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Viral diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has become a world health threaten. Its risk factors with death were still not known. White blood cells (WBC) count as a reflection of inflammation has played a vital role in ...

    Authors: Bin Zhu, Xiaokai Feng, Chunguo Jiang, Song Mi, Liya Yang, Zhigang Zhao, Yong Zhang and Liming Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:574

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to favor a poorer outcome of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). We aimed to assess if 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25OHD) levels are associated with interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels ...

    Authors: Irene Campi, Luigi Gennari, Daniela Merlotti, Christian Mingiano, Alessandro Frosali, Luca Giovanelli, Camilla Torlasco, Martino F. Pengo, Francesca Heilbron, Davide Soranna, Antonella Zambon, Marta Di Stefano, Carmen Aresta, Marco Bonomi, Biagio Cangiano, Vittoria Favero…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:566

    Content type: Research article

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  3. This study was performed with the intention of comparing the clinical, laboratory, and chest computed tomography (CT) findings between severe and non-severe patients as well as between different age groups com...

    Authors: Meisam Hoseinyazdi, Saeid Esmaeilian, Reza Jahankhah, Arash Teimouri, Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Faranak Rafiee, Reza Jalli and Sedighe Hooshmandi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:560

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Recent conflict and war in Yemen lead to collapse of the health system, decrease of immunization coverage and spread of many outbreaks. On May 22, 2018, the surveillance officer in Shabwah governorate reported...

    Authors: Abdulkareem Ali Hussein Nassar, Mohammed Abdullah Al Amad, Mohammed Qasim and Fekri Dureab

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:551

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Due to the latent onset of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is important to identify patients with increased probabilities for disease progression early in order to implement timely medical strate...

    Authors: Xiaowei Gong, Shiwei Kang, Xianfeng Guo, Yan Li, Haixiang Gao and Yadong Yuan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:549

    Content type: Research article

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  6. SARS-CoV-2 is a recently emerged pandemic coronavirus (CoV) capable of causing severe respiratory illness. However, a significant number of infected people present as asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic. In this...

    Authors: Belinda M. Jackson-Thompson, Emilie Goguet, Eric D. Laing, Cara H. Olsen, Simon Pollett, K. Monique Hollis-Perry, Santina E. Maiolatesi, Luca Illinik, Kathleen F. Ramsey, Anatalio E. Reyes, Yolanda Alcorta, Mimi A. Wong, Julian Davies, Orlando Ortega, Edward Parmelee, Alyssa R. Lindrose…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:544

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. At present, no agents are known to be effective at preventing COVID-19. Based on current knowledge of the pathogenesis of this disease, we suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection might be attenuated by directly main...

    Authors: Michael V. Dubina, Veronika V. Gomonova, Anastasia E. Taraskina, Natalia V. Vasilyeva and Sergey A. Sayganov

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:536

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Many popular disease transmission models have helped nations respond to the COVID-19 pandemic by informing decisions about pandemic planning, resource allocation, implementation of social distancing measures, ...

    Authors: Soumik Purkayastha, Rupam Bhattacharyya, Ritwik Bhaduri, Ritoban Kundu, Xuelin Gu, Maxwell Salvatore, Debashree Ray, Swapnil Mishra and Bhramar Mukherjee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:533

    Content type: Review

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  9. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is reported to have thrombogenic characteristics that activate factor X in vitro and stimulate the production of factor VIII and von Willebrand factor (vWF). Thrombosis associated with CM...

    Authors: Kaisei Kamatani, Tsuneaki Kenzaka, Ryu Sugimoto, Ayako Kumabe, Akihito Kitao and Hozuka Akita

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:530

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Reports on the effects of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on the clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) have been conflicting. We performed this meta-analysis to find con...

    Authors: Yihienew M. Bezabih, Alemayehu Bezabih, Endalkachew Alamneh, Gregory M. Peterson and Woldesellassie Bezabhe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:527

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Navigating the rapidly growing body of scientific literature on the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is challenging, and ongoing critical appraisal of this output is essential. We aimed to summarize and critically appraise...

