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Viral diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic remains a major challenge for worldwide health care systems and in particular emergency medicine. An early and safe triage in the emergency department (ED) is especially crucial f...

    Authors: David Fistera, Annalena Härtl, Dirk Pabst, Randi Manegold, Carola Holzner, Christian Taube, Sebastian Dolff, Benedikt Michael Schaarschmidt, Lale Umutlu, Clemens Kill and Joachim Risse

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:969

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. The dual infection with SARS-CoV-2 is poorly described and is currently under discussion. We present a study of two strains of SARS-CoV-2 detected in the same patient during the same disease presentation.

    Authors: Andrei E. Samoilov, Valeriia V. Kaptelova, Anna Y. Bukharina, Olga Y. Shipulina, Elena V. Korneenko, Stepan S. Saenko, Alexander V. Lukyanov, Antonina A. Grishaeva, Antonina A. Ploskireva, Anna S. Speranskaya and Vasiliy G. Akimkin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:959

    Content type: Case report

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  3. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and became pandemic after emerging in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Several studies have been c...

    Authors: Saro Abdella, Masresha Tessema, Geremew Tasew, Atkure Defar, Asefa Deressa, Feyisa Regasa, Frehiwot Teka, Eyasu Tigabu, Dereje Nigussie, Tefera Belachew, Million Molla, Amare Deribew, Workeabeba Abebe, Tegbar Yigzaw, Tsinuel Nigatu, Getnet Mitike…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:956

    Content type: Study protocol

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  4. Our goal is to further elucidate the clinical condition and prognosis of patients with severe acute COVID-19 with EBV reactivation.

    Authors: Yun Xie, Song Cao, Hui Dong, Hui Lv, Xiaolei Teng, Jiaxiang Zhang, Tao Wang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Yun Qin, Yujing Chai, Luyu Yang, Jun Liu and Ruilan Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:955

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Robust evidenced treatment strategy for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has not been established yet. Early, targeted, comprehensive management approach can be essential.

    Authors: Jongkyu Kim, Jiwoong Jung, Tae Ho Kim, Naree Kang, Hanzo Choi, Dong Hyun Oh, Mi Young Ahn, Su hyun Kim, Chorom Hahm, Young Kyong Lee, Keunhong Park, Kiho Hong and Jae-phil Choi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:952

    Content type: Research article

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  6. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic, resulting in considerable mortality. The risk factors, clinical treatments, especially comprehensive risk models for COVID-19 death are urg...

    Authors: Meng Jin, Zequn Lu, Xu Zhang, Yanan Wang, Jing Wang, Yimin Cai, Kunming Tian, Zezhong Xiong, Qiang Zhong, Xiao Ran, Chunguang Yang, Xing Zeng, Lu Wang, Yao Li, Shanshan Zhang, Tianyi Dong…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:951

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Dengue virus infection (DVI) is a major health problem in many parts of the world. Its manifestations range from asymptomatic infections to severe disease. Although cardiac involvement has been reported in DVI...

    Authors: Chayasin Mansanguan, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, Sant Muangnoicharoen, Arun Huntrup, Akkapon Poolcharoen, Suyanee Mansanguan, Watcharapong Piyaphanee and Weerapong Phumratanaprapin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:940

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Remote Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities have potential to be severely impacted by COVID-19, with multiple factors predisposing to increased transmission and disease severity. Our mo...

    Authors: Ben B. Hui, Damien Brown, Rebecca H. Chisholm, Nicholas Geard, Jodie McVernon and David G. Regan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:929

    Content type: Research article

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  9. South Africa implemented rapid and strict physical distancing regulations to minimize SARS-CoV-2 epidemic spread. Evidence on the impact of such measures on interpersonal contact in rural and lower-income sett...

