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Viral diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. Although there are reports of otolaryngological symptoms and manifestations of CoronaVirus Disease 19 (COVID-19), there have been no documented cases of sudden neck swelling with rash in patients with Severe A...

    Authors: Caterina Giannitto, Cristiana Bonifacio, Susanna Esposito, Angela Ammirabile, Giuseppe Mercante, Armando De Virgilio, Giuseppe Spriano, Enrico Heffler, Ludovica Lofino, Letterio Salvatore Politi and Luca Balzarini

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:232

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  2. Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the common diseases in children and the routine detection methods frequently fail to identify the infectious pathogens especially for viruses. The Filmarray respiratory ...

    Authors: Fen Pan, Bingjie Wang, Hong Zhang, Yingying Shi and Qi Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:230

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The massive outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Daegu city and Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea (ROK), caused the exponential increase in new cases exceeding 5000 within 6 weeks. Th...

    Authors: Jong Hun Kim, Won Suk Choi, Joon Young Song, Young Kyung Yoon, Min Ja Kim and Jang Wook Sohn

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:229

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Family with sequence similarity 26, member F (FAM26F) is an important innate immunity modulator playing a significant role in diverse immune responses, however, the association of FAM26F expression with HBV in...

    Authors: Kehkshan Jabeen, Uzma Malik, Sajid Mansoor, Shaheen Shahzad, Saadia Zahid and Aneela Javed

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:228

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Loss of smell and/or taste are cardinal symptoms of COVID-19. ‘Long-COVID’, persistence of symptoms, affects around one fifth of people. However, data regarding the clinical resolution of loss of smell and/or ...

    Authors: Janine Makaronidis, Chloe Firman, Cormac G. Magee, Jessica Mok, Nyaladzi Balogun, Matt Lechner, Alisia Carnemolla and Rachel L. Batterham

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:221

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Describe the indications for surgical interventions in asymptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2. We are unaware of previous reports of an association between SARS-CoV-2 and acute appendicitis.

    Authors: Charlsea Prichard, Matthew Canning, Kindra McWilliam-Ross, John Birbari, William Parker, Lori Wasson and John W. Hollingsworth

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:217

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute infectious disease caused by human enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus, or echovirus, which is particularly common in preschool children. Severe HFMD is prone...

    Authors: Fengyun Wang, Xinhua Qiang, Suhua Jiang, Jingsong Shao, Bin Fang and Lixin Zhou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:208

    Content type: Research article

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  8. A large-scale global outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) out of Wuhan, from China, occurred in January 2020. To examine the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in infected patients out of Wuhan, fro...

    Authors: Hua Zhang, Feng Du, Xiao-jun Cao, Xia-long Feng, He-ping Zhang, Zheng-xia Wu, Bao-Feng Wang, Hong-juan Zhang, Rui Liu, Jian-jun Yang, Bo Ning, Kai Chen and Zhen-peng Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:207

    Content type: Research article

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  9. There is limited information on the difference in epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of the initial outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan (the epicenter) and Sichuan (the per...

    Authors: Gang Wang, Feng Ming Luo, Dan Liu, Jia Sheng Liu, Ye Wang, Hong Chen, Pan Wen Tian, Tao Fan, Li Tang, He Yu, Lan Wang, Mei Feng, Zhong Ni, Bo Wang, Zhi Fang Song, Xiao Ling Wu…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:206

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic that has raised worldwide concern. This study aims to investigate the correlation between the extent of lung infection and relevant clinical lab...

    Authors: Xingrui Wang, Qinglin Che, Xiaoxiao Ji, Xinyi Meng, Lang Zhang, Rongrong Jia, Hairong Lyu, Weixian Bai, Lingjie Tan and Yanjun Gao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:192

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) was first described in Tanzania in 1952. Several epidemics including East Africa have occurred, but there are no descriptions of longitudinal surveillance of endemic disease. Here, we...

    Authors: Doris K. Nyamwaya, Mark Otiende, Donwilliams O. Omuoyo, George Githinji, Henry K. Karanja, John N. Gitonga, Zaydah R. de Laurent, James R. Otieno, Rosemary Sang, Everlyn Kamau, Stanley Cheruiyot, Edward Otieno, Charles N. Agoti, Philip Bejon, Samuel M. Thumbi and George M. Warimwe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:186

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Recent studies showed that plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA seems to be associated with worse COVID-19 outcome. However, whether specific population can be at higher risk of viremia are to date unexplored.

    Authors: Luna Colagrossi, Maria Antonello, Silvia Renica, Marco Merli, Elisa Matarazzo, Giovanna Travi, Marta Vecchi, Jacopo Colombo, Antonio Muscatello, Giacomo Grasselli, Silvia Nerini Molteni, Vittorio Scaravilli, Emanuele Cattaneo, Diana Fanti, Chiara Vismara, Alessandra Bandera…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:184

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Perinatally chikungunya infected neonates have been reported to have high rates of post-infection neurologic sequelae, mainly cognitive problems. In older children and adults chikungunya does not appear to hav...

