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Viral diseases

Section edited by Jodie McVernon and Julian Tang

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness caused by various enteroviruses. The disease has imposed increased burden on children younger than 5 years old. We aimed to determine t...

    Authors: Hong Ji, Huan Fan, Peng-xiao Lu, Xue-Feng Zhang, Jing Ai, Chao Shi, Xiang Huo, Chang-jun Bao, Jun Shan and Yu Jin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:79

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Recognizing patients with encephalitis may be challenging. The cardinal symptom, encephalopathy, has a wide array of differential diagnoses. In this prospective study we aimed to explore the etiology of enceph...

    Authors: Else Quist-Paulsen, Anne-Marte Bakken Kran, Elisabeth S. Lindland, Katrine Ellefsen, Leiv Sandvik, Oona Dunlop and Vidar Ormaasen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:80

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children, remaining a major public health concern, especially affecting children under 5 years old from low-income...

    Authors: Stephanie Saiki-Macedo, Jorge Valverde-Ezeta, Angela Cornejo-Tapia, Maria Esther Castillo, Verónica Petrozzi-Helasvuo, Miguel Angel Aguilar-Luis, Luis J. del Valle, Erico Cieza-Mora, Carlos Bada, Olguita del Aguila, Wilmer Silva-Caso, Johanna Martins-Luna, Fernando Vasquez-Achaya and Juana del Valle-Mendoza

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:75

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  4. Content type: Case report

    Infectious mononucleosis is one of the main manifestations of Epstein – Barr virus, which is characterized by fever, tonsillar-pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy and atypical lymphocytes. Although 60% of patients wi...

    Authors: Chinthana Dematapitiya, Chiara Perera, Wajira Chinthaka, Solith Senanayaka, Deshani Tennakoon, Anfas Ameer, Dinesh Ranasinghe, Ushani Warriyapperuma, Suneth Weerarathna and Ravindra Satharasinghe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:68

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  5. Content type: Case report

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has various presentations, depending on the patient’s immune status, age, and the route of transmission. In adults, HSV type 1 is found predominantly in the oral area, and HSV type 2...

    Authors: Shuhei Kurosawa, Noritaka Sekiya, Kazuaki Fukushima, Kazuhiko Ikeuchi, Akito Fukuda, Hideyuki Takahashi, Fangyi Chen, Hideki Hasegawa, Harutaka Katano, Tsunekazu Hishima and Keigo Setoguchi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:65

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Stool consistency is an important diagnostic criterion in both research and clinical medicine and is often used to define diarrheal disease.

    Authors: Kristen Aiemjoy, Eda Altan, Solomon Aragie, Dionna M. Fry, Tung G. Phan, Xutao Deng, Melsew Chanyalew, Zerihun Tadesse, E. Kelly Callahan, Eric Delwart and Jeremy D. Keenan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:53

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Kenya immunization program in July 2014. Pre-vaccine disease burden estimates are important for assessing vaccine impact.

    Authors: Richard Omore, Sammy Khagayi, Billy Ogwel, Reuben Onkoba, John B. Ochieng, Jane Juma, Stephen Munga, Collins Tabu, Sergon Kibet, J. Pekka Nuorti, Frank Odhiambo, Jason M. Mwenda, Robert F. Breiman, Umesh D. Parashar and Jacqueline E. Tate

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:47

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Malaysia has rising dengue incidence. World Health Organization clinical practice guidelines for managing dengue have been adapted by the Ministry of Health in Malaysia, with evidence of good awareness by clin...

    Authors: Alexandra Wharton-Smith, Judith Green, Ee Chin Loh, Alexander Gorrie, Sharifah Faridah Syed Omar, Loraine Bacchus and Lucy Chai See Lum

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:45

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Influenza is a global infectious disease with a large burden of illness and high healthcare costs. Those who experience greater burden of disease include younger and older people, and pregnant women. Although ...

    Authors: Kam Cheong Wong, Georgina M. Luscombe and Catherine Hawke

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:42

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  10. Content type: Case report

    Acute pericarditis may occur frequently after viral infections. To our knowledge, influenza B virus infection complicated by pericarditis without myocardial involvement has never been reported. We report the f...

    Authors: Silvia Spoto, Emanuele Valeriani, Luciana Locorriere, Giuseppina Beretta Anguissola, Angelo Lauria Pantano, Francesca Terracciani, Elisabetta Riva, Massimo Ciccozzi, Sebastiano Costantino and Silvia Angeletti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:40

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Human adenovirus type 3 (HAdV-3) and 7 (HAdV-7) cause significant morbidity and develop severe complications and long-term pulmonary sequelae in children. However, epidemiologic reports have suggested that nea...

