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Viral diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. By mid-July 2020, more than 108,000 COVID-19 cases had been diagnosed in Canada with more than half in the province of Quebec. In this context, we launched a study to analyze the epidemiological characteristic...

    Authors: Rodolphe Jantzen, Nolwenn Noisel, Sophie Camilleri-Broët, Catherine Labbé, Thibault de Malliard, Yves Payette and Philippe Broët

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:435

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Since December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread quickly among the population and brought a severe global impact. However, considerable geographical disparities in the distribution of CO...

    Authors: Huihui Zhang, Yini Liu, Fangyao Chen, Baibing Mi, Lingxia Zeng and Leilei Pei

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:428

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Hyperinflammation in severe COVID-19 infection increases the risk of respiratory failure and one of the cogent reasons of mortality associated with COVID-19. Baricitinib, a janus kinases inhibitor, can potenti...

    Authors: Md. Jahidul Hasan, Raihan Rabbani, Ahmad Mursel Anam, Shihan Mahmud Redwanul Huq, Mohammad Mufizul Islam Polash, Shahzadi Sayeeda Tun Nessa and Sitesh C. Bachar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:427

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The Dutch province of Limburg borders the German district of Heinsberg, which had a large cluster of COVID-19 cases linked to local carnival activities before any cases were reported in the Netherlands. Howeve...

    Authors: Mitch van Hensbergen, Casper D. J. den Heijer, Petra Wolffs, Volker Hackert, Henriëtte L. G. ter Waarbeek, Bas B. Oude Munnink, Reina S. Sikkema, Edou R. Heddema and Christian J. P. A. Hoebe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:418

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Following a first wave in spring and gradual easing of lockdown, Luxembourg experienced an early second epidemic wave of SARS-CoV-2 before the start of summer school holidays on 15th July. This provided the op...

    Authors: Joël Mossong, Laurent Mombaerts, Lisa Veiber, Jessica Pastore, Gwenaëlle Le Coroller, Michael Schnell, Silvana Masi, Laetitia Huiart and Paul Wilmes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:417

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 in December 2019, more than 8 million cases have occurred worldwide as of June 16, 2020. However, it is important to distinguish COVID-19 from other respiratory i...

    Authors: Xinghua Liu, Wei Li, Bo Zhang, Yan Guo, Zhao Hu, Cao Peng, Xiao Lei, Qunying Luo, Qiong Zhang, Wei Deng, Juanjuan Wang, Jianqiao Tang, Yunqiao Li and Jianying Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:412

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Accurately predicting outcomes for cancer patients with COVID-19 has been clinically challenging. Numerous clinical variables have been retrospectively associated with disease severity, but the predictive valu...

    Authors: Saket Navlakha, Sejal Morjaria, Rocio Perez-Johnston, Allen Zhang and Ying Taur

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:391

    Content type: Technical advance

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  8. Aseptic meningitis is most often caused by enteroviruses (EVs), but EVs associated with aseptic meningitis have not yet been reported in Liaocheng. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and gen...

    Authors: Jing Wang, Min Meng, Huan Xu, Ting Wang, Ying Liu, Han Yan, Peiman Liu, Daogang Qin and Qiaozhi Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:405

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory event and a fatal complication of viral infections. Whether sHLH may also be observed in patients with a cytokine sto...

    Authors: Mei Meng, Limin Chen, Sheng Zhang, Xuan Dong, Wenzhe Li, Ranran Li, Yunxin Deng, Tao Wang, Yan Xu, Jiao Liu, Yanxia Huang, Yizhu Chen, Sisi Huang, Zhenliang Wen, Lidi Zhang, Hangxiang Du…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:398

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Congenital cytomegalovirus disease (cCMV) is common and can be fatal or cause severe sequelae. Circulating strains of cytomegalovirus carry a high number of variable or disrupted genes. One of these is UL146, ...