    Authors: Israel Júnior Borges do Nascimento, Dónal P. O’Mathúna, Thilo Caspar von Groote, Hebatullah Mohamed Abdulazeem, Ishanka Weerasekara, Ana Marusic, Livia Puljak, Vinicius Tassoni Civile, Irena Zakarija-Grkovic, Tina Poklepovic Pericic, Alvaro Nagib Atallah, Santino Filoso, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi and Milena Soriano Marcolino

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:525

    Content type: Research article

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  12. With pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have recently attached worldwide attention as essential pathogens in respiratory infection. HCoV-229E has been described as a r...

    Authors: Wen Sun, Ji-Ping Liao, Kun-Yao Yu, Jian-Xing Qiu, Chen-Li Que, Guang-Fa Wang and Jing Ma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:524

    Content type: Case report

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  13. SARS-CoV-2 can affect the human brain and other neurological structures. An increasing number of publications report neurological manifestations in patients with COVID-19. However, no studies have comprehensiv...

    Authors: Juan I. Guerrero, Luis A. Barragán, Juan D. Martínez, Juan P. Montoya, Alejandra Peña, Fidel E. Sobrino, Zulma Tovar-Spinoza and Kemel A. Ghotme

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:515

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome, and corticosteroids have been considered as possible therapeutic agents for this disease. However, there is limited l...

    Authors: Jong Hoon Hyun, Moo Hyun Kim, Yujin Sohn, Yunsuk Cho, Yae Jee Baek, Jung Ho Kim, Jin Young Ahn, Jun Yong Choi, Joon Sup Yeom, Mi Young Ahn, Eun Jin Kim, Ji-Hyeon Baek, Young Keun Kim, Heun Choi and Su Jin Jeong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:506

    Content type: Research article

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  15. In response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, several countries adopted measures of social distancing to a different degree. For many countries, after successfully curbing the initial wave, lockdown measures w...

    Authors: Pietro Coletti, Pieter Libin, Oana Petrof, Lander Willem, Steven Abrams, Sereina A. Herzog, Christel Faes, Elise Kuylen, James Wambua, Philippe Beutels and Niel Hens

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:503

    Content type: Research article

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  16. COVID-19 is a novel disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. During the global vaccination rollout, it is vital to thoroughly understand the modes of transmission of the virus in order to prevent further spread of varian...

    Authors: Lucas Zhou, Samuel K. Ayeh, Vignesh Chidambaram and Petros C. Karakousis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:496

    Content type: Review

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  17. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has been largely controlled in China, to the point where case fatality rate (CFR) data can be comprehensively evaluated.

    Authors: Qing-Bin Lu, Hai-Yang Zhang, Tian-Le Che, Han Zhao, Xi Chen, Rui Li, Wan-Li Jiang, Hao-Long Zeng, Xiao-Ai Zhang, Hui Long, Qiang Wang, Ming-Qing Wu, Michael P. Ward, Yue Chen, Zhi-Jie Zhang, Yang Yang…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:481

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan started in December 2019 and was under control by the end of March 2020 with a total of 50,006 confirmed cases by the implementation of a series of nonpharmaceutical intervention...

    Authors: Xi Huo, Jing Chen and Shigui Ruan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:476

    Content type: Research article

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  19. In 2017, New Caledonia experienced an outbreak of severe dengue causing high hospital burden (4379 cases, 416 hospital admissions, 15 deaths). We decided to build a local operational model predictive of dengue...

    Authors: Ingrid Marois, Carole Forfait, Catherine Inizan, Elise Klement-Frutos, Anabelle Valiame, Daina Aubert, Ann-Claire Gourinat, Sylvie Laumond, Emilie Barsac, Jean-Paul Grangeon, Cécile Cazorla, Audrey Merlet, Arnaud Tarantola, Myrielle Dupont-Rouzeyrol and Elodie Descloux

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:470

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic since March 11th, 2020. Despite emerging reports and literature covering a broad spectrum of COVID-19 clinical manifestations, facets of ...