    Authors: Yangxi Fu, Zhengzhen Tang, Zhixu Ye, Shi Mo, Xingui Tian, Ke Ni, Luo Ren, Enmei Liu and Na Zang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:36

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  12. Content type: Case report

    Cytomegalovirus is responsible for an opportunistic infection that can be life threatening in immunocompromised patients, while it is usually mild or completely asymptomatic in immunocompetent subjects. In the...

    Authors: Giovanni Carpani, Sergio Foresti, Raffaella Dell’Oro, Guido Grassi and Michele Bombelli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:34

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Viruses are commonly found in patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). However, the viral etiologies and clinical characteristics of outpatients with ARIs are poorly understood in China. Here, we ide...

    Authors: Xiaohong Wen, Qiuling Huang, Hong Tao, Weihua Zou, Min Gao, Huihui Guo, Xing Yao, Dawei Cui and Xiang Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:32

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Many upper respiratory pathogens cause similar symptoms. In China, routine molecular tests for upper respiratory pathogens are not widely performed and antibiotics abuse in treating upper respiratory tract inf...

    Authors: Jialiang Tang, Jinkun Chen, Tingting He, Zhuojing Jiang, Jiale Zhou, Bin Hu and Shangxin Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:24

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  15. Content type: Case report

    We report a case of hantavirus-induced myocarditis in a young adult. Hantavirus showed a rapid increase of infections in the year 2017. Only scarce data is available about potential myocardial involvement in h...

    Authors: Patrick Krumm, Tanja Zitzelsberger, Meinrad Gawaz and Simon Greulich

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:15

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Outbreaks of infectious gastroenteritis in care homes are common, with norovirus a frequent cause. In England there is no co-ordinated national surveillance system. We aimed to estimate the burden of these out...

    Authors: Thomas Inns, Helen E. Clough, John P. Harris, Roberto Vivancos, Natalie Adams and Sarah J. O’Brien

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:12

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Human enteroviruses (HEVs) are common causal agents of aseptic meningitis in young children. Laboratory and syndromic surveillance during December 2015 and January 2016 noted an unusually high number of paedia...

    Authors: Heidi Smuts, Sarah Cronje, Juno Thomas, Delene Brink, Stephen Korsman and Diana Hardie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:709

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  18. Content type: Review

    The emergence of different viral infections during the last decades like dengue, West Nile, SARS, chikungunya, MERS-CoV, Ebola, Zika and Yellow Fever raised some questions on quickness and reliability of labor...

    Authors: Matthias Niedrig, Pranav Patel, Ahmed Abd El Wahed, Regina Schädler and Sergio Yactayo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:707

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Influenza is a global transmissible disease. Its dynamics is far better understood in temperate climates than in the tropics. We aim to close this knowledge gap between tropical and temperate regions by showin...

    Authors: Alexandra Almeida, Cláudia Codeço and Paula Luz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:695

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  20. Content type: Case report

    Dengue is a global problem mainly in the tropics. Meticulous clinical management of cases has reduced the death rate significantly, but large numbers of people still succumb to severe complications of the infe...

    Authors: S. A. M. Kularatne, M. M. Rajapakse, Udaya Ralapanawa, R. Waduge, L. P. M. M. K. Pathirage and R. P. V. J. Rajapakse

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:681

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  21. Content type: Case report

    Dengue has global importance as a dreaded arboviral infection. It has 4 serotypes of epidemiological imporatnce. The classification denotes two clinical spectrums- dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorragic feve...

    Authors: S. A. M. Kularatne, Udaya Ralapanawa, Chamara Dalugama, Jayanika Jayasinghe, Sawandika Rupasinghe and Prabashini Kumarihamy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:674

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  22. Content type: Case report

    Lassa fever is one of the most lethal neglected tropical diseases in West Africa. It is a serious public health problem in this region of Africa where it is endemic in several countries. However, it remains a ...

    Authors: Cossi Angelo Attinsounon, Bienvenu Rolland Ossibi Ibara, Adébayo Alassani, Serge Adé, Khadidjatou Saké, Clément Glèlè Kakaï and Albert Dovonou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:667

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Bacterial co-infection of patients suffering from influenza pneumonia is a key element that increases morbidity and mortality. The occurrence of Acinetobacter baumannii co-infection in patients with avian influen...

    Authors: William J. Liu, Rongrong Zou, Yongfei Hu, Min Zhao, Chuansong Quan, Shuguang Tan, Kai Luo, Jing Yuan, Haixia Zheng, Jue Liu, Min Liu, Yuhai Bi, Jinghua Yan, Baoli Zhu, Dayan Wang, Guizhen Wu…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:664

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  24. Content type: Research article

    There is little research on laypersons’ perceptions regarding common cold and influenza, their symptomatic distinction and considerations of risk. This study investigates understanding of pathogenesis across t...

    Authors: Elisabeth Anne-Sophie Mayrhuber, Wim Peersman, Nina van de Kraats, Goranka Petricek, Asja Ćosić Diviak, Silvia Wojczewski and Kathryn Hoffmann

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:647

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by pathogenic hantaviruses in Europe and Asia is often characterized by acute kidney injury (AKI) with massive proteinuria. Renal filtration depends on the i...

    Authors: Stefan Hägele, Alexander Müller, Christian Nusshag, Jochen Reiser, Martin Zeier and Ellen Krautkrämer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:645

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  26. Content type: Research article

    A mosquito-based arbovirus surveillance system was set up at Barkedji, Senegal after the first outbreak of Rift valley fever in West Africa in 1988. This system was recently updated using more sampling methods...

    Authors: El Hadji Ndiaye, Diawo Diallo, Gamou Fall, Yamar Ba, Ousmane Faye, Ibrahima Dia and Mawlouth Diallo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:642

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Although the incidence of dengue across Africa is high, severe dengue is reported infrequently. We describe the clinical features and the outcome of dengue according to raceduring an outbreak in Dar es Salaam,...

    Authors: Noémie Boillat-Blanco, Belia Klaassen, Zainab Mbarack, Josephine Samaka, Tarsis Mlaganile, John Masimba, Leticia Franco Narvaez, Aline Mamin, Blaise Genton, Laurent Kaiser and Valérie D’Acremont

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:644

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Lassa fever has been a public health concern in the West African sub-region where it is endemic and a latent threat to the world at large. We investigated the trend in Lassa fever research using bibliometric a...

    Authors: Henshaw Uchechi Okoroiwu, Francisco López-Muñoz and F. Javier Povedano-Montero

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:639

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  29. Content type: Debate

    Dengue Virus (DENV) and Zika Virus (ZIKV) are closely related flaviviruses, circulating in overlapping geographical regions. The recent ZIKV epidemic has been linked to an explosion in reports of microcephaly ...

    Authors: Shannon A. Gunawardana and Robert H. Shaw

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:641

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has become a substantial threat recently. However few studies have quantified spatiotemporal heterogeneity of HFMD and detected spatiotemporal interactive effect of potentia...

    Authors: Xiangxue Zhang, Chengdong Xu and Gexin Xiao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:638

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Primate erythroparvovirus 1 (B19V) is a globally ubiquitous DNA virus. Infection results in a variety of clinical presentations including erythema infectiosum in children and arthralgia in adults. There is lim...

    Authors: Helen M. Faddy, Elise C. Gorman, Veronica C. Hoad, Francesca D. Frentiu, Sarah Tozer and R. L. P. Flower

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:631

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  32. Content type: Research article

    In adults, the emerging human adenovirus (HAdV) type 55 (HAdV-55) has been reported to cause more severe cases of adenovirus induced acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) compared to other HAdV ser...

    Authors: Lili Xu, Jun Liu, Chunyan Liu, Yali Duan, Yun Zhu, Baoping Xu and Zhengde Xie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:634

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a major communicable disease in children ≤6 years old, particularly in several countries in the Asia-Pacific Region, including Thailand. HFMD impacts public health and th...

    Authors: Panupong Upala, Tawatchai Apidechkul, Wipob Suttana, Niwed Kullawong, Ratipark Tamornpark and Chadaporn Inta

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:630

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is most frequently caused by Enterovirus71 (EV-A71) or Coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16), infants and young children are at greatest risk. Describing the epidemiology of HFMD ca...

    Authors: Lili Xu, Yan Shi, Jeanette J. Rainey, Zhijie Zhang, Huayi Zhang, Jinhua Zhao, Yonghong Li, Huaxiang Rao, Yanming Li, Qiaohong Liao and Yongcheng Ma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:624

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Dengue is one of the most common arboviral diseases with increased outbreaks annually in tropical and subtropical areas. In Ethiopia, there are no data regarding clinical, hematological and biochemical paramet...

    Authors: Getachew Ferede, Moges Tiruneh, Ebba Abate, Yitayih Wondimeneh, Endalamaw Gadisa, Rawleigh Howe, Abraham Aseffa and Belay Tessema

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:616

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Clinical Rabies is a widely distributed almost 100% fatal viral zoonotic disease. Most human rabies cases occur in developing countries, especially in Asia and Africa. It can be prevented by immunization, post...

    Authors: Endalew Yizengaw, Tamyalew Getahun, Wondemagegn Mulu, Mulat Ashagrie, Ibrahim Abdela and Mekuanint Geta

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:597

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Studies on human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have focused primarily on the immunosuppressed population. Few studies have considered immunocompetent and not severely immunocompromised pa...

    Authors: Jianhua Hu, Hong Zhao, Danfeng Lou, Hainv Gao, Meifang Yang, Xuan Zhang, Hongyu Jia and Lanjuan Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:577

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  38. Content type: Case report

    Seoul virus (SEOV) is a member of hantavirus family, which is transmitted to humans by Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus. Diagnosing SEOV infection is difficult because the clinical presentations are often undi...

    Authors: Khie Chen Lie, Mochamad Helmi Aziz, Herman Kosasih, Aaron Neal, Caleb Leonardo Halim, Wahyu Nawang Wulan, Muhammad Karyana and Usman Hadi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:578

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Influenza A H1N1 infections carry a significant mortality risk. This study describes inpatients with suspected and confirmed Influenza A H1N1 infection who were prescribed oseltamivir, the risk factors associa...

    Authors: Talita Rantin Belucci, Alexandre R. Marra, Michael B. Edmond, João Renato Rebello Pinho, Paula Kiyomi Onaga Yokota, Ana Carolina Cintra Nunes Mafra and Oscar Fernando Pavão dos Santos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:579

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis may prevent CMV indirect effects in renal transplant recipients. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of valganciclovir and valacyclovir prophylaxis for CMV after renal tr...

    Authors: Tomas Reischig, Martin Kacer, Petra Hruba, Hana Hermanova, Ondrej Hes, Daniel Lysak, Stanislav Kormunda and Mirko Bouda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:573

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Prior to the 2009 pandemic H1N1, and the unprecedented outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) caused by the H5N1 virus, the World Health Organization (WHO) called upon its Member States to develo...

    Authors: Evanson Z. Sambala, Tiwonge Kanyenda, Chinwe Juliana Iwu, Chidozie Declan Iwu, Anelisa Jaca and Charles S. Wiysonge

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:567

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  42. Content type: Research article

    On 28 March, 2016, the Ministry of Health received a report on three deaths from an unknown disease characterized by fever, jaundice, and hemorrhage which occurred within a one-month period in the same family ...

    Authors: Leocadia Kwagonza, Ben Masiira, Henry Kyobe-Bosa, Daniel Kadobera, Emily B. Atuheire, Bernard Lubwama, Atek Kagirita, Edson Katushabe, John T. Kayiwa, Julius J. Lutwama, Joseph C. Ojwang, Issa Makumbi, Alex Riolexus Ario, Jeff Borchert and Bao-Ping Zhu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:548

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  43. Content type: Research article

    The East African region is endemic with multiple zoonotic diseases and is one of the hotspots for emerging infectious zoonotic diseases with reported multiple outbreaks of epidemic diseases such as Ebola, Marb...

    Authors: Naomi Kemunto, Eddy Mogoa, Eric Osoro, Austin Bitek, M. Kariuki Njenga and S. M. Thumbi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:545

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Enteric viruses in surface water pose considerable risk to morbidity in populations living around water catchments and promote outbreaks of waterborne diseases. However, due to poor understanding of the correl...

    Authors: Jing Miao, Xuan Guo, Weili Liu, Dong Yang, Zhiqiang Shen, Zhigang Qiu, Xiang Chen, Kunming Zhang, Hui Hu, Jing Yin, Zhongwei Yang, Junwen Li and Min Jin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:542

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  45. Content type: Technical advance

    In recent years, metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing (mNGS) has increasingly been used for an accurate assumption-free virological diagnosis. However, the systematic workflow evaluation on clinical respirat...

    Authors: A. Bal, M. Pichon, C. Picard, J. S. Casalegno, M. Valette, I. Schuffenecker, L. Billard, S. Vallet, G. Vilchez, V. Cheynet, G. Oriol, S. Trouillet-Assant, Y. Gillet, B. Lina, K. Brengel-Pesce, F. Morfin…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:537

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Fomite mediated transmission can be an important pathway causing significant disease transmission in number of settings such as schools, daycare centers, and long-term care facilities. The importance of these ...

    Authors: Alicia N.M. Kraay, Michael A.L. Hayashi, Nancy Hernandez-Ceron, Ian H. Spicknall, Marisa C. Eisenberg, Rafael Meza and Joseph N.S. Eisenberg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:540

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Rabies is a significant public health problem in China. Previous spatial epidemiological studies have helped understand the epidemiology of animal and human rabies in China. However, quantification of effects ...

    Authors: Danhuai Guo, Wenwu Yin, Hongjie Yu, Jean-Claude Thill, Weishi Yang, Feng Chen and Deqiang Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:526

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  48. Content type: Case report

    Adenoviruses (AdV) are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses with multiple serotypes, which cause a variety of end-organ disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Some adenoviruse...

    Authors: Rhiannon Ions, Manjith Narayanan, Michael Browning, Erol A. Gaillard, Gary Stiefel and Julian W. Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:529

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  49. Content type: Case report

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus named SFTS virus (SFTSV), which is classified into the genus Phlebovirus and family Phenuiviridae....

    Authors: Jinjing Zhang, Xiaojing Yan, Yan Li, Ran Gao, Pingping Wang and Wenbin Mo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:528

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