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Viral diseases

Section edited by Julian Tang

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

Page 1 of 19

  1. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection which has been estimated to cause a global economic burden of US$8.9 billion per year. 40% of this estimate was due to what are known as productivity costs (the costs...

    Authors: Trinh Manh Hung, Donald S. Shepard, Alison A. Bettis, Huyen Anh Nguyen, Angela McBride, Hannah E. Clapham and Hugo C. Turner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:393

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a rare but serious complication of febrile status epilepticus in children. Comprehensive screening for viral pathogens is seldomly performed in the work-up of febrile children.

    Authors: Yoshie Takagi, Takeaki Imamura, Shota Endo, Kenta Hayashi, Satoka Akiyama, Yoji Ikuta, Takahiro Kawaguchi, Tomoko Sumita, Tatsuo Katori, Masanori Hashino, Shinji Saito, Takato Odagiri, Kunihiro Oba, Makoto Kuroda and Tsutomu Kageyama

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:388

    Content type: Case report

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  3. To compare the clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV) and to explore the relationship between the d...

    Authors: Qin Ding, Lili Xu, Yun Zhu, Baoping Xu, Xiangpeng Chen, Yali Duan, Zhengde Xie and Kunling Shen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:387

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The seasonal influenza epidemic is an important public health issue worldwide. Early predictive identification of patients with potentially worse outcome is important in the emergency department (ED). Similarl...

    Authors: Sheng-En Chu, Chen-June Seak, Tse-Hsuan Su, Chung-Hsien Chaou, Hsiao-Jung Tseng and Chih-Huang Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:385

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Zika virus (ZIKV, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is transmitted mainly by Aedes mosquitoes. This virus has become an emerging concern of global public health with recent epidemics associated to neurologic...

    Authors: Babacar Diouf, Alioune Gaye, Cheikh Tidiane Diagne, Mawlouth Diallo and Diawo Diallo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:371

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Dengue is endemic in over 100 countries and is an important public health problem worldwide. Dengue fever is not endemic in Taiwan; the importation of dengue viruses from neighboring countries via close commer...

    Authors: Chao-Ying Pan, Wei-Liang Liu, Matthew-P. Su, Te-Pin Chang, Hui-Pin Ho, Pei-Yun Shu, Joh-Jong Huang, Li-Jen Lin and Chun-Hong Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:347

    Content type: Research article

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  7. To analyze and discuss the transmission route of a cluster of cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus (SFTSV).

    Authors: Lingling Mao, Baocheng Deng, Yuhong Liang, Yun Liu, Zijiang Wang, Jie Zhang, Wei Wu, Lei Yu and Wenqing Yao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:346

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Following the 2009 pandemic, there was widened interest in studying influenza burden in all regions. However, since data from the World Health O...

    Authors: Aia Assaf-Casals, Zeina Saleh, Sarah Khafaja, Danielle Fayad, Hady Ezzeddine, Mohammad Saleh, Sarah Chamseddine, Rouba Sayegh, Sima L. Sharara, Ahmad Chmaisse, Souha S. Kanj, Zeina Kanafani, Rima Hanna-Wakim, George F. Araj, Rami Mahfouz, Reiko Saito…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:339

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Dengue fever is a hemorrhagic fever caused by flaviviruses. Hemorrhagic manifestations are well known to be associated with dengue fever, though the thrombotic events are only seldom reported. Underlying patho...

    Authors: K. M. I. U. Ranasinghe, D. Dissanayaka, K. Thirumavalavan and M. Seneviratne

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:335

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Between 2016 and 2019, 265 cases of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Vietnam, predominantly in southern Vietnam. In 2016, a case of ZIKV-associated microcephaly was confirmed in the Central Highlan...