    Authors: Roelof van Ewijk, Minke H. W. Huibers, Meindert E. Manshande, Ginette M. Ecury-Goossen, Ashley J. Duits, Job C. Calis and Aleid G. van Wassenaer-Leemhuis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:179

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Epidemiological and clinical features of patients with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were well delineated. However, no researches described the patients complicated with pleural effusion (PE). In the pr...

    Authors: Na Zhan, Yingyun Guo, Shan Tian, Binglu Huang, Xiaoli Tian, Jinjing Zou, Qiutang Xiong, Dongling Tang, Liang Zhang and Weiguo Dong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:176

    Content type: Research article

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  15. While hypertension is the most common comorbid condition in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Korea, there is a lack of studies investigating risk factors in COVID-19 patients with hypertens...

    Authors: Hee-Sung Kim, Minseok Kang and Gilwon Kang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:175

    Content type: Research article

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  16. There are limited number of studies with controversial findings regarding the association between anemia at admission and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. Therefore, in this research, we aimed to ...

    Authors: Masood Faghih Dinevari, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Elham Sadeghi Majd, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi and Zeinab Nikniaz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:170

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Our main objectives were to estimate the incidence of illnesses presumably caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection during the lockdown period and to identify the associated risk factors.

    Authors: Fabrice Carrat, Mathilde Touvier, Gianluca Severi, Laurence Meyer, Florence Jusot, Nathanael Lapidus, Delphine Rahib, Nathalie Lydié, Marie-Aline Charles, Pierre-Yves Ancel, Alexandra Rouquette, Xavier de Lamballerie, Marie Zins and Nathalie Bajos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:169

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Characteristics of COVID-19 patients have mainly been reported within confirmed COVID-19 cohorts. By analyzing patients with respiratory infections in the emergency department during the first pandemic wave, w...

    Authors: Nicola Fink, Johannes Rueckel, Sophia Kaestle, Vincent Schwarze, Eva Gresser, Boj Hoppe, Jan Rudolph, Sophia Goller, Wolfgang G. Kunz, Jens Ricke and Bastian O. Sabel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:167

    Content type: Research article

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  19. An unexpected dengue outbreak occurred in Hunan Province in 2018. This was the first dengue outbreak in this area of inland China, and 172 cases were reported.

    Authors: Jiaoqiong Guan, Zhanlong He, Meng Qin, Xialin Deng, Jun Chen, Suqin Duan, Xiaojun Gao, Yue Pan, Junying Chen, Yaping Yang, Shijun Feng and Qiangming Sun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:166

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Although vaccination is one of the main countermeasures against influenza epidemic, it is highly essential to make informed prevention decisions to guarantee that limited vaccination resources are allocated to...

    Authors: Jianqing Qiu, Huimin Wang, Lin Hu, Changhong Yang and Tao Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:164

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Many studies have been published about critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the early phases of the pandemic but the characteristic or survival of critically ill Japanese patients have not...

    Authors: Aya Banno, Toru Hifumi, Hiroshi Okamoto, Minori Masaki, Koichiro Seki, Shutaro Isokawa, Norio Otani, Kuniyoshi Hayashi and Shinichi Ishimatsu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:163

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  22. In June 2019, Nipah virus (NiV) infection was detected in a 21-year-old male (index case) of Ernakulum, Kerala, India. This study was undertaken to determine if NiV was in circulation in Pteropus species (spp) in...

    Authors: A. B. Sudeep, Pragya D. Yadav, Mangesh D. Gokhale, R. Balasubramanian, Nivedita Gupta, Anita Shete, Rajlaxmi Jain, Savita Patil, Rima R. Sahay, Dimpal A. Nyayanit, Sanjay Gopale, Prachi G. Pardeshi, Triparna D. Majumdar, Dilip R. Patil, A. P. Sugunan and Devendra T. Mourya

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:162

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Increasing evidence indicate that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is companied by renal dysfunction. However, the association of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced renal d...

    Authors: Hui-Xian Xiang, Jun Fei, Ying Xiang, Zheng Xu, Ling Zheng, Xiu-Yong Li, Lin Fu and Hui Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:158

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. Laboratory data and computed tomography (CT) have been used during the COVID-19 pandemic, mainly to determine patient prognosis and guide clinical management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associat...

    Authors: Simone Canovi, Giulia Besutti, Efrem Bonelli, Valentina Iotti, Marta Ottone, Laura Albertazzi, Alessandro Zerbini, Pierpaolo Pattacini, Paolo Giorgi Rossi, Rossana Colla and Tommaso Fasano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:157

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Due to the rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, it is necessary to ascertain essential immune inflammatory parameters that describe the severity of the disease and provide guidance fo...