    Authors: Nicky McCreesh, Vuyiswa Dlamini, Anita Edwards, Stephen Olivier, Njabulo Dayi, Keabetswe Dikgale, Siyabonga Nxumalo, Jaco Dreyer, Kathy Baisley, Mark J. Siedner, Richard G. White, Kobus Herbst, Alison D. Grant and Guy Harling

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:928

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic requires the availability of accurate and rapid diagnostic tests, especially in such clinical settings as emergency and intensive care units. The objective of this study was to ...

    Authors: Vanessa De Pace, Patrizia Caligiuri, Valentina Ricucci, Nicola Nigro, Barbara Galano, Valeria Visconti, Giorgio Da Rin and Bianca Bruzzone

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:926

    Content type: Research article

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  11. In the 2nd year of the COVID-19 pandemic, knowledge about the dynamics of the infection in the general population is still limited. Such information is essential for health planners, as many of those infected ...

    Authors: Katja Radon, Abhishek Bakuli, Peter Pütz, Ronan Le Gleut, Jessica Michelle Guggenbuehl Noller, Laura Olbrich, Elmar Saathoff, Mercè Garí, Yannik Schälte, Turid Frahnow, Roman Wölfel, Michael Pritsch, Camilla Rothe, Michel Pletschette, Raquel Rubio-Acero, Jessica Beyerl…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:925

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Entecavir (ETV) is recommended as a first-line anti-HBV treatment. However, many chronic hepatitis B patients initiate anti-HBV treatment such as lamivudine and telbivudine with low genetic barriers in China, ...

    Authors: Jin Shang, Juan Zhou, Huan Liu, Rili M. Ise, You Tu, Jinqiu Ran, Lang Bai and Hong Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:912

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Pre-existing comorbidities have been linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection but evidence is sparse on the importance and pattern of multimorbidity (2 or more conditions) and severity of infection indicated by hospital...

    Authors: Yogini V. Chudasama, Francesco Zaccardi, Clare L. Gillies, Cameron Razieh, Thomas Yates, David E. Kloecker, Alex V. Rowlands, Melanie J. Davies, Nazrul Islam, Samuel Seidu, Nita G. Forouhi and Kamlesh Khunti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:908

    Content type: Research article

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  14. COVID-19 disease may be associated with a wide range of bacterial and fungal infections. We report a patient with COVID-19 infection who developed rhino-facial mucormycosis during treatment with corticosteroids.

    Authors: Faezeh Mohammadi, Milad Badri, Shapoor Safari and Nima Hemmat

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:906

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Novel coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) was declared as a global pandemic in 2020. With the spread of the disease, a better understanding of patient outcomes associated with their symptoms in diverse geographi...

    Authors: Jamil Sadeghifar, Habib Jalilian, Khalil Momeni, Hamed Delam, Tadesse Sheleme, Ayoub Rashidi, Fariba Hemmati, Shahab Falahi and Morteza Arab-Zozani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:903

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is challenging, particularly in post-mortem human tissues. However, there is increasing evidence for viral SARS-CoV-2 manifestation i...

    Authors: Jana Ihlow, Alexander Seelhoff, Victor M. Corman, Achim D. Gruber, Simon Dökel, Jenny Meinhardt, Helena Radbruch, Ernst Späth-Schwalbe, Sefer Elezkurtaj, David Horst and Hermann Herbst

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:901

    Content type: Case report

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  17. The world has high hopes of vaccination against COVID-19 to protect the population, boost economies and return to normal life. Vaccination programmes are being rolled out in high income countries, but the pand...

    Authors: Isidore Tiandiogo Traoré, Samiratou Ouedraogo, Dramane Kania, Firmin Nongodo Kaboré, Blahima Konaté, Rachel Médah, Hermann Badolo, Nathalie de Rekeneire, Ariane Mamguem Kamga, Armel Poda, Arnaud Eric Diendere, Boukary Ouédraogo, Esperance Ouédraogo, Oumar Billa, Halidou Tinto and Tienhan Sandrine Dabakuyo-Yonli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:896

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. Several studies have reported a significant association of knowledge, attitude and preventive practice (KAP) regarding dengue infection among community’s resident in endemic areas. In this study we aimed to as...