    Authors: Christian Berg, Mette M. Rosenkilde, Thomas Benfield, Lene Nielsen, Thomas Sundelin and Hans R. Lüttichau

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:386

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The epidemiology and outcomes of COVID-19 patients in Thailand are scarce.

    Authors: Rujipas Sirijatuphat, Yupin Suputtamongkol, Nasikarn Angkasekwinai, Navin Horthongkham, Methee Chayakulkeeree, Pinyo Rattanaumpawan, Pornpan Koomanachai, Susan Assanasen, Yong Rongrungruang, Nitipatana Chierakul, Ranistha Ratanarat, Anupop Jitmuang, Walaiporn Wangchinda and Wannee Kantakamalakul

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:382

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a public health emergency. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the risk factors for mortality in severe and critical COVID-19 patients.

    Authors: Liulin Wang, Xiaobin Cheng, Qiufen Dong, Chenliang Zhou, Yeming Wang, Bin Song, Weinan Li, Min Wang, Rui Qin, Qi Long, Juan Liu, Jing Li, Dan Li, Gang Li and Yuanming Ba

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:371

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Since the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, clinical data from various parts of the world have been reported. Up till now, there has been no clinical data with regards to COVID-19 from Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H...

    Authors: Alma Trnacevic, Amer Mujkanovic, Noura Al-Salloum, Amra Sakusic, Emir Trnacevic, Emir Jusufovic, Fatima Hukic, Rahima Jahic and Richard Stratton

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:367

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) share similar symptoms with influenza A (IA), but it is more worthwhile to understand the disparities of the two infections regarding their clinical characteristics on admis...

    Authors: Feng Liang, Xianfeng Wang, Jianbo Shao, Jun Chen, Lei Liu, Hui Li, Yi Xu, Liya He, Huiying Liang, Kuanrong Li, Sitang Gong and Huimin Xia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:365

    Content type: Research article

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  15. In 2020, a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, quickly spread worldwide within a few months. Although coronaviruses typically infect the upper or lower respiratory tract, the virus RNA can be detected in plasma. The ...

    Authors: Changzhong Jin, Bin Yu, Jie Zhang, Hao Wu, Xipeng Zhou, Hangping Yao, Fumin Liu, Xiangyun Lu, Linfang Cheng, Miao Jiang and Nanping Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:357

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has challenged public health agencies globally. In order to effectively target government responses, it is critical to identify the individuals most...

    Authors: M. Flook, C. Jackson, E. Vasileiou, C. R. Simpson, M. D. Muckian, U. Agrawal, C. McCowan, Y. Jia, J. L. K. Murray, L. D. Ritchie, C. Robertson, S. J. Stock, X. Wang, M. E. J. Woolhouse, A. Sheikh and H. R. Stagg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:342

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that rapidly spreads worldwide and co-infection of COVID-19 and influenza may occur in some cases. We aimed to describe clinical features a...

    Authors: Xunliang Tong, Xiaomao Xu, Guoyue Lv, He Wang, Anqi Cheng, Dingyi Wang, Guohui Fan, Yue Zhang and Yanming Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:341

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Unusually high snowfall in western Washington State in February 2019 led to widespread school and workplace closures. We assessed the impact of social distancing caused by this extreme weather event on the tra...

    Authors: Michael L. Jackson, Gregory R. Hart, Denise J. McCulloch, Amanda Adler, Elisabeth Brandstetter, Kairsten Fay, Peter Han, Kirsten Lacombe, Jover Lee, Thomas R. Sibley, Deborah A. Nickerson, Mark J. Rieder, Lea Starita, Janet A. Englund, Trevor Bedford, Helen Chu…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:335

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The clinical and imaging features of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections that progressed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been explored in numerous ...

    Authors: Yan Rong, Fei Wang, Jinfei Tian, Xinhua Liang, Jing Wang, Xiaoli Li, Dandan Zhang, Jing Liu, Huadong Zeng, Yang Zhou and Yi Shi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:333

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe, often fatal illness in humans and nonhuman primates caused by the Ebola virus. The recently approved rVSV-EBOV vaccine is not available in many high-risk countries hence ...