    Authors: Co Thach Nguyen, Meng Ling Moi, Thi Quynh Mai Le, Thi Thu Thuy Nguyen, Thi Bich Hau Vu, Hai Tuan Nguyen, Thi Thu Hang Pham, Thi Hien Thu Le, Le Manh Hung Nguyen, Minh Huong Phu Ly, Chris Fook Sheng Ng, Taichiro Takemura, Kouichi Morita and Futoshi Hasebe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:332

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Although people of all ages are susceptible to the novel coronavirus infection, which is presently named “Coronavirus Disease 2019” (COVID-19), there has been relatively few cases reported among children. Ther...

    Authors: Li-juan Mao, Jian Xu, Zhi-hao Xu, Xiao-ping Xia, Bin Li, Jian-guo He, Peng Zhao, Jian-wei Pan, Dan Zhang, Yue Su, Yue-hong Wang and Zhe-feng Yuan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:329

    Content type: Case report

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  12. The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak started in Wuhan, Hubei, China since Dec 2019 and cases of infection have been continuously reported in various countries. It is now clear that the SARS-C...

    Authors: Peiyan Zhang, Zhao Cai, Weibo Wu, Ling Peng, Yinfeng Li, Chuming Chen, Li Chen, Jianming Li, Mengli Cao, Shiyan Feng, Xiao Jiang, Jing Yuan, Yingxia Liu, Liang Yang and Fuxiang Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:317

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Since December 2019, the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has expanded to cause a worldwide outbreak that more than 600,000 people infected and tens of thousands died. To date, the clinical characteristics ...

    Authors: Xin-Ying Zhao, Xuan-Xuan Xu, Hai-Sen Yin, Qin-Ming Hu, Tao Xiong, Yuan-Yan Tang, Ai-Ying Yang, Bao-Ping Yu and Zhi-Ping Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:311

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The 2013–2016 West Africa Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak recorded the highest incidence and mortality since the discovery of the virus in Zaire in 1976; with more than 28,000 probable and confirmed EVD cas...

    Authors: Jia Bainga Kangbai, Christian Heumann, Michael Hoelscher, Foday Sahr and Guenter Froeschl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:293

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease that commonly has a lethal course caused by the tick-borne Huaiyangshan banyang virus [former SFTS virus (SFTSV)]. The viral...

    Authors: Kazumasa Akagi, Taiga Miyazaki, Kazuhiro Oshima, Asuka Umemura, Satoshi Shimada, Kouichi Morita, Hiroaki Senju, Masato Tashiro, Takahiro Takazono, Tomomi Saijo, Shintaro Kurihara, Motohiro Sekino, Kazuko Yamamoto, Yoshifumi Imamura, Koichi Izumikawa, Katsunori Yanagihara…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:281

    Content type: Case report

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  16. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease occurring in children under 5 years of age worldwide, and Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA-16) are identified as the pred...

    Authors: Jia Xie, Xiao-Han Yang, Si-Qi Hu, Wen-Li Zhan, Chang-Bin Zhang, Hong Liu, Hong-Yu Zhao, Hui-Ying Chai, Ke-Yi Chen, Qian-Yi Du, Pan Liu, Ai-Hua Yin and Ming-Yong Luo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:271

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Predicting the details of how an epidemic evolves is highly valuable as health institutions need to better plan towards limiting the infection propagation effects and optimizing their prediction and response c...

    Authors: David E. Singh, Maria-Cristina Marinescu, Jesus Carretero, Concepcion Delgado-Sanz, Diana Gomez-Barroso and Amparo Larrauri

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:265

    Content type: Research Article

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  18. Infection by hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause a high burden of morbidity and mortality in countries with poor access to clean water and sanitation. Our study aimed to investigate the situation of HEV infectio...

    Authors: Vianney Tricou, Julie Bouscaillou, Gina-Laure Laghoe-Nguembe, Aubin Béré, Xavier Konamna, Benjamin Sélékon, Emmanuel Nakouné, Mirdad Kazanji and Narcisse P. Komas

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:260

    Content type: Research article

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  19. In Bolivia the incidence and mortality rates of uterine cervix cancer are the highest in America. The main factor contributing to this situation is the difficulty of establishing and maintaining quality preven...