    Authors: Rhanye Mac Guad, Ernest Mangantig, Wah Yun Low, Andrew W. Taylor-Robinson, Meram Azzani, Shamala Devi Sekaran, Maw Shin Sim and Nornazirah Azizan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:893

    Content type: Research article

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  19. In a previous retrospective observational study, a 3-day regimen of oseltamivir as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for preventing transmission of influenza in wards was shown to be comparable to 7- to 10-day r...

    Authors: Nobuhisa Ishiguro, Yoichi M. Ito, Sumio Iwasaki, Miki Nagao, Hideki Kawamura, Shinichiro Kanai, Yoko Nukui, Koichi Tokuda, Takayuki Miyara, Hidetoshi Igari, Koichi Yamada, Hiroki Chikumi, Chiaki Sano, Ryuji Koike, Tetsuya Yagi and Nobuo Murakami

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:887

    Content type: Study protocol

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  20. The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) posed an enormous threat to public health. The use of antiviral drugs in patients with this disease have triggered people’s attentions. Whether interferon al...

    Authors: Jingyuan Liu, Chunjing Du, Lin Pu, Pan Xiang, Haofeng Xiong, Wen Xie, Zhihai Chen and Ang Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:885

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The introduction of Zika and chikungunya to dengue hyperendemic regions increased interest in better understanding characteristics of these infections. We conducted a cohort study in Mexico to evaluate the nat...

    Authors: Pablo F. Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Héctor Armando Rincón León, Sandra Caballero Sosa, Emilia Ruiz, José Gabriel Nájera Cancino, Paul Rodriguez de La Rosa, María de Lourdes Guerrero Almeida, John H. Powers III, John H. Beigel, Sally Hunsberger, Karina Trujillo, Pilar Ramos, Fernando J. Arteaga-Cabello, Alexander López-Roblero, Raydel Valdés-Salgado, Hugo Arroyo-Figueroa…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:881

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Epidemic projections and public health policies addressing Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 have been implemented without data reporting on the seroconversion of the population since scalable antibody testing ha...

    Authors: Daniel J. Nesbitt, Daniel P. Jin, Joseph W. Hogan, Jenny Yang, Haidee Chen, Philip A. Chan, Melissa J. Simon, Matthew Vargas, Ewa King, Richard C. Huard, Utpala Bandy, Christopher D. Hillyer and Larry L. Luchsinger

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:871

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Serious bacterial infection rates in febrile infants < 60 days are about 8–11%. Less than 1% of febrile infants with no respiratory symptoms will have pneumonia however, chest radiography (CXR) rates remain be...

    Authors: Ali Ozcan, Evelyn Laskowski, Shashi Sahai and Kelly Levasseur

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:862

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is an important cause of hospitalization and death in young children. The majority of deaths (99%) occur in low- and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs). Vaccines ...

    Authors: Yvette N. Löwensteyn, Natalie I. Mazur, Harish Nair, Joukje E. Willemsen, Ghislaine van Thiel and Louis Bont

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:857

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:962

  25. Several independent risk factors have been reported to influence viral shedding following COVID-19 infection, but the influence of host-related molecular factors has not yet been described. We report a case of...

    Authors: Farzana Haque, Patrick Lillie, Farhana Haque and Anthony Maraveyas

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:854

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  26. A novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused huge damage to public health around the world. Revealing the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 and control efficiency is important for containing the spread of...

    Authors: Chaoyuan Cheng, Xinru Wan and Zhibin Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:849

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is still attracting public attention because of its outbreak in various cities in China. Predicting future outbreaks or epidemics disease based on past incidence da...

    Authors: Cai-Xia Lv, Shu-Yi An, Bao-Jun Qiao and Wei Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:839

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Acute pneumonia remains a leading cause of death among children below 5 years of age in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo), despite introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PC...