    Authors: Muzakkir Amir, Andi Renata and Levina Tri Ratana

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:465

    Content type: Case report

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  21. COVID-19 is a public health emergency with a high mortality rate and it reduces the patient’s Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) significantly. This effect is measured in the current study.

    Authors: Cyrus Alinia, Safura Yaghmaei, Farman Zahir Abdullah, Asad Ahmadi, Nasrin Samadi, Sima Pourteimour, Hossein Safari, Hassan Mahmoodi, Ghobad Moradi and Bakhtiar Piroozi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:459

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:538

  22. The aim of this study was to characterize the transmission chains and clusters of COVID-19 infection in Tunisia.

    Authors: Mouna Safer, Hejer Letaief, Aicha Hechaichi, Chahida Harizi, Sonia Dhaouadi, Leila Bouabid, Sondes Darouiche, Donia Gharbi, Nawel Elmili, Hamida Ben Salah, Mongi Hammami, Khouloud Talmoudi, Rim Moussa, Nejib Charaa, Hasna Termiz, Fethi Ltaief…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:453

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by Hantaan virus is characterized by systemic immunopathological injury. Pentraxin-3 is an acute-phase reactant involved in the processes of inflammation and...

    Authors: Hong Du, Haifeng Hu, Pingzhong Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Ying Zhang, Hong Jiang, Jing Li, Xuefan Bai and Jianqi Lian

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:445

    Content type: Research article

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  24. By mid-July 2020, more than 108,000 COVID-19 cases had been diagnosed in Canada with more than half in the province of Quebec. In this context, we launched a study to analyze the epidemiological characteristic...

    Authors: Rodolphe Jantzen, Nolwenn Noisel, Sophie Camilleri-Broët, Catherine Labbé, Thibault de Malliard, Yves Payette and Philippe Broët

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:435

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Since December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread quickly among the population and brought a severe global impact. However, considerable geographical disparities in the distribution of CO...

    Authors: Huihui Zhang, Yini Liu, Fangyao Chen, Baibing Mi, Lingxia Zeng and Leilei Pei

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:428

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Hyperinflammation in severe COVID-19 infection increases the risk of respiratory failure and one of the cogent reasons of mortality associated with COVID-19. Baricitinib, a janus kinases inhibitor, can potenti...

    Authors: Md. Jahidul Hasan, Raihan Rabbani, Ahmad Mursel Anam, Shihan Mahmud Redwanul Huq, Mohammad Mufizul Islam Polash, Shahzadi Sayeeda Tun Nessa and Sitesh C. Bachar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:427

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The Dutch province of Limburg borders the German district of Heinsberg, which had a large cluster of COVID-19 cases linked to local carnival activities before any cases were reported in the Netherlands. Howeve...

    Authors: Mitch van Hensbergen, Casper D. J. den Heijer, Petra Wolffs, Volker Hackert, Henriëtte L. G. ter Waarbeek, Bas B. Oude Munnink, Reina S. Sikkema, Edou R. Heddema and Christian J. P. A. Hoebe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:418

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Following a first wave in spring and gradual easing of lockdown, Luxembourg experienced an early second epidemic wave of SARS-CoV-2 before the start of summer school holidays on 15th July. This provided the op...

    Authors: Joël Mossong, Laurent Mombaerts, Lisa Veiber, Jessica Pastore, Gwenaëlle Le Coroller, Michael Schnell, Silvana Masi, Laetitia Huiart and Paul Wilmes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:417

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 in December 2019, more than 8 million cases have occurred worldwide as of June 16, 2020. However, it is important to distinguish COVID-19 from other respiratory i...

