

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  37. The novel coronavirus pneumonia (coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19) has spread around the world. We aimed to recapitulate the clinical and CT imaging features of COVID-19 and their differences in three age gr...

    Authors: Jian Wang, Xiandi Zhu, Zhihua Xu, Guangzhao Yang, Guoqun Mao, Yuzhu Jia, Zongyu Xie, Jing Wang and Weiqun Ao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:434

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Since December 2019, over 80,000 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been confirmed in China. With the increasing number of recovered patients, more attention should be paid to the follow-up...

    Authors: Wang Deng, Tian-wen Guang, Mei Yang, Jian-rong Li, De-peng Jiang, Chang-yi Li and Dao-xin Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:429

    Content type: Research article

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  39. In March 2020, the WHO declared the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak a global pandemic. Although the number of infected cases is increasing, information about its clinical characteristics in the Middle Ea...

    Authors: Reza Shahriarirad, Zohre Khodamoradi, Amirhossein Erfani, Hamidreza Hosseinpour, Keivan Ranjbar, Yasaman Emami, Alireza Mirahmadizadeh, Mehrzad Lotfi, Babak Shirazi Yeganeh, Abolfazl Dorrani Nejad, Abdolrasool Hemmati, Mostafa Ebrahimi and Mohsen Moghadami

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:427

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Cytomegalovirus infection is the most frequent viral congenital infection, with possible consequences such as deafness, or psychomotor retardation. In 2016, the French High Council of Public Health was mandate...

    Authors: Agathe Billette de Villemeur, Pierre Tattevin and Louis-Rachid Salmi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:418

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The SARS-CoV-2, which emerged from East Asia in December 2019, has rapidly evolved into a global pandemic infecting close to 7 million people. The current uncertainties regarding its impact on Africa calls for...

    Authors: Carlo Torti, Maria Mazzitelli, Enrico Maria Trecarichi and Owachi Darius

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:412

    Content type: Editorial

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  42. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection which has been estimated to cause a global economic burden of US$8.9 billion per year. 40% of this estimate was due to what are known as productivity costs (the costs...

    Authors: Trinh Manh Hung, Donald S. Shepard, Alison A. Bettis, Huyen Anh Nguyen, Angela McBride, Hannah E. Clapham and Hugo C. Turner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:393

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a rare but serious complication of febrile status epilepticus in children. Comprehensive screening for viral pathogens is seldomly performed in the work-up of febrile children.

    Authors: Yoshie Takagi, Takeaki Imamura, Shota Endo, Kenta Hayashi, Satoka Akiyama, Yoji Ikuta, Takahiro Kawaguchi, Tomoko Sumita, Tatsuo Katori, Masanori Hashino, Shinji Saito, Takato Odagiri, Kunihiro Oba, Makoto Kuroda and Tsutomu Kageyama

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:388

    Content type: Case report

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  44. To compare the clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV) and to explore the relationship between the d...

    Authors: Qin Ding, Lili Xu, Yun Zhu, Baoping Xu, Xiangpeng Chen, Yali Duan, Zhengde Xie and Kunling Shen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:387

    Content type: Research article

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  45. The seasonal influenza epidemic is an important public health issue worldwide. Early predictive identification of patients with potentially worse outcome is important in the emergency department (ED). Similarl...

    Authors: Sheng-En Chu, Chen-June Seak, Tse-Hsuan Su, Chung-Hsien Chaou, Hsiao-Jung Tseng and Chih-Huang Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:385

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Zika virus (ZIKV, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is transmitted mainly by Aedes mosquitoes. This virus has become an emerging concern of global public health with recent epidemics associated to neurologic...

    Authors: Babacar Diouf, Alioune Gaye, Cheikh Tidiane Diagne, Mawlouth Diallo and Diawo Diallo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:371

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Dengue is endemic in over 100 countries and is an important public health problem worldwide. Dengue fever is not endemic in Taiwan; the importation of dengue viruses from neighboring countries via close commer...

    Authors: Chao-Ying Pan, Wei-Liang Liu, Matthew-P. Su, Te-Pin Chang, Hui-Pin Ho, Pei-Yun Shu, Joh-Jong Huang, Li-Jen Lin and Chun-Hong Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:347

    Content type: Research article

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  48. To analyze and discuss the transmission route of a cluster of cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus (SFTSV).

    Authors: Lingling Mao, Baocheng Deng, Yuhong Liang, Yun Liu, Zijiang Wang, Jie Zhang, Wei Wu, Lei Yu and Wenqing Yao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:346

    Content type: Research article

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