    Authors: Frankline Sevidzem Wirsiy, Alphonse Um Boock and Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla Akoachere

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:324

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) is a leading cause of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality worldwide. Respiratory microbes that were simultaneously detected in the respiratory tracts of hospitaliz...

    Authors: Phuong Thai Truong, Shinji Saito, Ikuyo Takayama, Hiroyuki Furuya, Binh Gia Nguyen, Thanh Van Do, Phuong Thu Phan, Cuong Duy Do, Co Xuan Dao, Thach The Pham, Tuan Quoc Dang, Chau Quy Ngo, Ngan Thi Le, Vuong Minh Bui, Dung Trung Le, Van Thi Tuong Vu…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:320

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Accurate diagnosis in patients with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is essential to guide treatment and limit spread of the virus. The combined nasal and throat swab is used widely, but its diagn...

    Authors: Kuan Ken Lee, Dimitrios Doudesis, Daniella A. Ross, Anda Bularga, Claire L. MacKintosh, Oliver Koch, Ingolfur Johannessen, Kate Templeton, Sara Jenks, Andrew R. Chapman, Anoop S. V. Shah, Atul Anand, Meghan R. Perry and Nicholas L. Mills

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:318

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Dengue infection is caused by an arbovirus with a wide range of presentations, varying from asymptomatic disease to unspecific febrile illness and haemorrhagic syndrome with shock, which can evolve to death. I...

    Authors: Marielton dos Passos Cunha, Amaro Nunes Duarte-Neto, Shahab Zaki Pour, Ludhmila Abrahão Hajjar, Fernando Pereira Frassetto, Marisa Dolhnikoff, Paulo Hilario do Nascimento Saldiva and Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:311

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Covid-19 is a disease with high morbidity and mortality among elderly residents of long-term care facilities (LTCF). During an outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the LTCF an effective screening tool is essent...

    Authors: P. Sabaka, A. Koščálová, I. Straka, J. Hodosy, R. Lipták, B. Kmotorková, M. Kachlíková and A. Kušnírová

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:308

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are among the leading causes of hospitalization in children. Understanding the local dominant viral etiologies is important to inform infection control practices and clinica...

    Authors: Cheng Lei, Lisong Yang, Cheong Tat Lou, Fan Yang, Kin Ian SiTou, Hao Hu, King Io, Kun Tat Cheok, Baoquan Pan and Carolina Oi Lam Ung

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:306

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Coronavirus disease once thought to be a respiratory infection is now recognised as a multi-system disease affecting the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, neurological, immune, and hematopoietic s...

    Authors: Bodunrin Osikomaiya, Olufemi Erinoso, Kikelomo Ololade Wright, Aina Olufemi Odusola, Babafemi Thomas, Oluwatosin Adeyemi, Abimbola Bowale, Olusola Adejumo, Ayodeji Falana, Ismail Abdus-salam, Olusegun Ogboye, Akin Osibogun and Akin Abayomi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:304

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading globally and causes most frequently fever and respiratory symptoms, i.e. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), however, distinct neurological ...

    Authors: Jana Werner, Ina Reichen, Michael Huber, Irene A. Abela, Michael Weller and Ilijas Jelcic

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:298

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Information on the etiology and age-specific burden of respiratory viral infections among school-aged children remains limited. Though school aged children are often recognized as driving the transmission of i...

    Authors: Jonathan M. Read, Shanta Zimmer, Charles Vukotich Jr, Mary Lou Schweizer, David Galloway, Carrie Lingle, Gaby Yearwood, Patti Calderone, Eva Noble, Talia Quadelacy, Kyra Grantz, Charles Rinaldo, Hongjiang Gao, Jeanette Rainey, Amra Uzicanin and Derek A. T. Cummings

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:291

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Dengue fever prevalence is rising globally and it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Fluid extravasation during the critical phase of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) leads to shock, multi-organ failur...