    Authors: Wu Yan, Danrong Chen, Francis Manyori Bigambo, Hongcheng Wei, Xu Wang and Yankai Xia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:156

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The outbreak of COVID-19 has resulted in serious concerns in China and abroad. To investigate clinical features of confirmed and suspected patients with COVID-19 in west China, and to examine differences betwe...

    Authors: Wen Wang, Lei Chen, Qiao He, Mingqi Wang, Mei Liu, Taibing Deng, Xiaoju Deng, Jianrong Yang, Ou Jiang, Rongmei Li, Bo Long, Gang Mai, Wenhui Huan, Wenquan Li, Xin Jiang, Zeqiang Wen…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:155

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Knowledge on the etiology of LRTIs is essential for improvement of the clinical diagnosis and accurate treatment. Molecular detection methods were applied to identify a broad range of bacterial and viral patho...

    Authors: Heping Wang, Jiali Gu, Xiaonan Li, Christa E. van der Gaast-de Jongh, Wenjian Wang, Xuehui He, Zhi Xu, Yonghong Yang, Ronald de Groot, Marien I. de Jonge and Yuejie Zheng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:152

    Content type: Research article

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  28. One-fifth of COVID-19 patients are seriously and critically ill cases and have a worse prognosis than non-severe cases. Although there is no specific treatment available for COVID-19, early recognition and sup...

    Authors: Hazal Cansu Acar, Günay Can, Rıdvan Karaali, Şermin Börekçi, İlker İnanç Balkan, Bilun Gemicioğlu, Dildar Konukoğlu, Ethem Erginöz, Mehmet Sarper Erdoğan and Fehmi Tabak

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:148

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) has spread worldwide. The present study aimed to characterize the clinical features and outcomes of imported COVID-19 patients with high body mass index (BMI) and the indepen...

    Authors: Huan Cai, Lisha Yang, Yingfeng Lu, Shanyan Zhang, Chanyuan Ye, Xiaoli Zhang, Guodong Yu, Jueqing Gu, Jiangshan Lian, Shaorui Hao, Jianhua Hu, Yimin Zhang, Ciliang Jin, Jifang Sheng, Yida Yang and Hongyu Jia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:147

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been established as a leading cause of acute lower respiratory illness (ALRI) in infants and children. In 2015, the global disease burden (GBD) study estimated that th...

    Authors: Henshaw Mandi, Bekolo Cavin Epie, Agnes Eyoh, Sindhiya Jan, Sue Ann Costa Clemens, Ralf Clemens and Solomon Yimer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:144

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Large outbreaks of Lassa fever (LF) occur annually in Nigeria. The case fatality rate among hospitalised cases is ~ 20%. The antiviral drug ribavirin along with supportive care and rehydration are the recommen...

    Authors: Nastassya L. Chandra, Hikaru Bolt, Chioma Dan-Nwafor, Oladipupo Ipadeola, Elsie Ilori, Geoffrey Namara, Adebola T. Olayinka, Winifred Ukponu, Akanimo Iniobong, Michael Amedu, Adejoke Akano, Kachikwulu O. Akabike, Uwaifiokun Okhuarobo, Stephen Fagbemi, Emeka Sampson, Sophie Newitt…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:143

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The impact of COVID-19 has been devastating on a global scale. The negative conversion time (NCT) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA is closely related to clinical manifestation and disease progression in COVID-19 patients. Ou...

    Authors: Ya Yang, Xiaogang Hu, Lirong Xiong, Peishu Fu, Wei Feng, Wei Li, Liwen Zhang and Fengjun Sun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:141

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to constitute an international public health concern. Few data are available on the duration and prognostic factors of the disease. We aimed to study th...

    Authors: Chahida Harizi, Ines Cherif, Nourhene Najar, Molka Osman, Rym Mallekh, Oumaima Ben Ayed, Yosr Ayedi, Sonia Dhaouadi, Aicha Hchaichi, Mouna Safer, Hejer Letaief, Ilhem Bouaziz, Sondes Derouiche, Donia Gharbi, Leila Bouabid, Souha Bougatef…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:140

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Bronchiolitis is a clinical syndrome commonly encountered in practice, particularly among infants and young children. To investigate the prevalence of pathogens in hospitalized children with bronchiolitis and ...

    Authors: Jiahong Tan, Jinfeng Wu, Wujun Jiang, Li Huang, Wei Ji, Yongdong Yan, Meijuan Wang and Xuejun Shao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:135

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The outbreak of COVID-19 has rapidly spread to Italy, including Pesaro-Urbino province. Data on young to middle age adults with COVID-19 are lacking. We report the characteristics, management and health-relate...

