Skip to main content


Viral diseases

Section edited by Jodie McVernon and Julian Tang

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

Page 1 of 18

  1. Content type: Research article

    With one in every 20 Pakistanis already infected, Pakistan has the second largest number of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections globally. The aim of this study was to present a quantitative and analytical chara...

    Authors: Sarwat Mahmud, Zaina Al Kanaani and Laith J. Abu-Raddad

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:809

    Published on:

  2. Content type: Research article

    A diagnostic method to simultaneously detect and discriminate porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) in clinical specimens is imperative for the...

    Authors: Keli Yang, Zuwu Jiao, Danna Zhou, Rui Guo, Zhengying Duan and Yongxiang Tian

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:778

    Published on:

  3. Content type: Research article

    The etiology of acute liver failure (ALF) is often unknown and reported to be associated with herpesviruses in a number of cases. In this study, we examined for betaherpesviruses infections in patients with AL...

    Authors: Jéssica Vasques Raposo, Arthur Daniel Rocha Alves, Alexandre dos Santos da Silva, Damião Carlos dos Santos, Juliana Gil Melgaço, Otacílio C. Moreira, Marcelo Alves Pinto and Vanessa Salete de Paula

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:773

    Published on:

  4. Content type: Research article

    We sought to assess reporting in China’s Pneumonia of Unknown Etiology (PUE) passive surveillance system for emerging respiratory infections and to identify ways to improve the PUE surveillance system’s detect...

    Authors: Nijuan Xiang, Ying Song, Yu Wang, Jiabing Wu, Alexander J. Millman, Carolyn M. Greene, Zhentao Ding, Jie Sun, Wei Yang, Guoxia Guo, Ruirui Wang, Ping Guo, Zhixing Ren, Lei Gong, Pengpeng Xu, Suizan Zhou…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:770

    Published on:

  5. Content type: Research article

    Intestinal infectious diseases (IIDs) have caused numerous deaths worldwide, particularly among children. In China, eight IIDs are listed as notifiable infectious diseases, including cholera, poliomyelitis, dy...

    Authors: Ying Mao, Ning Zhang, Bin Zhu, Jinlin Liu and Rongxin He

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:766

    Published on:

  6. Content type: Research article

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an emerging zoonotic infectious disease caused by hantaviruses which circulate worldwide. So far, it was still considered as one of serious public health problem...

    Authors: Shiyou Liu, Yamei Wei, Xu Han, Yanan Cai, Zhanying Han, Yanbo Zhang, Yonggang Xu, Shunxiang Qi and Qi Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:765

    Published on:

  7. Content type: Research article

    Avian influenza A (H5N6) virus poses a great threat to the human health since it is capable to cross the species barrier and infect humans. Although human infections are believed to largely originate from poul...

    Authors: Ping Chen, Jian-Feng Xie, Qi Lin, Lin Zhao, Yan-Hua Zhang, Hong-Bin Chen, Yu-Wei Weng, Zheng Huang and Kui-Cheng Zheng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:762

    Published on:

  8. Content type: Research article

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important respiratory pathogen that causes seasonal epidemics of acute respiratory illness and contributes significantly to childhood pneumonia. Current knowledge and underst...

    Authors: John W. Oketch, Everlyn Kamau, Grieven P. Otieno, James R. Otieno, Charles N. Agoti and D. James Nokes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:757

    Published on:

  9. Content type: Research article

    Dengue, a viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, is an important public health concern throughout Thailand. Climate variables are potential predictors of dengue transmission. Associations between climate ...

    Authors: Thipruethai Phanitchat, Bingxin Zhao, Ubydul Haque, Chamsai Pientong, Tipaya Ekalaksananan, Sirinart Aromseree, Kesorn Thaewnongiew, Benedicte Fustec, Michael J. Bangs, Neal Alexander and Hans J. Overgaard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:743

    Published on:

  10. Content type: Research article

    Brainstem encephalitis is a serious complication of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation and hypertension may occur, sometimes progressing to cardiopulmo...