    Authors: Archippe M. Birindwa, Jerry K. Kasereka, Lucia Gonzales-Siles, Shadi Geravandi, Mambo Mwilo, Léonard K. Tudiakwile, Néné L. Mwinja, Balthazar Muhigirwa, Théophile Kashosi, Jeanière T. Manegabe, Elie B. Bugashane, Stay M. Saili, Clement Mungo, Rickard Nordén, Rune Andersson and Susann Skovbjerg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:837

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a worldwide pandemic and has a huge impact on public health and socio-economic development. The purpose of this study is to explore the diagnostic value of the...

    Authors: Weiping Lu, Jianguo Wei, Tingting Xu, Miao Ding, Xiaoyan Li, Mengxue He, Kai Chen, Xiaodan Yang, Huiyuan She and Bingcang Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:836

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is now available in several world regions to better estimate transmission dynamics. However, to date, there is no epidemiological data regarding anti-SARS-CoV-2 pre...

    Authors: Cristina Díaz-Salazar, Adriana Sánchez-García, René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Donato Saldívar-Rodríguez and José Gerardo González-González

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:835

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Although neutropenia is relatively frequent in infants and children and is mostly a benign condition with a self-limited course, it can lead to life-threatening severe infections.

    Authors: Ignacio Callejas Caballero, Marta Illán Ramos, Arantxa Berzosa Sánchez, Eduardo Anguita and José Tomás Ramos Amador

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:830

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  32. We report a mononucleosis-like illnesses case due to co-infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) and spotted fever group rickettsia (SFGR), which to the best of our knowledge, h...

    Authors: Bin Zhao, Haohua Hou, Ran Gao, Bing Tian and Baocheng Deng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:829

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Elderly patients with COVID-19 were shown to have a high case-fatality rate. We aimed to explore the risk factors associated with death in patients over 70 years old (yr).

    Authors: Xu Zhu, Wenzheng Yuan, Junwei Shao, Kesheng Huang, Qingbo Wang, Shuang Yao, Wei Lu, Li Liu and Tao Fu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:821

    Content type: Research article

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  34. To fight against COVID-19, many policymakers are wavering on stricter public health interventions. Examining the different strategies both in and out of China’s Hubei province, which contained the epidemic in ...

    Authors: Yu Liu, Fangfang Zheng, Zhicheng Du, Jinghua Li, Jing Gu, Mei Jiang, Daisuke Yoneoka, Stuart Gilmour and Yuantao Hao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:820

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Liver injuries have been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to investigate the clinical role played by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

    Authors: Qing-Lei Zeng, Zu-Jiang Yu, Fanpu Ji, Guang-Ming Li, Guo-Fan Zhang, Jiang-Hai Xu, Wan-Bao Lin, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Guo-Tao Li, Guang-Lin Cui and Fu-Sheng Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:818

    Content type: Research article

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  36. SARS-CoV-2 infection rapidly spreads in populations due to the high rates of community transmission. Interrupting the shedding of SARS-CoV-2 may reduce the incidence of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19). Herei...

    Authors: Carolina Iturriaga, Nat Eiffler, Rad Aniba, Rym Ben-Othman, Guillermo Perez-Mateluna, Jessica K. V. Meyer, Eleanor N. Fish, Tobias R. Kollmann, Nicolas Severino, Stephen Stick, Arturo Borzutzky, Cecilia Perret, José A. Castro-Rodriguez and Diego Garcia-Huidobro

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:814

    Content type: Study protocol

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  37. The efficacy of lockdown in containing the COVID-19 pandemic has been reported in different studies. However, the impact on sociodemographic characteristics of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 has not been...

    Authors: Mayda Rahi, Diane Le Pluart, Alexandra Beaudet, Sophie Ismaël, Marion Parisey, Nora Poey, Hassan Tarhini, François-Xavier Lescure, Yazdan Yazdanpanah and Laurène Deconinck

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:812

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a severe hyperinflammatory disease, whose diagnosis is based on the HLH-2004 criteria. In secondary forms of HLH (sHLH), the primary goal is treating the triggering factors suc...

