Skip to content


Viral diseases

Section edited by Jodie McVernon and Julian Tang

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

Page 1 of 16

  1. Content type: Research article

    We aim to investigate possible maternal- and pregnancy-related factors associated with the development of Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS) in children of mothers with probable gestational infection.

    Authors: Giulia P. Lima, Daniel Rozenbaum, Clarisse Pimentel, Ana Cristina Cisne Frota, Daniela Vivacqua, Elizabeth S. Machado, Fernanda Sztajnbok, Thalita Abreu, Raquel A. Soares and Cristina B. Hofer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:277

    Published on:

  2. Content type: Research article

    The goal of this research is to create a system that can use the available relevant information about the factors responsible for the spread of dengue and; use it to predict the occurrence of dengue within a g...

    Authors: Raghvendra Jain, Sra Sontisirikit, Sopon Iamsirithaworn and Helmut Prendinger

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:272

    Published on:

  3. Content type: Research article

    Rubella is a vaccine-preventable contagious disease causing an estimated 100,000 children to be born with congenital rubella syndrome each year globally. Studies documented that 18 rubella outbreaks were occur...

    Authors: Getachew Dinede, Abigiya Wondimagegnehu and Fikre Enquselassie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:267

    Published on:

  4. Content type: Case report

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging viral infectious disease with high mortality. It causes multiple organ dysfunction; however, myocarditis has never been reported as a complicat...

    Authors: Shotaro Miyamoto, Takashi Ito, Shinsaku Terada, Tomohiro Eguchi, Hiroaki Furubeppu, Hideki Kawamura, Tomotsugu Yasuda and Yasuyuki Kakihana

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:266

    Published on:

  5. Content type: Case report

    We report hereby a severe case of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome” (HPS) induced by Maripa virus in French Guiana and describe the mechanism of severity of the human disease.

    Authors: Hatem Kallel, Séverine Matheus, Claire Mayence, Stéphanie Houcke, Cyrille Mathien, Anne Lavergne and Didier Hommel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:260

    Published on:

  6. Content type: Research article

    Despite the high number of chikungunya cases in Indonesia in recent years, comprehensive epidemiological data are lacking. The systematic review was undertaken to provide data on incidence, the seroprevalence ...

    Authors: Harapan Harapan, Alice Michie, Mudatsir Mudatsir, Roy Nusa, Benediktus Yohan, Abram Luther Wagner, R. Tedjo Sasmono and Allison Imrie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:243

    Published on:

  7. Content type: Research article

    Although Indonesia has high fatality rate of human A/H5N1 cases, epidemiological and clinical data on influenza virus circulation among humans has been limited. Within Indonesia, Bali province is of interest d...

    Authors: Wiku Adisasmito, Sri Budayanti, Dewi Nur Aisyah, Richard Coker, Ayu Rai Andayani, Gavin J. D. Smith and James W. Rudge

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:231

    Published on:

  8. Content type: Research article

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the major public health problem worldwide. In clinical practice, serological and molecular assays are the most commonly used diagnostic methods to detect HBV infection in c...

    Authors: Xin-xin Shen, Fang-zhou Qiu, Li-Ping Shen, Ten-fei Yan, Meng-chuan Zhao, Ju-Ju Qi, Chen Chen, Li Zhao, Le Wang, Zhi-shan Feng and Xue-jun Ma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:229

    Published on:

  9. Content type: Case report

    Total four influenza pandemics have happened since twentieth century, and currently influenza is in the seasonal epidemic around the world, with a sharp increase in its incidence each year. As an effective tre...

    Authors: Ruochan Chen, Zhixiong Fang and Yan Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:224

    Published on:

  10. Content type: Research article

    Chikungunya is an arthropod-borne viral disease now identified in over 60 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has spread in the last 15 years to many countries, causi...

    Authors: Femke W. Overbosch, Floor Elfrink, Janke Schinkel and Gerard J. B. Sonder

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:196

    Published on:

  11. Content type: Research article

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can progress to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease in a substantial proportion of patients. The infection is frequently asymptomatic, leaving many infected individu...

    Authors: H. Kileng, T. Gutteberg, R. Goll and E. J. Paulssen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:189

    Published on:

  12. Content type: Research article

    Detecting the onset of influenza epidemic is important for epidemiological surveillance and for investigating the factors driving spatiotemporal transmission patterns. Most approaches define the epidemic onset...

    Authors: Jun Cai, Bing Zhang, Bo Xu, Karen Kie Yan Chan, Gerardo Chowell, Huaiyu Tian and Bing Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:181

    Published on:

  13. Content type: Research article

    The emergence of norovirus genotype GII.4 variants has been associated with gastroenteritis pandemics worldwide, prompting molecular surveillance for early detection of novel strains. In this study, we aimed t...

    Authors: Maria E. Hasing, Bonita E. Lee, Yuanyuan Qiu, Ming Xia, Kanti Pabbaraju, Anita Wong, Graham Tipples, Xi Jiang and Xiaoli L. Pang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:177

    Published on:

  14. Content type: Research article

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is emerging in Asian 3 countries, China, Japan and Korea, which are scrub typhus endemic areas, and its incidence is increasing. As the two infections overlap...

    Authors: Sang-Won Park, Chang-Seop Lee, Jeong-Han Kim, In-Gyu Bae, Chisook Moon, Yee Gyung Kwak, Baek-Nam Kim, Jae Hoon Lee, Seong Yeol Ryu, Hee-Chang Jang, Jian Hur, Jae-Bum Jun, Younghee Jung, Hyun-Ha Chang, Young Keun Kim, Jeong-Hwan Hwang…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:174

    Published on:

  15. Content type: Technical advance

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), establishes life-long latency and can cause symptoms during both first-time infection and later reactivation. The aim of the present study was to describe a protocol to gene...

    Authors: Jan Olsson, Jörgen Johansson, Emma Honkala, Bert Blomqvist, Eloise Kok, Bodil Weidung, Hugo Lövheim and Fredrik Elgh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:164

    Published on:

  16. Content type: Research article

    To improve national influenza vaccination recommendations, additional data on influenza A and B virus circulation are needed. Here, we describe the circulation of influenza A and B in the Czech Republic during...

    Authors: Martina Havlickova, Sophie Druelles, Helena Jirincova, Radomira Limberkova, Alexander Nagy, Anvar Rasuli and Jan Kyncl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:160

    Published on:

  17. Content type: Research article

    Egypt ranks fifth for the burden of viral hepatitis worldwide. As part of Egypt’s renewed national strategy for the elimination of viral hepatitis, surveillance for acute viral hepatitis (AVH) was re-establish...

    Authors: Maha Talaat, Salma Afifi, Erik J. Reaves, Hanaa Abu Elsood, Amany El-Gohary, Samir Refaey, Radi Hammad, Mostafa Abdel Fadeel and Amr Kandeel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:159

    Published on:

  18. Content type: Research article

    The potential effect of the inactivated hantavirus vaccine (IHV) remains controversial; however, it appears to be moderately effective for patients at high risk of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)....

    Authors: Yohan Park

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:153

    Published on:

  19. Content type: Research article

    A major outbreak of the Zika virus (ZIKV) has been reported in Brazil in 2015. Since then, it spread further to other countries in the Americas and resulted in declaration of the Public Health Emergency of Int...

    Authors: Yuan Liang Woon, Mei Fong Lim, Tg Rogayah Tg Abd Rashid, Ravindran Thayan, Suresh Kumar Chidambaram, Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim, Rose Nani Mudin and Sheamini Sivasampu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:152

    Published on:

  20. Content type: Research article

    Among different types of human papillomavirus (HPV), types 16 and 18 were known to be high-risk agents causing mainly cervical cancer. Up to now, the potential of HPV E7 protein has been proved as a diagnostic...

    Authors: Amitis Ramezani, Arezoo Aghakhani, Sepehr Soleymani, Anahita Bavand and Azam Bolhassani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:142

    Published on:

  21. Content type: Case report

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) antagonists, most of which are monoclonal antibodies, became a widespread treatment for autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory bo...

    Authors: Tomislava Skuhala, Anita Atelj, Jelena Prepolec, Mahmoud Al-Mufleh, Andrija Stanimirović and Dalibor Vukelić

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:127

    Published on:

  22. Content type: Research article

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is endemic in dromedary camels in the Arabian Peninsula, and zoonotic transmission to people is a sporadic event. In the absence of epidemiological data ...

    Authors: Emma G. Gardner, David Kelton, Zvonimir Poljak, Maria Van Kerkhove, Sophie von Dobschuetz and Amy L. Greer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:113

    Published on:

  23. Content type: Research article

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a novel emerging viral infectious disease. We explored the percentage, origins and functional roles of low density neutrophils (LDNs), one of the neutrophi...

    Authors: Yajiao Li, Huiyu Li, Hua Wang, Hong Pan, Huixia Zhao, Honglin Jin and Shenghua Jie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:109

    Published on:

  24. Content type: Research article

    Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a highly infectious zoonotic disease of humans transmitted by Hyalomma ticks. Earlier studies have shown CCHF seroprevalence in livestock throughout India, yet sporadic o...

    Authors: Devendra T. Mourya, Pragya D. Yadav, Yogesh K. Gurav, Prachi G. Pardeshi, Anita M. Shete, Rajlaxmi Jain, Dinkar D. Raval, Kamlesh J. Upadhyay and Deepak Y. Patil

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:104

    Published on:

  25. Content type: Research article

    Until now, herpes zoster (HZ)-related disease burden in Germany has been estimated based on health insurance data and clinical findings. However, the validity of self-reported HZ is unclear. This study investi...

    Authors: Mahrrouz Caputo, Johannes Horn, André Karch, Manas K. Akmatov, Heiko Becher, Bettina Braun, Hermann Brenner, Stefanie Castell, Beate Fischer, Guido Giani, Kathrin Günther, Barbara Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Thomas Keil, Birgit Klüppelholz, Lilian Krist…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:99

    Published on:

  26. Content type: Research article

    Measles is one of the most infectious diseases with a high mortality rate worldwide. It is caused by the measles virus (MeV) which is a single stranded RNA virus with genetic diversity based on the nucleoprote...

    Authors: Sonia Etenna Lekana-Douki, Pater Noster Sir-Ondo-Enguier, Octavie Banga-Mve-Ella, Romeo Karl Imboumy-Limoukou, Gael D. Maganga, Jean-Bernard Lekana-Douki and Nicolas Berthet

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:90

    Published on:

  27. Content type: Research article

    Seasonal patterns of influenza A subtypes and B lineages in tropical/subtropical regions across age have remained to be explored. The impact of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on seasonal influenza activity have not be...

    Authors: Linlin Zhou, Huiping Yang, Yu Kuang, Tianshu Li, Jianan Xu, Shuang Li, Ting Huang, Chuan Wang, Wanyi Li, Mingyuan Li, Shusen He and Ming Pan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:89

    Published on:

  28. Content type: Research article

    Norovirus is the commonest cause of infectious intestinal disease (IID) worldwide. In the UK community incidence of norovirus has been estimated at 59/1000 population, equating to four million cases a year. Wh...

    Authors: John P. Harris, Miren Iturriza-Gomara, David J. Allen, Susan Kelly and Sarah J. O’Brien

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:87

    Published on:

  29. Content type: Research article

    The West Africa Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in 2014–2016 was declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) a public health emergency of international concern. Most of the previous studies done in Sier...

    Authors: Jia Bainga Kangbai, Christian Heumann, Michael Hoelscher, Foday Sahr and Guenter Froeschl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:81

    Published on:

  30. Content type: Research article

    Recognizing patients with encephalitis may be challenging. The cardinal symptom, encephalopathy, has a wide array of differential diagnoses. In this prospective study we aimed to explore the etiology of enceph...

    Authors: Else Quist-Paulsen, Anne-Marte Bakken Kran, Elisabeth S. Lindland, Katrine Ellefsen, Leiv Sandvik, Oona Dunlop and Vidar Ormaasen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:80

    Published on:

  31. Content type: Research article

    Severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness caused by various enteroviruses. The disease has imposed increased burden on children younger than 5 years old. We aimed to determine t...

    Authors: Hong Ji, Huan Fan, Peng-xiao Lu, Xue-Feng Zhang, Jing Ai, Chao Shi, Xiang Huo, Chang-jun Bao, Jun Shan and Yu Jin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:79

    Published on:

  32. Content type: Research article

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children, remaining a major public health concern, especially affecting children under 5 years old from low-income...

    Authors: Stephanie Saiki-Macedo, Jorge Valverde-Ezeta, Angela Cornejo-Tapia, Maria Esther Castillo, Verónica Petrozzi-Helasvuo, Miguel Angel Aguilar-Luis, Luis J. del Valle, Erico Cieza-Mora, Carlos Bada, Olguita del Aguila, Wilmer Silva-Caso, Johanna Martins-Luna, Fernando Vasquez-Achaya and Juana del Valle-Mendoza

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:75

    Published on:

  33. Content type: Case report

    Infectious mononucleosis is one of the main manifestations of Epstein – Barr virus, which is characterized by fever, tonsillar-pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy and atypical lymphocytes. Although 60% of patients wi...

    Authors: Chinthana Dematapitiya, Chiara Perera, Wajira Chinthaka, Solith Senanayaka, Deshani Tennakoon, Anfas Ameer, Dinesh Ranasinghe, Ushani Warriyapperuma, Suneth Weerarathna and Ravindra Satharasinghe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:68

    Published on:

  34. Content type: Case report

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has various presentations, depending on the patient’s immune status, age, and the route of transmission. In adults, HSV type 1 is found predominantly in the oral area, and HSV type 2...

    Authors: Shuhei Kurosawa, Noritaka Sekiya, Kazuaki Fukushima, Kazuhiko Ikeuchi, Akito Fukuda, Hideyuki Takahashi, Fangyi Chen, Hideki Hasegawa, Harutaka Katano, Tsunekazu Hishima and Keigo Setoguchi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:65

    Published on:

  35. Content type: Research article

    Stool consistency is an important diagnostic criterion in both research and clinical medicine and is often used to define diarrheal disease.

    Authors: Kristen Aiemjoy, Eda Altan, Solomon Aragie, Dionna M. Fry, Tung G. Phan, Xutao Deng, Melsew Chanyalew, Zerihun Tadesse, E. Kelly Callahan, Eric Delwart and Jeremy D. Keenan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:53

    Published on:

  36. Content type: Research article

    Rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Kenya immunization program in July 2014. Pre-vaccine disease burden estimates are important for assessing vaccine impact.

    Authors: Richard Omore, Sammy Khagayi, Billy Ogwel, Reuben Onkoba, John B. Ochieng, Jane Juma, Stephen Munga, Collins Tabu, Sergon Kibet, J. Pekka Nuorti, Frank Odhiambo, Jason M. Mwenda, Robert F. Breiman, Umesh D. Parashar and Jacqueline E. Tate

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:47

    Published on:

  37. Content type: Research article

    Malaysia has rising dengue incidence. World Health Organization clinical practice guidelines for managing dengue have been adapted by the Ministry of Health in Malaysia, with evidence of good awareness by clin...

    Authors: Alexandra Wharton-Smith, Judith Green, Ee Chin Loh, Alexander Gorrie, Sharifah Faridah Syed Omar, Loraine Bacchus and Lucy Chai See Lum

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:45

    Published on:

  38. Content type: Research article

    Influenza is a global infectious disease with a large burden of illness and high healthcare costs. Those who experience greater burden of disease include younger and older people, and pregnant women. Although ...

