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Viral diseases

Section edited by Jodie McVernon and Julian Tang

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can cause poor outcomes in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients; moreover, it is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the general population. Accordingly, anti-HCMV ...

    Authors: Yeonju La, Da Eun Kwon, Seul Gi Yoo, Kyoung Hwa Lee, Sang Hoon Han and Yong Goo Song

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:948

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Despite the numerous intervention programmes, HIV still remains a public health concern with a high impact in Sub-Saharan Africa region. Oxidative stress has been documented in HIV subjects as viral infection ...

    Authors: Stephen Bassey Coco-Bassey, Enosakhare A. Asemota, Henshaw Uchechi Okoroiwu, Joyce E. Etura, Esienanwan Esien Efiong, Imeobong J. Inyang and Emmanuel K. Uko

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:944

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has emerged as a major public health issue in Vietnam since 2003. We aimed to investigate the household transmission of HFMD and its causative viruses from 150 households in...

    Authors: Cuong Quoc Hoang, Thao Thanh Thi Nguyen, Nguyen Xuan Ho, Hai Duc Nguyen, An Binh Nguyen, Tham Hong Thi Nguyen, Hung Cong Phan and Lan Trong Phan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:933

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play immunosuppressive roles in cancers and some infectious diseases; however, their role in dengue fever (DF) remains unknown. This study evaluated the clinical signif...

    Authors: Peng-Le Guo, Ling-Hua Li, Wen-Li Li, Jin-Cun Zhao, Feng-Yu Hu, Fu-Chun Zhang, Wei-Ping Cai and Xiao-Ping Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:926

    Content type: Research article

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  5. This short reply contests two assumptions made by the authors of Mayrhuber et al’s. “With fever it’s the real flu I would say.” The first is that there is influenza can be reliably defined by a medical case de...

    Authors: Annemarie Jutel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:921

    Content type: Correspondence

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  6. West Nile virus (WNV) circulates across Australia and was referred to historically as Kunjin virus (WNVKUN). WNVKUN has been considered more benign than other WNV strains circulating globally. In 2011, a more vir...

    Authors: Bixing Huang, Nic West, Jelena Vider, Ping Zhang, Rebecca E. Griffiths, Ernst Wolvetang, Peter Burtonclay and David Warrilow

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:912

    Content type: Research article

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  7. On September 4, 2018, a boarding school in the Shunyi District of Beijing, China reported an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis. At least 209 suspected students caused of diarrhea and vomiting. The case was inv...

    Authors: Dongwan Chen, Yongjin Li, Jinchang Lv, Xiufeng Liu, Peng Gao, Guoxin Zhen, Wenzeng Zhang, Dan Wu, Hongbo Jing, Ying Li, Yao Zhao, Xiaochen Ma, Huilai Ma and Lijie Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:910

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a tick-borne infection that has recently emerged. This infectious disease is due to the transfer of SFTS virus (SFTSV) from the infected blood of animals t...

    Authors: Osamu Imataki, Makiko Uemura and Hisashi Masugata

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:885

    Content type: Case report

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  9. We recently conducted a serosurvey of newly arrived workers in Taiwan from four Southeast Asian countries which revealed that 1% of the migrant workers had laboratory-confirmed recent Zika virus (ZIKV) infecti...

    Authors: Yu-Wen Chien, Tzu-Chuan Ho, Pei-Wen Huang, Nai-Ying Ko, Wen-Chien Ko and Guey Chuen Perng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:884

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Bendamustine, used for the treatment of indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, is known to cause prolonged myelosuppression and lymphocytopenia and has been associated with the ...

    Authors: Andrea Cona, Daniele Tesoro, Margherita Chiamenti, Esther Merlini, Daris Ferrari, Antonio Marti, Carla Codecà, Giuseppe Ancona, Camilla Tincati, Antonella d’Arminio Monforte and Giulia Marchetti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:881

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Mortality is high among patients with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. We aimed to determine hospital mortality and the factors associated with it in a cohort of MERS-CoV pati...

    Authors: Abdulrahman Mohammed G. Habib, Mohamed Abd Elghafour Ali, Baha R. Zouaoui, Mustafa Ahmed H. Taha, Bassem Sahsah Mohammed and Nazmus Saquib

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:870

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) remains a burdensome health issue in mainland China. Enterovirus71 (EV-A71) is the main pathogen of severe HFMD. Continuous hemofiltration improves fluid overload, restores ...

    Authors: Chunxia Wang, Yun Cui, Yan Zhu, Fei Wang, Qunfang Rong and Yucai Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:866

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Intravenous (IV) zanamivir could be a suitable alternative for the treatment of severe influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in patients who are unable to take oral or inhaled medication, for example, those on mech...

    Authors: Carlo Torti, Maria Mazzitelli, Federico Longhini, Eugenio Garofalo, Andrea Bruni, Aida Giancotti, Giorgio Settimo Barreca, Angela Quirino, Maria Carla Liberto, Francesca Serapide, Giovanni Matera, Enrico Maria Trecarichi and Paolo Navalesi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:858

    Content type: Case report

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  14. CD40, encoded by TNFRSF5, participates in the survival of B cells, process of antigen presentation and generation of CD8+ T cell memory. It also has an important effect on HCV antiviral immune response. This stud...

    Authors: Ting Tian, Peng Huang, Jingjing Wu, Chunhui Wang, Haozhi Fan, Yun Zhang, Rongbin Yu, Chao Wu, Xueshan Xia, Zuqiang Fu, Jun Li and Ming Yue

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:840

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a rising public health problem and has attracted considerable attention worldwide. The purpose of this study was to develop an optimal model with meteorological factors t...

    Authors: Wendong Liu, Changjun Bao, Yuping Zhou, Hong Ji, Ying Wu, Yingying Shi, Wenqi Shen, Jing Bao, Juan Li, Jianli Hu and Xiang Huo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:828

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Detecting avian influenza virus has become an important public health strategy for controlling the emerging infectious disease.

    Authors: Xiaorong Guo, Dong Yang, Ruchun Liu, Yaman Li, Qingqing Hu, Xinrui Ma, Yelan Li, Heng Zhang, Xixing Zhang, Benhua Zhao and Tianmu Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:825

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Rubella is an RNA virus in the genus Rubivirus within the Matonaviridae family. Rubella remains a leading vaccine-preventable cause of birth defects. Most African countries including Liberia do not currently prov...

    Authors: Abyot Bekele Woyessa, Mohammed Seid Ali, Tiala K. Korkpor, Roland Tuopileyi II, Henry T. Kohar, John Dogba, April Baller, Julius Monday, Suleman Abdullahi, Thomas Nagbe, Gertrude Mulbah, Mohammed Kromah, Jeremy Sesay, Kwuakuan Yealue, Tolbert Nyenswah and Mesfin Zbelo Gebrekidan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:813

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The 2014–2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa was the largest Ebola epidemic to date. Contact tracing was a core surveillance activity. Challenges with paper-based contact tracing systems include incomplete iden...

    Authors: Lisa O. Danquah, Nadia Hasham, Matthew MacFarlane, Fatu E. Conteh, Fatoma Momoh, Andrew A. Tedesco, Amara Jambai, David A. Ross and Helen A. Weiss

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:810

    Content type: Research article

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  19. With one in every 20 Pakistanis already infected, Pakistan has the second largest number of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections globally. The aim of this study was to present a quantitative and analytical chara...

    Authors: Sarwat Mahmud, Zaina Al Kanaani and Laith J. Abu-Raddad

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:809

    Content type: Research article

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  20. A diagnostic method to simultaneously detect and discriminate porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) in clinical specimens is imperative for the...

    Authors: Keli Yang, Zuwu Jiao, Danna Zhou, Rui Guo, Zhengying Duan and Yongxiang Tian

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:778

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The etiology of acute liver failure (ALF) is often unknown and reported to be associated with herpesviruses in a number of cases. In this study, we examined for betaherpesviruses infections in patients with AL...

    Authors: Jéssica Vasques Raposo, Arthur Daniel Rocha Alves, Alexandre dos Santos da Silva, Damião Carlos dos Santos, Juliana Gil Melgaço, Otacílio C. Moreira, Marcelo Alves Pinto and Vanessa Salete de Paula

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:773

    Content type: Research article

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  22. We sought to assess reporting in China’s Pneumonia of Unknown Etiology (PUE) passive surveillance system for emerging respiratory infections and to identify ways to improve the PUE surveillance system’s detect...

    Authors: Nijuan Xiang, Ying Song, Yu Wang, Jiabing Wu, Alexander J. Millman, Carolyn M. Greene, Zhentao Ding, Jie Sun, Wei Yang, Guoxia Guo, Ruirui Wang, Ping Guo, Zhixing Ren, Lei Gong, Pengpeng Xu, Suizan Zhou…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:770

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Intestinal infectious diseases (IIDs) have caused numerous deaths worldwide, particularly among children. In China, eight IIDs are listed as notifiable infectious diseases, including cholera, poliomyelitis, dy...

    Authors: Ying Mao, Ning Zhang, Bin Zhu, Jinlin Liu and Rongxin He

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:766

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an emerging zoonotic infectious disease caused by hantaviruses which circulate worldwide. So far, it was still considered as one of serious public health problem...

    Authors: Shiyou Liu, Yamei Wei, Xu Han, Yanan Cai, Zhanying Han, Yanbo Zhang, Yonggang Xu, Shunxiang Qi and Qi Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:765

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Avian influenza A (H5N6) virus poses a great threat to the human health since it is capable to cross the species barrier and infect humans. Although human infections are believed to largely originate from poul...

    Authors: Ping Chen, Jian-Feng Xie, Qi Lin, Lin Zhao, Yan-Hua Zhang, Hong-Bin Chen, Yu-Wei Weng, Zheng Huang and Kui-Cheng Zheng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:762

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important respiratory pathogen that causes seasonal epidemics of acute respiratory illness and contributes significantly to childhood pneumonia. Current knowledge and underst...

    Authors: John W. Oketch, Everlyn Kamau, Grieven P. Otieno, James R. Otieno, Charles N. Agoti and D. James Nokes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:757

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Dengue, a viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, is an important public health concern throughout Thailand. Climate variables are potential predictors of dengue transmission. Associations between climate ...

    Authors: Thipruethai Phanitchat, Bingxin Zhao, Ubydul Haque, Chamsai Pientong, Tipaya Ekalaksananan, Sirinart Aromseree, Kesorn Thaewnongiew, Benedicte Fustec, Michael J. Bangs, Neal Alexander and Hans J. Overgaard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:743

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Brainstem encephalitis is a serious complication of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation and hypertension may occur, sometimes progressing to cardiopulmo...

    Authors: Qui Tu Phan, Lam Khanh Phung, Khanh Huu Truong, Trieu Trung Huynh, Giang Thanh Phạm, Bich Ngọc Nguyen, Quyen Thanh Tran, Vuong Ngoc Thien Huynh, Tien Thi My Nguyen, Thoa Phan Kim Le, Nhan Nguyen Thanh Le, Saraswathy Sabanathan, H. Rogier van Doorn, Tan Van Le, Toan Duc Nguyen, Laura Merson…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:737

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Noroviruses (NoVs) are considered an important cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) across all age groups, especially in children under 5 years of age. We investigated the epidemiology of noroviruses in outpat...

    Authors: Lijuan Lu, Huaqing Zhong, Menghua Xu, Liyun Su, Lingfeng Cao, Ran Jia and Jin Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:736

    Content type: Research article

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  30. No comparison data have been reported on viral and epidemiological profiles of hospitalized children with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in Beijing or Shanghai, China.

    Authors: Yanjie Zhao, Roujian Lu, Jun Shen, Zhengde Xie, Gaoshan Liu and Wenjie Tan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:729

    Content type: Research article

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  31. HTLV-1 infection is a neglected disease, despite infecting 10–15 million people worldwide and severe illnesses develop in 10% of carriers lifelong. Acknowledging a greater risk for developing HTLV-1 associated...

    Authors: Carmen de Mendoza, Lourdes Roc, Rafael Benito, Gabriel Reina, José Manuel Ramos, Cesar Gómez, Antonio Aguilera, Manuel Rodríguez-Iglesias, Juan García-Costa, Miriam Fernández-Alonso and Vicente Soriano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:706

    Content type: Research article

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  32. In recent times, emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are posing a public health threat in developing countries, and vigilant surveillance is necessary to prepare against these threats. Analyses of mul...

    Authors: Badral Davgasuren, Suvdmaa Nyam, Tsoggerel Altangerel, Oyunbileg Ishdorj, Ambaselmaa Amarjargal and Jun Yong Choi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:705

    Content type: Research article

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  33. To analyze hospitalization episodes with an ICD-9 diagnosis code of influenza (codes 487 and 488) in any diagnostic position from 2009 to 2015 in the Spanish hospital surveillance system.

    Authors: J. M. San-Román-Montero, R. Gil Prieto, C. Gallardo Pino, J. Hinojosa Mena, A. Zapatero Gaviria and A. Gil de Miguel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:700

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Human norovirus is regarded as the leading cause of nonbacterial acute diarrhea in developing and developed countries. Among all genotypes, GII.4 has been the predominant genotype, but in East Asia, it was rep...

    Authors: Liang Xue, Weicheng Cai, Junshan Gao, Le Zhang, Ruimin Dong, Yonglai Li, Haoming Wu, Moutong Chen, Jumei Zhang, Juan Wang and Qingping Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:696

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards pregnancy-related issues of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection among general practitioners (GPs), a frontline healthcare worker group, in Indone...

    Authors: Harapan Harapan, Yogambigai Rajamoorthy, Prattama S. Utomo, Samsul Anwar, Abdul M. Setiawan, Alma Alleta, Alfredo Bambang, Muhammad R. Ramadana, Ikram Ikram, Nur Wahyuniati, Reza Maulana, Ichsan Ichsan, Rosaria Indah, Abram L. Wagner, Ulrich Kuch, David A. Groneberg…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:693

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Jiao and colleagues reported a case of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome who developed respiratory failure and symmetrical flaccid paralysis of all extremities. Electrophysiology revealed peripheral nerve ...

    Authors: Linpei Jia, Rufu Jia and Hongliang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:687

    Content type: Correspondence

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:143

  37. WHO identifies pregnant women to be at increased risk for severe outcomes from influenza virus infections and recommends that they be prioritized for influenza vaccination. The evidence supporting this, howeve...

    Authors: Dominik Mertz, Calvin Ka-Fung Lo, Lyubov Lytvyn, Justin R. Ortiz and Mark Loeb

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:683

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are important pathogens of pediatric respiratory tract infections in Taiwan. There were two major HAdV epidemics in southern Taiwan in 2011 and 2014, respectively.

    Authors: Ching-Fen Shen, Shih-Min Wang, Jen-Ren Wang, Yu-Shiang Hu, Tzong-Shiann Ho and Ching-Chuan Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:681

    Content type: Research article

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  39. A major challenge in dengue management in resource limited settings is the confirmation of diagnosis. Clinical features of dengue often overlap with other infections and molecular diagnostic tools are not read...

    Authors: Ponsuge Chathurani Sigera, Ranmalee Amarasekara, Chaturaka Rodrigo, Senaka Rajapakse, Praveen Weeratunga, Nipun Lakshita De Silva, Chun Hong Huang, Malaya K. Sahoo, Benjamin A. Pinsky, Dylan R. Pillai, Hasitha A. Tissera, Saroj Jayasinghe, Shiroma Handunnetti and Sumadhya D. Fernando

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:680

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Abnormal sexual behaviors presenting as manifestations of rabies have occasionally been reported in the literature, although little attention has been paid to these cases to date. This study aimed to analyze t...

    Authors: Zhaoxing Tian, Yingyu Chen and Wei Yan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:679

    Content type: Case report

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  41. In addition to seasonal influenza viruses recently circulating in humans, avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of H5N1, H5N6 and H7N9 subtypes have also emerged and demonstrated human infection abilities with high m...

    Authors: Su Jeong Ahn, Yun Hee Baek, Khristine Kaith S. Lloren, Won-Suk Choi, Ju Hwan Jeong, Khristine Joy C. Antigua, Hyeok-il Kwon, Su-Jin Park, Eun-Ha Kim, Young-il Kim, Young-Jae Si, Seung Bok Hong, Kyeong Seob Shin, Sungkun Chun, Young Ki Choi and Min-Suk Song

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:676

    Content type: Technical advance

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  42. Organizing pneumonia (OP) is a rare complication of influenza infection that has substantial morbidity. We report the first case of OP associated with avian influenza H7N9 infection that had significant improv...

    Authors: Hangyong He, Hao Wang, Xuyan Li, Xiao Tang, Bing Sun and Zhaohui Tong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:671

    Content type: Case report

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  43. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main cause of precancerous lesions and cervical cancer in women. In order to determine the epidemiological characteristics as well as the relationship between the HP...

    Authors: Liang Ma, Jieping Lei, Li Ma, Xiao Cong, Na Wang, Hui Yang, Qian Liu, Yang Yu and Yongtong Cao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:670

    Content type: Research article

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  44. A severe seasonal influenza epidemic was observed during 2017–2018 in China, prompting questions on clinical characteristics and outcomes of severe cases with influenza.

    Authors: Xiaofang Fu, Yuqing Zhou, Jie Wu, Xiaoxiao Liu, Cheng Ding, Chenyang Huang, Shufa Zheng, Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna, Yu Chen, Lanjuan Li and Shigui Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:668

    Content type: Research article

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  45. The differential diagnosis of Fever of Unknown Origin (FUO) is very extensive, and includes infectious diseases (ID), neoplasms and noninfectious inflammatory diseases (NIID). Many FUO remain undiagnosed. Fact...

    Authors: Francesco Maria Fusco, Raffaella Pisapia, Salvatore Nardiello, Stefano Domenico Cicala, Giovanni Battista Gaeta and Giuseppina Brancaccio

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:653

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is the most common cause of non-genetic hearing loss in childhood. A newborn hearing screening program (NHSP) is currently running in Italy, but no universal cCMV nor statewid...

    Authors: Laura Pellegrinelli, Cristina Galli, Valeria Primache, Mirko Alde’, Enrico Fagnani, Federica Di Berardino, Diego Zanetti, Elena Pariani, Umberto Ambrosetti and Sandro Binda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:652

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Despite the greater sensitivity of the new dengue clinical classification proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2009, there is a need for a better definition of warning signs and clinical progress...

    Authors: Gleicy Macedo Hair, Flávio Fonseca Nobre and Patrícia Brasil

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:649

    Content type: Technical advance

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