    Authors: Xinghua Liu, Wei Li, Bo Zhang, Yan Guo, Zhao Hu, Cao Peng, Xiao Lei, Qunying Luo, Qiong Zhang, Wei Deng, Juanjuan Wang, Jianqiao Tang, Yunqiao Li and Jianying Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:412

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Accurately predicting outcomes for cancer patients with COVID-19 has been clinically challenging. Numerous clinical variables have been retrospectively associated with disease severity, but the predictive valu...

    Authors: Saket Navlakha, Sejal Morjaria, Rocio Perez-Johnston, Allen Zhang and Ying Taur

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:391

    Content type: Technical advance

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  31. Aseptic meningitis is most often caused by enteroviruses (EVs), but EVs associated with aseptic meningitis have not yet been reported in Liaocheng. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and gen...

    Authors: Jing Wang, Min Meng, Huan Xu, Ting Wang, Ying Liu, Han Yan, Peiman Liu, Daogang Qin and Qiaozhi Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:405

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory event and a fatal complication of viral infections. Whether sHLH may also be observed in patients with a cytokine sto...

    Authors: Mei Meng, Limin Chen, Sheng Zhang, Xuan Dong, Wenzhe Li, Ranran Li, Yunxin Deng, Tao Wang, Yan Xu, Jiao Liu, Yanxia Huang, Yizhu Chen, Sisi Huang, Zhenliang Wen, Lidi Zhang, Hangxiang Du…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:398

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Congenital cytomegalovirus disease (cCMV) is common and can be fatal or cause severe sequelae. Circulating strains of cytomegalovirus carry a high number of variable or disrupted genes. One of these is UL146, ...

    Authors: Christian Berg, Mette M. Rosenkilde, Thomas Benfield, Lene Nielsen, Thomas Sundelin and Hans R. Lüttichau

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:386

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The epidemiology and outcomes of COVID-19 patients in Thailand are scarce.

    Authors: Rujipas Sirijatuphat, Yupin Suputtamongkol, Nasikarn Angkasekwinai, Navin Horthongkham, Methee Chayakulkeeree, Pinyo Rattanaumpawan, Pornpan Koomanachai, Susan Assanasen, Yong Rongrungruang, Nitipatana Chierakul, Ranistha Ratanarat, Anupop Jitmuang, Walaiporn Wangchinda and Wannee Kantakamalakul

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:382

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a public health emergency. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the risk factors for mortality in severe and critical COVID-19 patients.

    Authors: Liulin Wang, Xiaobin Cheng, Qiufen Dong, Chenliang Zhou, Yeming Wang, Bin Song, Weinan Li, Min Wang, Rui Qin, Qi Long, Juan Liu, Jing Li, Dan Li, Gang Li and Yuanming Ba

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:371

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Since the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, clinical data from various parts of the world have been reported. Up till now, there has been no clinical data with regards to COVID-19 from Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H...

    Authors: Alma Trnacevic, Amer Mujkanovic, Noura Al-Salloum, Amra Sakusic, Emir Trnacevic, Emir Jusufovic, Fatima Hukic, Rahima Jahic and Richard Stratton

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:367

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) share similar symptoms with influenza A (IA), but it is more worthwhile to understand the disparities of the two infections regarding their clinical characteristics on admis...

    Authors: Feng Liang, Xianfeng Wang, Jianbo Shao, Jun Chen, Lei Liu, Hui Li, Yi Xu, Liya He, Huiying Liang, Kuanrong Li, Sitang Gong and Huimin Xia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:365

    Content type: Research article

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  38. In 2020, a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, quickly spread worldwide within a few months. Although coronaviruses typically infect the upper or lower respiratory tract, the virus RNA can be detected in plasma. The ...

    Authors: Changzhong Jin, Bin Yu, Jie Zhang, Hao Wu, Xipeng Zhou, Hangping Yao, Fumin Liu, Xiangyun Lu, Linfang Cheng, Miao Jiang and Nanping Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:357

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has challenged public health agencies globally. In order to effectively target government responses, it is critical to identify the individuals most...