    Authors: PMW Madanayake, AEU Jayawardena, S L Wijekoon, N Perera and JKP Wanigasuriya

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:286

    Content type: Research article

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  30. In 2010-2011, we conducted a social contact survey in Flanders, Belgium, aimed at improving and extending the design of the first social contact survey conducted in Belgium in 2006. This second social contact ...

    Authors: Thang Van Hoang, Pietro Coletti, Yimer Wasihun Kifle, Kim Van Kerckhove, Sarah Vercruysse, Lander Willem, Philippe Beutels and Niel Hens

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:274

    Content type: Research article

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  31. In the future, co-circulation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza viruses A/B is likely. From a clinical point of view, differentiation of the two disease entities is ...

    Authors: Pablo Sieber, Domenica Flury, Sabine Güsewell, Werner C. Albrich, Katia Boggian, Céline Gardiol, Matthias Schlegel, Robert Sieber, Pietro Vernazza and Philipp Kohler

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:271

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The Pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has critically impacted the spread of infection within nursing facilities. We evaluated t...

    Authors: Yong Chong, Naoki Tani, Hideyuki Ikematsu, Nobuto Terazawa, Hitoshi Nakashima, Nobuyuki Shimono, Koichi Akashi and Yosuke Tanaka

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:263

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors have been postulated to influence susceptibility to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study investigated whether there is an associati...

    Authors: Shamil Haroon, Anuradhaa Subramanian, Jennifer Cooper, Astha Anand, Krishna Gokhale, Nathan Byne, Samir Dhalla, Dionisio Acosta-Mena, Thomas Taverner, Kelvin Okoth, Jingya Wang, Joht Singh Chandan, Christopher Sainsbury, Dawit Tefra Zemedikun, G. Neil Thomas, Dhruv Parekh…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:262

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was emergency turned into global public health after the first patients were detected in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease rapidly expanded and led to an...

    Authors: Farnaz Karimi, Amir Abbas Vaezi, Mostafa Qorbani, Fatemeh Moghadasi, Saeed Hassani Gelsfid, Arman Maghoul, Neda Mahmoodi, Zahra Eskandari, Hossein Gholami, Zakiye Mokhames and Mahshid Saleh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:256

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Chinese population has a high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the impact of which on pregnancy outcome remains controversial. A single-center retrospective cohort study was performed i...

    Authors: Qian Sun, Terence T. Lao, Mingyu Du, Min Xie, Yonghu Sun, Bing Bai, Junnan Ma, Tianying Zhu, Shengnan Yu and Runmei Ma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:253

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Infants with bronchiolitis have an increased risk of developing recurrent wheezing and asthma. However, the risk factors for the development of recurrent wheezing after bronchiolitis remains controversial. Our...

    Authors: Sainan Chen, Wenjing Gu, Min Wu, Chuangli Hao, Canhong Zhu, Xuejun Shao and Yuqing Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:250

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Presymptomatic COVID-19 patients have been identified as a major stumbling block in efforts to break the chain of transmission. Studies on temporal dynamics of its shedding suggests it peaks 1–2 days prior to ...

    Authors: Juen Kiem Tan, Dalleen Leong, Hemalatha Munusamy, Nor Hazwani Zenol Ariffin, Najma Kori, Rozita Hod and Petrick Periyasamy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:249

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Human noroviruses are one of the main causes of foodborne illnesses and represent a serious public health concern. Rapid and sensitive assays for human norovirus detection are undoubtedly necessary for clinica...

    Authors: Zhiwei Qin, Liang Xue, Weicheng Cai, Junshan Gao, Yueting Jiang, Jiale Yang, Yanhui Liang, Linping Wang, Jumei Zhang, Yongdan Hu and Qingping Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:248

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Based on differences in populations and prevention and control measures, the spread of new coronary pneumonia in different countries and regions also differs. This study aimed to calculate the transmissibility...