    Authors: Gustavo Allende, Pedro Surriabre, Neli Ovando, Pamela Calle, Andrea Torrico, Jaime Villarroel, Michel Bossens, Véronique Fontaine and Patricia Rodriguez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:259

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne infection transmitted by Aedes aegypti and mainly found in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Since its re-introduction in 1986, Brazil has become a hotspot for dengue an...

    Authors: Daniel Romero-Alvarez, Nidhi Parikh, Dave Osthus, Kaitlyn Martinez, Nicholas Generous, Sara del Valle and Carrie A. Manore

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:252

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Lebanon has experienced several measles and mumps outbreaks in the past 20 years. In this article, a case-based surveillance of both measles and mumps outbreaks in Lebanon was carried out in an attempt to outl...

    Authors: Talal El Zarif, Mohamed Faisal Kassir, Nazih Bizri, Ghida Kassir, Umayya Musharrafieh and Abdul Rahman Bizri

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:244

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Control of Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome using vaccination has shown great success in the America’s. Uganda is due to introduce the Rubella vaccine however the magnitude of transmission is not well d...

    Authors: Fred Bagenda, Edgar Mugema Mulogo, Richard Onyuthi Apecu, Anette Kisakye and Benard Toliva Opar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:219

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is a serious global public health issue that can cause irreversible fetal and neonatal congenital defects in symptomatic or asymptomatic newborns at birth. In absence of unive...

    Authors: Laura Pellegrinelli, Luisella Alberti, Elena Pariani, Maria Barbi and Sandro Binda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:217

    Content type: Debate

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  24. Dengue is an emerging infectious disease that infects up to 390 million people yearly. The growing demand of dengue diagnostics especially in low-resource settings gave rise to many rapid diagnostic tests (RDT...

    Authors: Zhuo Lin Chong, Shamala Devi Sekaran, Hui Jen Soe, Devi Peramalah, Sanjay Rampal and Chiu-Wan Ng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:210

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Rabies is endemic in southern Bhutan, associated with 1–2 human deaths and high post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) costs annually. Evaluation of clinicians’ management of human cases potentially exposed to rabies...

    Authors: Kinley Penjor, Nelly Marquetoux, Chendu Dorji, Kinley Penjor, Sithar Dorjee, Chencho Dorjee, P. D. Jolly, R. S. Morris and J. S. McKenzie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:203

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Rabies is a deadly preventable viral disease that affects all warm-blooded animals and widespread in many regions including Africa. The disease remains of major public health importance in Uganda.

    Authors: Michael Omodo, Meriadeg Ar Gouilh, Frank Norbert Mwiine, Anna Rose Ademun Okurut, Noelina Nantima, Alice Namatovu, Maria Flavia Nakanjako, Emmanuel Isingoma, Eugene Arinaitwe, Martin Esau, Simon Kyazze, Milton Bahati, Franklin Mayanja, Patrick Bagonza, Richard Akule Urri, Mary Nanfuka Lovincer…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:200

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The incidence rate of measles in China reached a nadir in 2012 after 2 supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) were undertaken in 2009 and 2010. However, the disease began re-emerging in 2013, with a high...

    Authors: Huizhen Zheng, Katherine Min Jia, Riyang Sun, Pui Hu, Maggie Haitian Wang, Benny Chung-Ying Zee, Wenjia Liang and Ka Chun Chong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:197

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Respiratory infections are a major threat for lung recipients. We aimed to compare with a monocentric study the impact of late viral and bacterial respiratory infections on the graft function.

    Authors: Marie Dubert, Benoit Visseaux, André Birgy, Pierre Mordant, Anne-Cécile Metivier, Gaelle Dauriat, Nadhira Fidouh, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Nathalie Grall, Yves Castier, Hervé Mal, Gabriel Thabut and François-Xavier Lescure

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:176

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Respiratory tract infection (RTI) in young children is a leading cause of morbidity and hospitalization worldwide. There are few studies assessing the performance for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) versus...