    Authors: Qui Tu Phan, Lam Khanh Phung, Khanh Huu Truong, Trieu Trung Huynh, Giang Thanh Phạm, Bich Ngọc Nguyen, Quyen Thanh Tran, Vuong Ngoc Thien Huynh, Tien Thi My Nguyen, Thoa Phan Kim Le, Nhan Nguyen Thanh Le, Saraswathy Sabanathan, H. Rogier van Doorn, Tan Van Le, Toan Duc Nguyen, Laura Merson…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:737

    Published on:

  11. Content type: Research article

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are considered an important cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) across all age groups, especially in children under 5 years of age. We investigated the epidemiology of noroviruses in outpat...

    Authors: Lijuan Lu, Huaqing Zhong, Menghua Xu, Liyun Su, Lingfeng Cao, Ran Jia and Jin Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:736

    Published on:

  12. Content type: Research article

    No comparison data have been reported on viral and epidemiological profiles of hospitalized children with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in Beijing or Shanghai, China.

    Authors: Yanjie Zhao, Roujian Lu, Jun Shen, Zhengde Xie, Gaoshan Liu and Wenjie Tan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:729

    Published on:

  13. Content type: Research article

    HTLV-1 infection is a neglected disease, despite infecting 10–15 million people worldwide and severe illnesses develop in 10% of carriers lifelong. Acknowledging a greater risk for developing HTLV-1 associated...

    Authors: Carmen de Mendoza, Lourdes Roc, Rafael Benito, Gabriel Reina, José Manuel Ramos, Cesar Gómez, Antonio Aguilera, Manuel Rodríguez-Iglesias, Juan García-Costa, Miriam Fernández-Alonso and Vicente Soriano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:706

    Published on:

  14. Content type: Research article

    In recent times, emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are posing a public health threat in developing countries, and vigilant surveillance is necessary to prepare against these threats. Analyses of mul...

    Authors: Badral Davgasuren, Suvdmaa Nyam, Tsoggerel Altangerel, Oyunbileg Ishdorj, Ambaselmaa Amarjargal and Jun Yong Choi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:705

    Published on:

  15. Content type: Research article

    To analyze hospitalization episodes with an ICD-9 diagnosis code of influenza (codes 487 and 488) in any diagnostic position from 2009 to 2015 in the Spanish hospital surveillance system.

    Authors: J. M. San-Román-Montero, R. Gil Prieto, C. Gallardo Pino, J. Hinojosa Mena, A. Zapatero Gaviria and A. Gil de Miguel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:700

    Published on:

  16. Content type: Research article

    Human norovirus is regarded as the leading cause of nonbacterial acute diarrhea in developing and developed countries. Among all genotypes, GII.4 has been the predominant genotype, but in East Asia, it was rep...

    Authors: Liang Xue, Weicheng Cai, Junshan Gao, Le Zhang, Ruimin Dong, Yonglai Li, Haoming Wu, Moutong Chen, Jumei Zhang, Juan Wang and Qingping Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:696

    Published on:

  17. Content type: Research article

    The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards pregnancy-related issues of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection among general practitioners (GPs), a frontline healthcare worker group, in Indone...

    Authors: Harapan Harapan, Yogambigai Rajamoorthy, Prattama S. Utomo, Samsul Anwar, Abdul M. Setiawan, Alma Alleta, Alfredo Bambang, Muhammad R. Ramadana, Ikram Ikram, Nur Wahyuniati, Reza Maulana, Ichsan Ichsan, Rosaria Indah, Abram L. Wagner, Ulrich Kuch, David A. Groneberg…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:693

    Published on:

  18. Content type: Correspondence

    Jiao and colleagues reported a case of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome who developed respiratory failure and symmetrical flaccid paralysis of all extremities. Electrophysiology revealed peripheral nerve ...

    Authors: Linpei Jia, Rufu Jia and Hongliang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:687

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:143

  19. Content type: Research article

    WHO identifies pregnant women to be at increased risk for severe outcomes from influenza virus infections and recommends that they be prioritized for influenza vaccination. The evidence supporting this, howeve...

