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Viral diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major concern for blood safety in high-prevalence HBV countries such as China. In Shenzhen, dual hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (E...

    Authors: Xianlin Ye, Tong Li, Ran Li, Heng Liu, Junpeng Zhao and Jinfeng Zeng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:83

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Early identification of patients who are at high risk of poor clinical outcomes is of great importance in saving the lives of patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the context of limited m...

    Authors: Zhi-Yong Zeng, Shao-Dan Feng, Gong-Ping Chen and Jiang-Nan Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:80

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The lack of knowledge regarding the pathogenesis and host immune response during SARS-CoV-2 infection has limited the development of effective treatments. Thus, we longitudinally investigated the dynamic chang...

    Authors: Yangli Liu, Weiping Tan, Haihong Chen, Ying Zhu, Li Wan, Ke Jiang, Yubiao Guo, Kejing Tang, Canmao Xie, Hui Yi, Yukun Kuang and Yifeng Luo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:79

    Content type: Research article

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  4. African-Americans/Blacks have suffered higher morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 than all other racial groups. This study aims to identify the causes of this health disparity, determine prognostic indicator...

    Authors: Raavi Gupta, Raag Agrawal, Zaheer Bukhari, Absia Jabbar, Donghai Wang, John Diks, Mohamed Alshal, Dokpe Yvonne Emechebe, F. Charles Brunicardi, Jason M. Lazar, Robert Chamberlain, Aaliya Burza and M. A. Haseeb

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:78

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Hydroxychloroquine has not been associated with improved survival among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the majority of observational studies and similarly was not identified as an effective prophylaxis foll...

    Authors: Andrew Ip, Jaeil Ahn, Yizhao Zhou, Andre H. Goy, Eric Hansen, Andrew L. Pecora, Brittany A. Sinclaire, Urszula Bednarz, Michael Marafelias, Ihor S. Sawczuk, Joseph P. Underwood III, David M. Walker, Rajiv Prasad, Robert L. Sweeney, Marie G. Ponce, Samuel La Capra…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:72

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus that was first discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. With the growi...

    Authors: Ran Jing, Rama Rao Vunnam, Elizabeth Schnaubelt, Chad Vokoun, Allison Cushman-Vokoun, David Goldner and Srinivas Rao Vunnam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:68

    Content type: Case report

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  7. West Nile virus (WNV) infections have become increasingly prevalent in certain European countries, including Hungary. Although most human infections do not cause severe symptoms, in approximately 1% of cases W...

    Authors: Márton Koch, Éva Pozsgai, Viktor Soós, Anna Nagy, János Girán, Norbert Nyisztor, Tibor Martyin, Zsófia Müller, Melánia Fehér, Edit Hajdú and Csaba Varga

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:65

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Although traditional diagnostic techniques of infection are mature and price favorable at present, most of them are time-consuming and with a low positivity. Metagenomic next⁃generation sequencing (mNGS) was s...

    Authors: Hongxia Duan, Xuan Li, Aihong Mei, Ping Li, Yang Liu, Xiaofeng Li, Weiwei Li, Changhui Wang and Shuanshuan Xie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:62

    Content type: Research article

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  9. In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, Hubei, China. Moreover, it has become a global pandemic. This is o...

    Authors: Xue-song Wen, Dan Jiang, Lei Gao, Jian-zhong Zhou, Jun Xiao, Xiao-cheng Cheng, Bin He, Yue Chen, Peng Lei, Xiao-wei Tan, Shu Qin and Dong-ying Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:57

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a high-risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Cellular immune responses are essential for HCC development, and the CD4+ and CD8+ T subtypes are identified as the pr...

    Authors: Ruoyu Wang, Dong Zhang, Kewei Sun, Jianping Peng, Wenfang Zhu, Sihan Yin, Dan Tang and Yunan Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:56

    Content type: Research article

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  11. An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred in a kindergarten located Shenzhen City on March 4, 2018. We were invited to investigate to the risk factors associated with this outbreak.

    Authors: Yuan Li, Xiangbo Fan, Guangqing Yu, Peinan Wei, Yong Wang and Hongxiong Guo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:54

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Workplace absenteeism increases significantly during influenza epidemics. Sick leave records may facilitate more timely detection of influenza outbreaks, as trends in increased sick leave may precede alerts is...

    Authors: Tom Duchemin, Jonathan Bastard, Pearl Anne Ante-Testard, Rania Assab, Oumou Salama Daouda, Audrey Duval, Jérôme-Philippe Garsi, Radowan Lounissi, Narimane Nekkab, Helene Neynaud, David R. M. Smith, William Dab, Kevin Jean, Laura Temime and Mounia N. Hocine

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:52

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The spread of a highly pathogenic, novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a once-in-a-century pandemic, having already infected over 63 million people worldwide. Novel therapies are urgently needed. Jan...