    Authors: Marco Meazza Prina, Francesca Martini, Federico Bracchi, Daniela Di Mauro, Anna Fargnoli, Marco Motta, Cristina Giussani, Giovanni Gobbin, Monica Taverna and Andrea D’Alessio

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:811

    Content type: Case report

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  39. The current literature is scarce as to the outcomes of COVID-19 infection in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients and whether immunosuppressive or chemotherapeutic agents can cause worsening of the patients’ condit...

    Authors: Owrang Eilami, Max Igor Banks Ferreira Lopes, Ronaldo Cesar Borges Gryschek and Kaveh Taghipour

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:809

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Since the COVID-19 pandemic, several therapeutic agents have been used in COVID-19 management. However, the results were controversial. Here, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine ...

    Authors: Zhe Chen, Aihua Liu, Yongjing Cheng, Xutao Wang, Xiaomao Xu, Jia Huang, Yuqing Ma, Ming Gao and Cibo Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:805

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The clinical spectrum of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is wide, which can range from fever to multiple organ failure. Conservative therapy plays a key role in the treatment of SFTS. Howeve...

    Authors: Uh. Jin Kim, Hyukjin Park, Kye Hun Kim, Dong Min Kim, Seung Eun Kim, Seung Ji Kang, Kyung-Hwa Park and Sook In Jung

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:803

    Content type: Case report

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  42. The COVID-19 pandemic has elicited imposition of some form of travel restrictions by almost all countries in the world. Most restrictions currently persist, although some have been gradually eased. It remains ...

    Authors: Sylvia Xiao Wei Gwee, Pearleen Ee Yong Chua, Min Xian Wang and Junxiong Pang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:799

    Content type: Research article

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  43. An outbreak of pneumonia, COVID-19 associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan city and then rapidly spread to other cities. Wenzhou is located approximate...

    Authors: Hongjun Zhao, Xiaoxiao Lu, Wenhui Lun, Tiegang Li, Boqi Rao, Dedong Wang, Di Wu, Fuman Qiu, Zhicong Yang and Jiachun Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:793

    Content type: Research article

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  44. The true burden and geographical distribution of human Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1) encephalitis is unknown. All detected cases so far have been recorded in Bavaria, southern Germany.

    Authors: Dennis Tappe, Kirsten Pörtner, Christina Frank, Hendrik Wilking, Arnt Ebinger, Christiane Herden, Christoph Schulze, Birgit Muntau, Petra Eggert, Petra Allartz, Gerlind Schuldt, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Martin Beer and Dennis Rubbenstroth

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:787

    Content type: Case report

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  45. SARS-CoV-2 is frequently shed in the stool of patients hospitalised with COVID-19. The extent of faecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 among individuals in the community, and its potential to contribute to spread of d...

    Authors: Natasha Marcella Vaselli, Wega Setiabudi, Krishanthi Subramaniam, Emily R. Adams, Lance Turtle, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Tom Solomon, Nigel A. Cunliffe, Neil French and Daniel Hungerford

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:784

    Content type: Research article

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  46. The severity of COVID-19 associates with the clinical decision making and the prognosis of COVID-19 patients, therefore, early identification of patients who are likely to develop severe or critical COVID-19 i...

    Authors: Jianjiang Qi, Di He, Dagan Yang, Mengyan Wang, Wenjun Ma, Huaizhong Cui, Fei Ye, Fei Wang, Jinjian Xu, Zhijian Li, Chuntao Liu, Jing Wu, Kexin Qi, Rui Wu, Jinsong Huang, Shourong Liu…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:774

    Content type: Research article

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  47. From the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the development of infrastructures to record, collect and report COVID-19‏ ‏data has become a fundamental necessity in the world. The disease registry system can he...

    Authors: Javad Zarei, Mohammad Badavi, Majid Karandish, Maryam Haddadzadeh Shoushtari, Maryam Dastoorpoor, Farid Yousefi, Hanieh Raji and Maria Cheraghi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:773

    Content type: Research article

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Annual Journal Metrics

COVID-19 Announcement

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.