    Authors: Dominik Mertz, Calvin Ka-Fung Lo, Lyubov Lytvyn, Justin R. Ortiz and Mark Loeb

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:683

    Published on:

  20. Content type: Research article

    Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are important pathogens of pediatric respiratory tract infections in Taiwan. There were two major HAdV epidemics in southern Taiwan in 2011 and 2014, respectively.

    Authors: Ching-Fen Shen, Shih-Min Wang, Jen-Ren Wang, Yu-Shiang Hu, Tzong-Shiann Ho and Ching-Chuan Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:681

    Published on:

  21. Content type: Research article

    A major challenge in dengue management in resource limited settings is the confirmation of diagnosis. Clinical features of dengue often overlap with other infections and molecular diagnostic tools are not read...

    Authors: Ponsuge Chathurani Sigera, Ranmalee Amarasekara, Chaturaka Rodrigo, Senaka Rajapakse, Praveen Weeratunga, Nipun Lakshita De Silva, Chun Hong Huang, Malaya K. Sahoo, Benjamin A. Pinsky, Dylan R. Pillai, Hasitha A. Tissera, Saroj Jayasinghe, Shiroma Handunnetti and Sumadhya D. Fernando

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:680

    Published on:

  22. Content type: Case report

    Abnormal sexual behaviors presenting as manifestations of rabies have occasionally been reported in the literature, although little attention has been paid to these cases to date. This study aimed to analyze t...

    Authors: Zhaoxing Tian, Yingyu Chen and Wei Yan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:679

    Published on:

  23. Content type: Technical advance

    In addition to seasonal influenza viruses recently circulating in humans, avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of H5N1, H5N6 and H7N9 subtypes have also emerged and demonstrated human infection abilities with high m...

    Authors: Su Jeong Ahn, Yun Hee Baek, Khristine Kaith S. Lloren, Won-Suk Choi, Ju Hwan Jeong, Khristine Joy C. Antigua, Hyeok-il Kwon, Su-Jin Park, Eun-Ha Kim, Young-il Kim, Young-Jae Si, Seung Bok Hong, Kyeong Seob Shin, Sungkun Chun, Young Ki Choi and Min-Suk Song

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:676

    Published on:

  24. Content type: Case report

    Organizing pneumonia (OP) is a rare complication of influenza infection that has substantial morbidity. We report the first case of OP associated with avian influenza H7N9 infection that had significant improv...

    Authors: Hangyong He, Hao Wang, Xuyan Li, Xiao Tang, Bing Sun and Zhaohui Tong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:671

    Published on:

  25. Content type: Research article

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main cause of precancerous lesions and cervical cancer in women. In order to determine the epidemiological characteristics as well as the relationship between the HP...

    Authors: Liang Ma, Jieping Lei, Li Ma, Xiao Cong, Na Wang, Hui Yang, Qian Liu, Yang Yu and Yongtong Cao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:670

    Published on:

  26. Content type: Research article

    A severe seasonal influenza epidemic was observed during 2017–2018 in China, prompting questions on clinical characteristics and outcomes of severe cases with influenza.

    Authors: Xiaofang Fu, Yuqing Zhou, Jie Wu, Xiaoxiao Liu, Cheng Ding, Chenyang Huang, Shufa Zheng, Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna, Yu Chen, Lanjuan Li and Shigui Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:668

    Published on:

  27. Content type: Research article

    The differential diagnosis of Fever of Unknown Origin (FUO) is very extensive, and includes infectious diseases (ID), neoplasms and noninfectious inflammatory diseases (NIID). Many FUO remain undiagnosed. Fact...

    Authors: Francesco Maria Fusco, Raffaella Pisapia, Salvatore Nardiello, Stefano Domenico Cicala, Giovanni Battista Gaeta and Giuseppina Brancaccio

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:653

    Published on:

  28. Content type: Research article

    Congenital Cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is the most common cause of non-genetic hearing loss in childhood. A newborn hearing screening program (NHSP) is currently running in Italy, but no universal cCMV nor statewid...