    Authors: Kam Cheong Wong, Georgina M. Luscombe and Catherine Hawke

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:42

    Published on:

  39. Content type: Case report

    Acute pericarditis may occur frequently after viral infections. To our knowledge, influenza B virus infection complicated by pericarditis without myocardial involvement has never been reported. We report the f...

    Authors: Silvia Spoto, Emanuele Valeriani, Luciana Locorriere, Giuseppina Beretta Anguissola, Angelo Lauria Pantano, Francesca Terracciani, Elisabetta Riva, Massimo Ciccozzi, Sebastiano Costantino and Silvia Angeletti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:40

    Published on:

  40. Content type: Research article

    Human adenovirus type 3 (HAdV-3) and 7 (HAdV-7) cause significant morbidity and develop severe complications and long-term pulmonary sequelae in children. However, epidemiologic reports have suggested that nea...

    Authors: Yangxi Fu, Zhengzhen Tang, Zhixu Ye, Shi Mo, Xingui Tian, Ke Ni, Luo Ren, Enmei Liu and Na Zang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:36

    Published on:

  41. Content type: Case report

    Cytomegalovirus is responsible for an opportunistic infection that can be life threatening in immunocompromised patients, while it is usually mild or completely asymptomatic in immunocompetent subjects. In the...

    Authors: Giovanni Carpani, Sergio Foresti, Raffaella Dell’Oro, Guido Grassi and Michele Bombelli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:34

    Published on:

  42. Content type: Research article

    Viruses are commonly found in patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). However, the viral etiologies and clinical characteristics of outpatients with ARIs are poorly understood in China. Here, we ide...

    Authors: Xiaohong Wen, Qiuling Huang, Hong Tao, Weihua Zou, Min Gao, Huihui Guo, Xing Yao, Dawei Cui and Xiang Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:32

    Published on:

  43. Content type: Research article

    Many upper respiratory pathogens cause similar symptoms. In China, routine molecular tests for upper respiratory pathogens are not widely performed and antibiotics abuse in treating upper respiratory tract inf...

    Authors: Jialiang Tang, Jinkun Chen, Tingting He, Zhuojing Jiang, Jiale Zhou, Bin Hu and Shangxin Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:24

    Published on:

  44. Content type: Case report

    We report a case of hantavirus-induced myocarditis in a young adult. Hantavirus showed a rapid increase of infections in the year 2017. Only scarce data is available about potential myocardial involvement in h...

    Authors: Patrick Krumm, Tanja Zitzelsberger, Meinrad Gawaz and Simon Greulich

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:15

    Published on:

  45. Content type: Research article

    Outbreaks of infectious gastroenteritis in care homes are common, with norovirus a frequent cause. In England there is no co-ordinated national surveillance system. We aimed to estimate the burden of these out...

    Authors: Thomas Inns, Helen E. Clough, John P. Harris, Roberto Vivancos, Natalie Adams and Sarah J. O’Brien

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:12

    Published on:

  46. Content type: Research article

    Human enteroviruses (HEVs) are common causal agents of aseptic meningitis in young children. Laboratory and syndromic surveillance during December 2015 and January 2016 noted an unusually high number of paedia...

    Authors: Heidi Smuts, Sarah Cronje, Juno Thomas, Delene Brink, Stephen Korsman and Diana Hardie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:709

    Published on:

  47. Content type: Review

    The emergence of different viral infections during the last decades like dengue, West Nile, SARS, chikungunya, MERS-CoV, Ebola, Zika and Yellow Fever raised some questions on quickness and reliability of labor...

    Authors: Matthias Niedrig, Pranav Patel, Ahmed Abd El Wahed, Regina Schädler and Sergio Yactayo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:707

    Published on:

2016 Journal Metrics