    Authors: Qinglong Zhao, Yao Wang, Meng Yang, Meina Li, Zeyu Zhao, Xinrong Lu, Bo Shen, Bo Luan, Yifei Zhao, Bonan Cao, Laishun Yao, Benhua Zhao, Yanhua Su and Tianmu Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:245

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Sniffer dogs are able to detect certain chemical particles and are suggest to be capable of helping diagnose some medical conditions and complications, such as colorectal cancer, melanoma, bladder cancer, and ...

    Authors: Esmaeil Eskandari, Milad Ahmadi Marzaleh, Hassan Roudgari, Ramin Hamidi Farahani, Amir Nezami-Asl, Reza Laripour, Helen Aliyazdi, Arasb Dabbagh Moghaddam, Ramin Zibaseresht, Hossein Akbarialiabad, Mojtaba Yousefi Zoshk, Hamidreza Shiri and Mahdi Shiri

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:243

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Previous studies have indicated that the risk of infectious disease spread is greatest in locations where a population has massive and convenient access to the epicenter of an outbreak. However, the spatiotemp...

    Authors: Li Wang, Chengdong Xu, Jinfeng Wang, Jiajun Qiao, Mingtao Yan and Qiankun Zhu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:242

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Cytokine storm triggered by Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with high mortality. With high Interleukin -6 (IL-6) levels reported in COVID-19 related deaths in China, IL-6 is considered...

    Authors: Yojana Gokhale, Rakshita Mehta, Uday Kulkarni, Nitin Karnik, Sushant Gokhale, Uma Sundar, Swati Chavan, Akshay Kor, Sonal Thakur, Trupti Trivedi, Naveen Kumar, Sujata Baveja, Aniket Wadal, Shaonak Kolte, Aukshan Deolankar, Sangeeta Pednekar…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:241

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infections is important, and laboratory tests help diagnose CNS infections. Even when the patient has symptoms, laboratory tests often do not reveal...

    Authors: Young Jin Kim, Hương Giang Lê, Byoung-Kuk Na, Bo Gyu Kim, Youn-Kwan Jung, Mutbyul Kim, Heeyoung Kang and Min-Chul Cho

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:240

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Although there are reports of otolaryngological symptoms and manifestations of CoronaVirus Disease 19 (COVID-19), there have been no documented cases of sudden neck swelling with rash in patients with Severe A...

    Authors: Caterina Giannitto, Cristiana Bonifacio, Susanna Esposito, Angela Ammirabile, Giuseppe Mercante, Armando De Virgilio, Giuseppe Spriano, Enrico Heffler, Ludovica Lofino, Letterio Salvatore Politi and Luca Balzarini

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:232

    Content type: Case report

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  45. Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the common diseases in children and the routine detection methods frequently fail to identify the infectious pathogens especially for viruses. The Filmarray respiratory ...

    Authors: Fen Pan, Bingjie Wang, Hong Zhang, Yingying Shi and Qi Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:230

    Content type: Research article

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  46. The massive outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Daegu city and Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea (ROK), caused the exponential increase in new cases exceeding 5000 within 6 weeks. Th...

    Authors: Jong Hun Kim, Won Suk Choi, Joon Young Song, Young Kyung Yoon, Min Ja Kim and Jang Wook Sohn

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:229

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Family with sequence similarity 26, member F (FAM26F) is an important innate immunity modulator playing a significant role in diverse immune responses, however, the association of FAM26F expression with HBV in...

    Authors: Kehkshan Jabeen, Uzma Malik, Sajid Mansoor, Shaheen Shahzad, Saadia Zahid and Aneela Javed

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:228

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Describe the indications for surgical interventions in asymptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2. We are unaware of previous reports of an association between SARS-CoV-2 and acute appendicitis.

    Authors: Charlsea Prichard, Matthew Canning, Kindra McWilliam-Ross, John Birbari, William Parker, Lori Wasson and John W. Hollingsworth

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:217

    Content type: Research article

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