    Authors: Chiara Temperoni, Stefania Grieco, Zeno Pasquini, Benedetta Canovari, Antonio Polenta, Umberto Gnudi, Roberto Montalti and Francesco Barchiesi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:134

    Content type: Research article

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  36. While our knowledge about COVID-19 in adults has rapidly increased, data on the course of disease and outcome in children with different comorbidities is still limited.

    Authors: Jonathan Remppis, Tina Ganzenmueller, Malte Kohns Vasconcelos, Oliver Heinzel, Rupert Handgretinger and Hanna Renk

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:133

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Blood transfusion is one of the routine therapeutic interventions in hospitals that can be lifesaving. However, this intervention is related to several transfusion-related infections. Hepatitis C viral infecti...

    Authors: Eyasu Alem Lake, Robera Olana Fite, Lielt Gebreselassie Gebrekirstos, Meron Hadis Gebremedhin, Mohammed Suleiman Obsa and Kelemu Abebe Gelaw

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:131

    Content type: Research article

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  38. To investigate the CT imaging and clinical features of three atypical presentations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), namely (1) asymptomatic, (2) CT imaging-negative, and (3) re-detectable positive (RP)...

    Authors: Zhiqi Yang, Xiaofeng Chen, Ruibin Huang, Shengkai Li, Daiying Lin, Zhijian Yang, Hongfu Sun, Guorui Liu, Jinming Qiu, Yanyan Tang, Jianning Xiao, Yuting Liao, Xianheng Wu, Renhua Wu, Xiangguang Chen and Zhuozhi Dai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:127

    Content type: Research article

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  39. SARS-CoV-2 virus which targets the pulmonary vasculature is supposed to induce an intrapulmonary right to left shunt with an increased pulmonary blood flow. Such vascular injury is difficult to observe because...

    Authors: Vincent Jounieaux, Damien Basille, Osama Abou-Arab, Marie-Pierre Guillaumont, Claire Andrejak, Yazine Mahjoub and Daniel Oscar Rodenstein

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:122

    Content type: Case report

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  40. To investigate the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) administration to hypertension patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induce...

    Authors: Wenjun Wang, Xiaohui Zhao, Wei Wei, Weiwang Fan, Kai Gao, Shengxiu He and Xijing Zhuang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:114

    Content type: Research article

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  41. G12 rotaviruses were first observed in sub-Saharan Africa in 2004 and since then have continued to emerge and spread across the continent and are reported as a significant human rotavirus genotype in several A...

    Authors: Kebareng G. Rakau, Martin M. Nyaga, Maemu P. Gededzha, Jason M. Mwenda, M. Jeffrey Mphahlele, L. Mapaseka Seheri and A. Duncan Steele

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:107

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Dengue virus (DENV) infection is increasingly common in southern China and can be transmitted through blood transfusion but is not currently part of donor screening throughout the region. We assessed DENV prev...

    Authors: Ling Li, Ying Li, Shaofang Lu, Jing Dong, Haixia Xu, Qian Zhang, Rong Weng, Yundi Yin, Rui He, Peng Fang, Hua Shi, Yinghan Yu, Ji Wu, Zhong Liu and John R. Hess

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:104

    Content type: Research article

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  43. In non-uremic subjects, IFNL4 rs368234815 predicts HCV clearance. We investigated whether rs368234815 is associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in haemodialysis patients and whether it is a stronger predictor ...

    Authors: Alicja E. Grzegorzewska, Adrianna Mostowska, Monika K. Świderska, Wojciech Marcinkowski, Ireneusz Stolarek, Marek Figlerowicz and Paweł P. Jagodziński

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:102

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Dengue virus infection has been an important and serious public health concern in Taiwan, where local outbreaks of dengue fever occurred almost every year. To our knowledge, no nationwide investigation has bee...

    Authors: Ying-Hsuan Lee, Yu-Chia Hsieh, Chih-Jung Chen, Tzou-Yien Lin and Yhu-Chering Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:96

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Group A rotavirus (RVA), despite being a leading cause of gastroenteritis in infants and young children, is less studied in Shanxi Province, China. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence a...

    Authors: Lifeng Zhao, Xiaohong Shi, Dequan Meng, Jiane Guo, Yiping Li, Lirong Liang, Xiaofang Guo, Ran Tao, Xiaohua Zhang, Ruihong Gao, Li Gao and Jitao Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:94

    Content type: Research article

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  46. The treatment of critically ill patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized in Wuhan has been reported. However, the clinical characteristics of patients who died of COVID-19 in regions with relatively scarce...

    Authors: Jijia Hu, Yingang Zhang, Wei Wang, Zhihe Tao, Juan Tian, Ning Shao, Nian Liu, Hui Wei and Hao Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:88

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:119