    Authors: Zhan-Ying Ma, Hua Deng, Li-Dong Hua, Wen Lei, Chang-Bin Zhang, Qi-Qiang Dai, Wei-Jing Tao and Liang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:168

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a major cause of hospitalization in young children in Canada, despite routine immunoprophylaxis in those with medical risk factors. We aimed to determine if cold ...

    Authors: Dhenuka Radhakrishnan, Alexandra Ouedraogo, Salimah Z. Shariff, J. Dayre McNally, Eric I. Benchimol and Kristin K. Clemens

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:157

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The emergence of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was reported in Wenshan City, southwestern China in 2017. The study describes the epidemiological and virological features of the outbreak an...

    Authors: Li Jiang, Xiaonan Zhao, Wen Xu, Xuehua Zhou, Chunrui Luo, Jiunan Zhou, Xiaoqing Fu, Yaoyao Chen and Duo Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:154

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Human encephalitis can originate from a variety of different aetiologies, of which infection is the most common one. The diagnostic work-up is specifically challenging in patients with travel history since a b...

    Authors: Andreas Osterman, Viktoria C. Ruf, Cristina Domingo, Andreas Nitsche, Peter Eichhorn, Hanna Zimmermann, Klaus Seelos, Sabine Zange, Konstantinos Dimitriadis, Hans-Walter Pfister, Thorsten Thye, Armin Giese, Dennis Tappe and Stephan Böhm

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:150

    Content type: Case report

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  33. The influenza virus spreads rapidly around the world in seasonal epidemics, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Influenza-related incidence data are limited in many countries in Africa despite es...

    Authors: Musse Tadesse, Mesfin Mengesha, Adamu Tayachew, Desalegn Belay, Abdulhafiz Hassen, Abyot Bekele Woyessa, Etsehiwot Zemelak, Berhan Beyene, Wubayehu Kassa, Workenesh Ayele, Bethel Teshome, Mikias Mekonen, Zewdu Assefa and Beyene Moges

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:148

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Community–acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the leading worldwide causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. Its disease burden varies by age and etiology and is time dependent. We aimed to investigate the ...

    Authors: Eun Lee, Chul-Hong Kim, Yong Ju Lee, Hyo-Bin Kim, Bong-Seong Kim, Hyung Young Kim, Yunsun Kim, Sangyoung Kim, Chorong Park, Ju-Hee Seo, In Suk Sol, Myongsoon Sung, Min Seob Song, Dae Jin Song, Young Min Ahn, Hea Lin Oh…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:132

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an endemic communicable disease in China, accounting for 90% of total reported cases worldwide. In this study, the authors want to investigate the risk factors f...

    Authors: Xiaochen Wang, Wenqi Shen, Yuanfang Qin, Liang Ying, Haipeng Li, Jiankui Lu, Jing Lu, Nan Zhang, Zhifeng Li, Weizhong Zhou, Fenyang Tang, Fengcai Zhu, Jianli Hu and Changjun Bao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:103

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Rubella is highly under reported in Zambia as in most sub-Saharan countries despite being a disease of major public health concern especially among women of childbearing age. In September 2016, Zambia introduc...

    Authors: Mazyanga L. Mazaba, Seter Siziya, Mwaka Monze and Daniel Cohen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:101

    Content type: Research article

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  37. In addition to outbreaks of nosocomial influenza, sporadic nosocomial influenza infections also occur but are generally not reported in the literature.

    Authors: P. Godoy, N. Torner, N. Soldevila, C. Rius, M. Jane, A. Martínez, JA. Caylà and A. Domínguez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:80

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most common opportunistic infections following organ transplantation, despite administration of CMV prophylaxis. CMV-specific T-cell immunity (TCI) has been associ...