    Authors: M. Flook, C. Jackson, E. Vasileiou, C. R. Simpson, M. D. Muckian, U. Agrawal, C. McCowan, Y. Jia, J. L. K. Murray, L. D. Ritchie, C. Robertson, S. J. Stock, X. Wang, M. E. J. Woolhouse, A. Sheikh and H. R. Stagg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:342

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that rapidly spreads worldwide and co-infection of COVID-19 and influenza may occur in some cases. We aimed to describe clinical features a...

    Authors: Xunliang Tong, Xiaomao Xu, Guoyue Lv, He Wang, Anqi Cheng, Dingyi Wang, Guohui Fan, Yue Zhang and Yanming Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:341

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Unusually high snowfall in western Washington State in February 2019 led to widespread school and workplace closures. We assessed the impact of social distancing caused by this extreme weather event on the tra...

    Authors: Michael L. Jackson, Gregory R. Hart, Denise J. McCulloch, Amanda Adler, Elisabeth Brandstetter, Kairsten Fay, Peter Han, Kirsten Lacombe, Jover Lee, Thomas R. Sibley, Deborah A. Nickerson, Mark J. Rieder, Lea Starita, Janet A. Englund, Trevor Bedford, Helen Chu…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:335

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The clinical and imaging features of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections that progressed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been explored in numerous ...

    Authors: Yan Rong, Fei Wang, Jinfei Tian, Xinhua Liang, Jing Wang, Xiaoli Li, Dandan Zhang, Jing Liu, Huadong Zeng, Yang Zhou and Yi Shi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:333

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe, often fatal illness in humans and nonhuman primates caused by the Ebola virus. The recently approved rVSV-EBOV vaccine is not available in many high-risk countries hence ...

    Authors: Frankline Sevidzem Wirsiy, Alphonse Um Boock and Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla Akoachere

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:324

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) is a leading cause of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality worldwide. Respiratory microbes that were simultaneously detected in the respiratory tracts of hospitaliz...

    Authors: Phuong Thai Truong, Shinji Saito, Ikuyo Takayama, Hiroyuki Furuya, Binh Gia Nguyen, Thanh Van Do, Phuong Thu Phan, Cuong Duy Do, Co Xuan Dao, Thach The Pham, Tuan Quoc Dang, Chau Quy Ngo, Ngan Thi Le, Vuong Minh Bui, Dung Trung Le, Van Thi Tuong Vu…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:320

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Accurate diagnosis in patients with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is essential to guide treatment and limit spread of the virus. The combined nasal and throat swab is used widely, but its diagn...

    Authors: Kuan Ken Lee, Dimitrios Doudesis, Daniella A. Ross, Anda Bularga, Claire L. MacKintosh, Oliver Koch, Ingolfur Johannessen, Kate Templeton, Sara Jenks, Andrew R. Chapman, Anoop S. V. Shah, Atul Anand, Meghan R. Perry and Nicholas L. Mills

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:318

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Dengue infection is caused by an arbovirus with a wide range of presentations, varying from asymptomatic disease to unspecific febrile illness and haemorrhagic syndrome with shock, which can evolve to death. I...

    Authors: Marielton dos Passos Cunha, Amaro Nunes Duarte-Neto, Shahab Zaki Pour, Ludhmila Abrahão Hajjar, Fernando Pereira Frassetto, Marisa Dolhnikoff, Paulo Hilario do Nascimento Saldiva and Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:311

    Content type: Case report

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  47. Covid-19 is a disease with high morbidity and mortality among elderly residents of long-term care facilities (LTCF). During an outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the LTCF an effective screening tool is essent...

    Authors: P. Sabaka, A. Koščálová, I. Straka, J. Hodosy, R. Lipták, B. Kmotorková, M. Kachlíková and A. Kušnírová

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:308

    Content type: Research article

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Annual Journal Metrics

COVID-19 Announcement

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.