    Authors: Laura Pellegrinelli, Cristina Galli, Valeria Primache, Mirko Alde’, Enrico Fagnani, Federica Di Berardino, Diego Zanetti, Elena Pariani, Umberto Ambrosetti and Sandro Binda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:652

    Published on:

  29. Content type: Technical advance

    Despite the greater sensitivity of the new dengue clinical classification proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2009, there is a need for a better definition of warning signs and clinical progress...

    Authors: Gleicy Macedo Hair, Flávio Fonseca Nobre and Patrícia Brasil

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:649

    Published on:

  30. Content type: Research article

    Lassa fever virus has been enlisted as a priority pathogen of epidemic potential by the World Health organization Research and Development (WHO R & D) Blueprint. Diagnostics play a crucial role in epidemic pre...

    Authors: Noah Fongwen Takah, Polina Brangel, Priyanka Shrestha and Rosanna Peeling

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:647

    Published on:

  31. Content type: Research article

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection in children is an important public health problem in China. We performed the current study to explore the seroprevalence of VZV infection in Chinese children in order to ...

    Authors: Lin Luan, Xiaochen Shen, Jing Qiu, Yang Jing, Jingqi Zhang, Jie Wang, Jun Zhang and Chen Dong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:643

    Published on:

  32. Content type: Research article

    Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) criteria are often used to evaluate the risk of sepsis and to identify in-hospital mortality among patients with suspected infection. However, utilization of the ...

    Authors: Henry Chih-Hung Tai, Chien-Chun Yeh, Yen-An Chen, Chien-Chin Hsu, Jiann-Hwa Chen, Wei-Lung Chen, Chien-Cheng Huang and Jui-Yuan Chung

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:639

    Published on:

  33. Content type: Case report

    Visceral disseminated varicella zoster virus (VDVZV) infection is a rare disease with a high mortality rate (55%) in immunocompromised patients, but it is not yet widely recognized in the field of nephrology. ...

    Authors: Yoshitaka Furuto, Mariko Kawamura, Akio Namikawa, Hiroko Takahashi and Yuko Shibuya

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:625

    Published on:

  34. Content type: Research article

    Two outbreaks of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) occurred successively with an interval of 5 days in two primary boarding schools in Weixi Lisu Autonomous County, Diqing, and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture,...

    Authors: Duo Li, Jie-Nan Zhou, Hong Li, Cun-Ying He, Qing-Shan Dai, Xiang-Lan Li, Jian-Fang He, Hong He, Ming-Bao Li, L I-Li Jiang, Yao-Yao Chen and Wen Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:624

    Published on:

  35. Content type: Research article

    Cell-surface mucins are expressed in apical epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, and contribute a crucial part of the innate immune system. Despite anti-inflammatory or antiviral functions being revealed...

    Authors: Zhuang Gui Chen, Zhao Ni Wang, Yan Yan, Jing Liu, Ting Ting He, Kim Thye Thong, Yew Kwang Ong, Vincent T. K. Chow, Kai Sen Tan and De Yun Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:622

    Published on:

  36. Content type: Research article

    The Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) A genotype ON1, which was first detected in Ontario (Canada) in 2010/11, appeared in Germany in 2011/12. Preliminary observations suggested a higher clinical severity in c...

    Authors: Andrea Streng, David Goettler, Miriam Haerlein, Lisa Lehmann, Kristina Ulrich, Christiane Prifert, Christine Krempl, Benedikt Weißbrich and Johannes G. Liese

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:613

    Published on:

  37. Content type: Case report

    Lassa fever (LF) is a viral hemorrhagic disease caused by the Lassa virus (LASV) and endemic in West African countries with an estimation of 300,000 to 500,000 cases and 5,000 deaths annually. The Margibi Coun...