    Authors: Lucas Walz, Avi J. Cohen, Andre P. Rebaza, James Vanchieri, Martin D. Slade, Charles S. Dela Cruz and Lokesh Sharma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:47

    Content type: Research article

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  14. COVID-19 studies are primarily from the inpatient setting, skewing towards severe disease. Race and comorbidities predict hospitalization, however, ambulatory presentation of milder COVID-19 disease and charac...

    Authors: Laura Vaughan, Darlene Veruttipong, Jonathan G. Shaw, Noemie Levy, Lauren Edwards and Marcy Winget

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:40

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its associated disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a worldwide emergency. Demographic, comorbidity and laboratory determinants of de...

    Authors: Jon Gitz Holler, Robert Eriksson, Tomas Østergaard Jensen, Maarten van Wijhe, Thea Kølsen Fischer, Ole Schmeltz Søgaard, Simone Bastrup Israelsen, Rajesh Mohey, Thilde Fabricius, Frederik Jøhnk, Lothar Wiese, Stine Johnsen, Christian Søborg, Henrik Nielsen, Ole Kirk, Birgitte Lindegaard Madsen…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:39

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. However, a lack of epidemiological data remains for this pathology, and the performances of the influenza-like illness (ILI) case definitions us...

    Authors: Mamadou Aliou Barry, Florent Arinal, Cheikh Talla, Boris Gildas Hedible, Fatoumata Diene Sarr, Ibrahim Oumar Ba, Boly Diop, Ndongo Dia and Muriel Vray

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:31

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Severe fever thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is the causative agent of severe fever thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS). SFTS is an emerging infectious disease, characterized by high fever, gastrointestin...

    Authors: Hyungdon Lee, Woo Young Choi, Choon Mee Kim, Na-Ra Yun, Dong-Min Kim, Sang-Hyun Pyun, Byung Jun Yu and You Mi Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:25

    Content type: Case report

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  18. Mozambique has a high burden of group A rotavirus (RVA) infection and chronic undernutrition. This study aimed to determine the frequency and potential risk factors for RVA infection in undernourished children...

    Authors: Assucênio Chissaque, Marta Cassocera, Carolina Gasparinho, Jéronimo Souzinho Langa, Adilson Fernando Loforte Bauhofer, Jorfélia José Chilaúle, Eva Dora João, Benilde António Munlela, Júlia Assiat Monteiro Sambo, Simone Salvador Boene, Marlene Bernardo Djedje, Elda Muianga Anapakala, Esperança Lourenço Guimarães, Diocreciano Matias Bero, Lena Vânia Manhique-Coutinho, Idalécia Cossa-Moiane…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:18

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Hydroa Vacciniforme-like Lymphoproliferative Disorder (HV-LPD) is the name given to a group of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated diseases. It resembles hydroa vacciniforme (HV), the rarest form of photosensi...

    Authors: Xiankun Wang, Peng Wang, Aibin Wang, Yanli Xu, Lin Wang and Zhihai Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:17

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  20. Little is known about the etiology of childhood diarrhea in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) especially after the introduction of rotavirus vaccines. This study aimed to identify gastrointestinal pathogens in ch...

    Authors: Ahmed R. Alsuwaidi, Klaithem Al Dhaheri, Sania Al Hamad, Junu George, Judy Ibrahim, Ghassan Ghatasheh, Mohammed Issa, Suleiman Al-Hammadi and Hassib Narchi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:7

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Due to the lack of proven therapies, we evaluated the effects of early administration of tocilizumab for COVID-19. By inhibition of the IL-6 receptor, tocilizumab may help to mitigate the hyperinflammatory res...

    Authors: Christine A. Vu, Kailynn J. DeRonde, Ana D. Vega, Meshell Maxam, Gregory Holt, Yoichiro Natori, Jose Gonzales Zamora, Veronica Salazar, Renata Boatwright, Stephen R. Morris, Daniela de Lima Corvino, Anmary Fernandez Betances, Leah Colucci, James Keegan, Andy Lopez, Andrew Hany Rezk…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:964

    Content type: Research article

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  22. COVID-19 is highly contagious, and the crude mortality rate could reach 49% in critical patients. Inflammation concerns on disease progression. This study analyzed blood inflammation indicators among mild, sev...

    Authors: Jing Gong, Hui Dong, Qing-Song Xia, Zhao-yi Huang, Ding-kun Wang, Yan Zhao, Wen-hua Liu, Sheng-hao Tu, Ming-min Zhang, Qi Wang and Fu-er Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:963

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The clinical characteristics of patients with confirmed 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Jilin Province, China were investigated.

    Authors: Qing Zhang, Qian Xu, Yi-yang Chen, Li-xin Lou, Li-he Che, Xiao-hua Li, Lu-yao Sun, Wan-guo Bao and Na Du

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:961

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The mortality rate from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is high among hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hence, risk evaluation tools are required to immediately identif...

    Authors: Mengyuan Liang, Miao He, Jian Tang, Xinliang He, Zhijun Liu, Siwei Feng, Ping Chen, Hui Li, Yu’e Xue, Tao Bai, Yanling Ma and Jianchu Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:960

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Previous published prognostic models for COVID-19 patients have been suggested to be prone to bias due to unrepresentativeness of patient population, lack of external validation, inappropriate statistical anal...

    Authors: Jiong Li, Yuntao Chen, Shujing Chen, Sihua Wang, Dingyu Zhang, Junfeng Wang, Douwe Postmus, Hesong Zeng, Guoyou Qin, Yin Shen, Jinjun Jiang and Yongfu Yu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:959

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Understanding the characteristics of the Covid-19 pandemic in different geographical regions, ethnic and socioeconomic settings are of emerging importance. This study presents the demographic and clinical feat...

    Authors: Macarena R. Vial, Anne Peters, Inia Pérez, María Spencer-Sandino, Mario Barbé, Lorena Porte, Thomas Weitzel, Mabel Aylwin, Pablo Vial, Rafael Araos and Jose M. Munita

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:955

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Treatment of patients with COVID-19 has included supportive care to mainly relief symptoms of the disease. Although World Health Organization (WHO) has not recommended any effective treatments for COVID-19, th...

    Authors: Marzieh Nojomi, Zeynab Yassin, Hossein Keyvani, Mahin Jamshidi Makiani, Maryam Roham, Azadeh Laali, Nasir Dehghan, Mehrnaz Navaei and Mitra Ranjbar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:954

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a world-wide health crisis. Limited information is available regarding which patients will experience more severe disease symptoms. We evaluated hospitalized...

    Authors: Jianwei Xiao, Xiang Li, Yuanliang Xie, Zengfa Huang, Yi Ding, Shengchao Zhao, Pei Yang, Dan Du, Bin Liu and Xiang Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:953

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, and outbreaks have occurred worldwide. Laboratory test results are an important basis for clinicians to determi...

    Authors: Song-Mao Ouyang, Hong-Quan Zhu, Ying-Na Xie, Zhi-Sheng Zou, Hui-Min Zuo, Yun-Wei Rao, Xiao-Yan Liu, Bin Zhong and Xin Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:952

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Dengue patients develop different disease severity ranging from mild (dengue fever [DF]) to severe forms (dengue hemorrhagic fever [DHF] and the fatal dengue shock syndrome [DSS]). Host genetics are considered...

    Authors: Unchana Arayasongsak, Izumi Naka, Jun Ohashi, Jintana Patarapotikul, Pornlada Nuchnoi, Thareerat Kalambaheti, Areerat Sa-Ngasang, Sumalee Chanama and Suwanna Chaorattanakawee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:948

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Early detection of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during the viremia and viruria facilitates proper patient management and mosquito control measurement to prevent disease spread. Therefore, a cost-effective nucle...

    Authors: Boon-Teong Teoh, Kim-Ling Chin, Nur-Izyan Samsudin, Shih-Keng Loong, Sing-Sin Sam, Kim-Kee Tan, Chee-Sieng Khor, Juraina Abd-Jamil, Nurhafiza Zainal, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Keivan Zandi and Sazaly AbuBakar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:947

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection swept through Wuhan and spread across China and overseas beginning in December 2019. To identify predictors associated with disease progre...

    Authors: Ping Yi, Xiang Yang, Cheng Ding, Yanfei Chen, Kaijin Xu, Qing Ni, Hong Zhao, Yongtao Li, Xuan Zhang, Jun Liu, Jifang Sheng and Lanjuan Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:943

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is rapidly spreading worldwide. There is limited information about prognostic markers that could help clinicians to identify COVID-19 patients with ...

    Authors: Josefina Robertson, Johanna M. Gostner, Staffan Nilsson, Lars-Magnus Andersson, Dietmar Fuchs and Magnus Gisslen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:942

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Identifying risk factors for severe novel-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is useful to ascertain which patients may benefit from advanced supportive care. The study offers a description of COVID-19 patients, ad...

    Authors: Anna Maria Cattelan, Eugenia Di Meco, Marco Trevenzoli, Alessia Frater, Anna Ferrari, Marco Villano, Federica Gomiero, Giovanni Carretta and Lolita Sasset

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:934

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Evaluate the safety and efficacy of 104-week regimen of Telbivudine(LdT)-based optimization strategy for Chinese patients who have chronic hepatits B(CHB) with HBeAg-negative.

    Authors: Weiqiang Gan, Jianguo Li, Chunlan Zhang, Xuefu Chen, Chaoshuang Lin and Zhiliang Gao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:931

    Content type: Research article

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  36. COVID-19 is a newly emerging disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which spread globally in early 2020. Asymptomatic carriers of the virus contribute to the propagation of this disease, and the e...

    Authors: Yuan Yuan, Jun He, Lei Gong, Weiwei Li, Liangliang Jiang, Jiang Liu, Qingqing Chen, Junling Yu, Sai Hou, Yonglin Shi, Siqi Lu, Zhuhui Zhang, Yinglu Ge, Nan Sa, Lan He, Jiabing Wu…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:930

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Thailand is home to around 69 million individuals. Dengue is hyper-endemic and all 4 serotypes are in active circulation in the country. Dengue outbreaks occur almost annually within Thailand in at least one p...

    Authors: Jue Tao Lim, Yiting Han, Borame Sue Lee Dickens, Esther Li Wen Choo, Lawrence Zheng Xiong Chew and Alex R. Cook

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:927

    Content type: Research article

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  38. In 2016 and 2017, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection outbreaks occurred in two communities in southern Thailand. This re-immerging infection can widely spread by mosquito bites and cause serious complications in a ce...

    Authors: Theerut Densathaporn, Rassamee Sangthong, Monvaris Sakolnapa, Smonrapat Surasombatpattana, Marisa Kemapunmanus, Promsin Masrinoul, Sutee Yoksan, Edward B. McNeil and Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:921

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a natural epidemic disease caused by various types of viruses of the genus Hantavirus, which are mainly transmitted by contact with the infected rodents and their ...

    Authors: Xiang Ying, Xiaoli Lai, Xiaoxiao Jin, Linghong Cai and Xiaotian Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:920

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Brazil became the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in Latin America since May 2020, reporting the highest number of cases and deaths in the region. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of SARS-CoV...

    Authors: Carolina Palamin Buonafine, Beatriz Nobre Monteiro Paiatto, Fabyano Bruno Leal, Samantha Faria de Matos, Camila Ohomoto de Morais, Giovanna Guazzelli Guerra, Marcus Vinicius Vidal Martuchelli, Danielle Bruna Leal Oliveira, Edison Luiz Durigon, Camila Pereira Soares, Erika Donizette Candido, Bruna Larotonda Telezynski, Marco Aurélio Palazzi Sáfadi and Flávia Jacqueline Almeida

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:917

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Influenza B is often perceived as a less severe strain of influenza. The epidemiology and clinical outcomes of influenza B have been less thoroughly investigated in hospitalised patients. The aims of this stud...

    Authors: Yogesh Sharma, Chris Horwood, Paul Hakendorf and Campbell Thompson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:913

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Human Sapoviruses (SaVs) has been reported as one of the causative agents of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. An outbreak of SaVs affected 482 primary school students during spring activities from Februa...

    Authors: Yuxiao Yan, Yuan Li, Wen Shi, Xiangyu Kong, Huiying Li, Qing Zhang, Lili Pang, Li Jiang, Junying Liu, Miao Jin, Yuning Li and Zhaojun Duan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:911

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Both COVID-19 and influenza A contribute to increased mortality among the elderly and those with existing comorbidities. Changes in the underlying immune mechanisms determine patient prognosis. This study aime...

    Authors: Fang Qian, Guiju Gao, Yangzi Song, Yanli Xu, Aibin Wang, Sa Wang, Yiwei Hao, Meiling Chen, Xiaoyang Ma, Tianwei Zhao, Xiaodi Guo, Zhihai Chen and Fujie Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:910

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Estimate the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ), its complications and healthcare utilization rates in adults (≥ 18-years-old) with a wide range of immunocompromised (IC) conditions compared to IC-free cohort.

    Authors: Cintia Muñoz-Quiles, Mónica López-Lacort, Javier Díez-Domingo and Alejandro Orrico-Sánchez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:905

    Content type: Research article

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  45. COVID-19 has become a major global threat. The present study aimed to develop a nomogram model to predict the survival of COVID-19 patients based on their clinical and laboratory data at admission.

    Authors: Xiaojun Ma, Huifang Wang, Junwei Huang, Yan Geng, Shuqi Jiang, Qiuping Zhou, Xuan Chen, Hongping Hu, Weifeng Li, Chengbin Zhou, Xinglin Gao, Na Peng and Yiyu Deng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:899

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Belgium was among the first countries in Europe with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. Since the first diagnosis on February 3rd, the epidemic has quickly evolved, with Belgium at the crossr...

    Authors: Karlijn van Halem, Robin Bruyndonckx, Jeroen van der Hilst, Janneke Cox, Paulien Driesen, Matthias Opsomer, Eveline Van Steenkiste, Björn Stessel, Jasperina Dubois and Peter Messiaen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:897

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:956