    Authors: Ralph Rogers, Kapil Saharia, Aditya Chandorkar, Zoe F. Weiss, Kendra Vieira, Sophia Koo and Dimitrios Farmakiotis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:58

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:122

  39. This study sought to provide up-to-date hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) seroprevalence in rural Burkina Faso decade after hepatitis B vaccine was introduced in the national immunization scheduled for children.

    Authors: Moussa Lingani, Tomoyuki Akita, Serge Ouoba, Shintaro Nagashima, Palwende Romuald Boua, Kazuaki Takahashi, Basile Kam, Aya Sugiyama, Théodore Nikiema, Chikako Yamamoto, Athanase Somé, Karim Derra, Ko Ko, Hermann Sorgho, Zekiba Tarnagda, Halidou Tinto…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:46

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Impact of climate change on tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) prevalence in the tick-host enzootic cycle in a given region depends on how the region-specific climate change patterns influence tick population devel...

    Authors: Kyeongah Nah, Ákos Bede-Fazekas, Attila János Trájer and Jianhong Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:34

    Content type: Research Article

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  41. Meningitis is a very rare atypical presenting feature of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. In our case report, we describe an unusual clinical presentation of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis with a biphasic pat...

    Authors: Maria Stavrou, Jing Ming Yeo, Alexander David Slater, Oliver Koch, Sarosh Irani and Peter Foley

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:21

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Despite the benefits of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), there is a growing concern of treatment failure. This study aimed to assess viral non suppression rate and factors associated with HIV viral non suppressio...

    Authors: Abraham Aregay Desta, Tewolde Wubayehu Woldearegay, Nesredin Futwi, Gebrecherkos Teame Gebrehiwot, Goyitom Gebremedhn Gebru, Asfawosen Aregay Berhe and Hagos Godefay

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:4

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Outbreaks of infectious gastroenteritis are common in care homes for the elderly. Norovirus can cause these outbreaks, but diagnosis is frequently based solely on clinical characteristics. Our objective in thi...

    Authors: Thomas Inns, Deb Wilson, Petra Manley, John P. Harris, Sarah J. O’Brien and Roberto Vivancos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 20:2

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes herpes zoster. Pneumocystis jirovecii (PJ) also causes pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. Although both cause opportunistic infections, it is rare to have a co-infection in ...

    Authors: Hirotada Muramatsu, Akira Kuriyama, Yoshiaki Anzai and Tetsunori Ikegami

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1092

    Content type: Case report

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  45. The European Commission (EC) Horizon 2020 (H2020)-funded ZIKAlliance Consortium designed a multicentre study including pregnant women (PW), children (CH) and natural history (NH) cohorts. Clinical sites were s...

    Authors: Vivian I. Avelino-Silva, Philippe Mayaud, Adriana Tami, Maria C. Miranda, Kerstin D. Rosenberger, Neal Alexander, Luis Nacul, Aluisio Segurado, Moritz Pohl, Sarah Bethencourt, Luis A. Villar, Isabelle F. T. Viana, Renata Rabello, Carmen Soria, Silvia P. Salgado, Eduardo Gotuzzo…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1081

    Content type: Study protocol

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  46. Current studies regarding glucocorticosteroid treatment of influenza have only estimated risk of critical illness or death which can be easily confounded by timing of treatment administration. We used severe a...

    Authors: Xuesen Xing, Shixiong Hu, Meihua Chen, Faxian Zhan, Huihui Liu, Zhang Chen, Hengjiao Zhang, Ge Zeng, Qiaohua Xu, Hong Zhang, Man Liu, Honghui Liu, Lidong Gao and Lijie Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1080

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Approximately 50% of cases of penile carcinoma (PeCa), a rare neoplasm worldwide, are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). However, the detection of HPV-DNA is not sufficient to consider it the etiologi...

    Authors: Cecilia Martínez-Bailón, Alejandra Mantilla-Morales, Galo Méndez-Matías, Isabel Alvarado-Cabrero, Rogelio Maldonado-Rodríguez, Joel Quintero-Becerra, Rafael Arias-Flores and Patricia Piña-Sánchez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1068

    Content type: Research article

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