    Authors: Abyot Bekele Woyessa, Leroy Maximore, Darius Keller, John Dogba, Myer Pajibo, Kumblytee Johnson, Emmanuel Saydee, Julius Monday, Roland Tuopileyi II and Nuha Mahmoud

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:610

    Published on:

  38. Content type: Case report

    Infectious disease prevention and control strategies require a coordinated, transnational approach. To establish core capacities of the International Health Regulations (IHR), the World Health Organization (WH...

    Authors: Mory Keïta, Georges Alfred Kizerbo, Lorenzo Subissi, Fodé Amara Traoré, Ahmadou Doré, Mohamed Fode Camara, Ahmadou Barry, Raymond Pallawo, Mamadou Oury Baldé, Nfaly Magassouba, Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey and Ibrahima Socé Fall

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:606

    Published on:

  39. Content type: Research article

    Norovirus (NoV) is recognized as a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks in settings globally. Studies have shown that employees played an important role in the transmission mode during some N...

    Authors: Qiang-song Wu, Ze-liang Xuan, Jing-yi Liu, Xue-tao Zhao, Yuan-fang Chen, Chen-xi Wang, Xiao-ting Shen, Ya-xin Wang, Lan Wang and Yi Hu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:592

    Published on:

  40. Content type: Case report

    We report a rare case of Toscana virus infection imported into Switzerland in a 23-year old man who travelled to Imperia (Italy) 10 days before onset of symptoms. Symptoms included both meningitis and as well ...

    Authors: Fabian Tschumi, Stefan Schmutz, Verena Kufner, Maike Heider, Fiona Pigny, Bettina Schreiner, Riccarda Capaul, Yvonne Achermann and Michael Huber

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:591

    Published on:

  41. Content type: Research article

    Transfusion-Transmitted Zika virus (TT-ZIKV) has become an emerging threat to world blood banks due to the fast spread of ZIKV epidemics and high rate of asymptomatic infections. For the risk assessment of ZIK...

    Authors: Rongfei Liu, Xuanzhuo Wang, Yu Ma, Jianyong Wu, Chen Mao, Lihong Yuan and Jiahai Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:590

    Published on:

  42. Content type: Research article

    Acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI) is caused by a multitude of diverse pathogens, with significant morbidity and mortality in the developing world. The objective of this review was to characterise t...

    Authors: Kinley Wangdi, Kaushalya Kasturiaratchi, Susana Vaz Nery, Colleen L. Lau, Darren J. Gray and Archie C. A. Clements

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:577

    Published on:

  43. Content type: Research article

    We conducted a diagnostic surveillance study to identify Plasmodium, dengue virus, chikungunya virus, and Orientia tsutsugamushi infections among febrile patients who underwent triage for malaria in the outpatien...

    Authors: Pavitra N. Rao, Anna Maria van Eijk, Sandhya Choubey, Syed Zeeshan Ali, Aditee Dash, Punam Barla, Rajshri Rani Oraon, Gautam Patel, P. Nandini, Subrata Acharya, Sanjib Mohanty, Jane M. Carlton and Sanghamitra Satpathi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:572

    Published on:

  44. Content type: Debate

    Hepatitis E is a liver disease caused by a small RNA virus known as hepatitis E virus (HEV). Four major genotypes infect humans, of which genotype 1 and 2 (HEV-1, HEV-2) are endemic mainly in Asia and responsi...

    Authors: Joachim Denner, Sven Pischke, Eike Steinmann, Johannes Blümel and Dieter Glebe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:541

    Published on:

  45. Content type: Research article

    Hantaviruses are important zoonotic pathogens, and they pose a profound risk to public health. So far, there has been no evidence showing that Tula virus (TULV), one species of hantavirus, is endemic in China....

    Authors: Gang Guo, Baoping Guo, Xiran Wu, Yuanzhi Wang, Jianling Bao, Yuan Ren, Hongyu Li, Jun Li, Wenbao Zhang and Hua Yao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:527

    Published on:

  46. Content type: Research article

    Cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) have increasingly been observed in Miyazaki, southwest Japan. It is critical to identify and elucidate the risk factors of infection at community lev...

    Authors: Kazuhiro Yasuo and Hiroshi Nishiura

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:498

    Published on: