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Tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases

Section edited by Edward Graviss and Eyal Oren 

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases in humans, including HIV-associated tuberculosis, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Health workers (HWs) in resource-limited settings are at high-risk of exposure to tuberculosis (TB) at work. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of TB disease among HWs in the Free State Province of...

    Authors: Lyndsay M. O’Hara, Annalee Yassi, Muzimkhulu Zungu, Molebogeng Malotle, Elizabeth A. Bryce, Stephen J. Barker, Lincoln Darwin and J. Mark FitzGerald

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:547

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  2. Content type: Software

    Tuberculosis (TB) is now the world’s leading infectious killer and major programmatic advances will be needed if we are to meet the ambitious new End TB Targets. Although mathematical models are powerful tools...

    Authors: James McCracken Trauer, Romain Ragonnet, Tan Nhut Doan and Emma Sue McBryde

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:546

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Rapid diagnosis of drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB) is pivotal for the timely initiation of effective antibiotic treatment to prevent the spread of drug-resistant strains. The development of low-cost, rapi...

    Authors: El Mehdi Bentaleb, My Driss El Messaoudi, Mohammed Abid, Malika Messaoudi, Ali K. Yetisen, Hassan Sefrioui, Saaïd Amzazi and Hassan Ait Benhassou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:548

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Since 20% of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients are asymptomatic, the early detection of PTB is a challenge particularly in sputum-scarce patients and diagnostic accuracy based solely on clinical characteri...

    Authors: Liping Yan, Qing Zhang and Heping Xiao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:545

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Culture contamination with environmental bacteria is a major challenge in tuberculosis (TB) laboratories in hot and humid climate zones. We studied the effect of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) preservation on ...

    Authors: Hellen Hiza, Basra Doulla, Mohamed Sasamalo, Jerry Hella, Lujeko Kamwela, Francis Mhimbira, Klaus Reither, Sebastien Gagneux, Levan Jugheli and Lukas Fenner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:542

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  6. Content type: Research article

    There are very few studies on reasons for loss to follow-up from TB treatment in Central Asia. This study assessed risk factors for LTFU and compared their occurrence with successfully treated (ST) patients in...

    Authors: Jessica Wohlleben, Mavluda Makhmudova, Firuza Saidova, Shahnoza Azamova, Christina Mergenthaler and Suzanne Verver

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:543

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) against tuberculosis is administered intradermally, and vaccination is often followed by a scar at the injection site. Among BCG-vaccinated individuals, having a scar...

    Authors: Nina Marie Birk, Thomas Nørrelykke Nissen, Monica Ladekarl, Vera Zingmark, Jesper Kjærgaard, Trine Mølbæk Jensen, Signe Kjeldgaard Jensen, Lisbeth Marianne Thøstesen, Poul-Erik Kofoed, Lone Graff Stensballe, Andreas Andersen, Ole Pryds, Susanne Dam Nielsen, Christine Stabell Benn and Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:540

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Understanding the immune response to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is essential for a clear approach to tuberculosis (TB) preventive therapy. We investigated the immunological recovery in cART-trea...

    Authors: Basel Karo, Gérard Krause, Stefanie Castell, Christian Kollan, Osamah Hamouda and Walter Haas

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:517

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Stigma associated with tuberculosis (TB) has been an object of interest in several regions of the world. The behaviour presented by patients as a result of social discrimination has contributed to delays in di...

    Authors: Juliane de Almeida Crispim, Laís Mara Caetano da Silva, Mellina Yamamura, Marcela Paschoal Popolin, Antônio Carlos Vieira Ramos, Luiz Henrique Arroyo, Ana Angélica Rêgo de Queiroz, Aylana de Souza Belchior, Danielle Talita dos Santos, Flávia Meneguetti Pieri, Ludmila Barbosa Bandeira Rodrigues, Simone Terezinha Protti, Ione Carvalho Pinto, Pedro Fredemir Palha and Ricardo Alexandre Arcêncio

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:510

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  10. Content type: Research article

    The ongoing epidemic of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Georgia highlights the need for more effective control strategies. A new regimen to treat MDR-TB that includes pyrazinamide (PZA) is current...

    Authors: Sarah Sengstake, Indra L Bergval, Anja R Schuitema, Jessica L de Beer, Jody Phelan, Rina de Zwaan, Taane G Clark, Dick van Soolingen and Richard M Anthony

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:491

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Gene polymorphisms impact greatly on a person’s susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) and CD36 are two scavenger receptors (SRs) that can recogn...

    Authors: Wenting Lao, Hui Kang, Guojiang Jin, Li Chen, Yang Chu, Jiao Sun and Bingqi Sun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:488

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Studies focusing on pulmonary tuberculosis in advanced age (≥80 years) are lacking. This study aimed to explore treatment delay, outcomes and their predictors in this group.

    Authors: Chih-Hsin Lee, Jann-Yuan Wang, Hsien-Chun Lin, Pai-Yang Lin, Jer-Hwa Chang, Chi-Won Suk, Li-Na Lee, Chou-Chin Lan and Kuan-Jen Bai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:449

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  13. Content type: Study protocol

    Shortening the standard 6-month treatment for drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis (DS-PTB) would be a major improvement for TB case management and disease control.

    Authors: Mengqiu Gao, Jingtao Gao, Jian Du, Yuhong Liu, Yao Zhang, Liping Ma, Fengling Mi, Liang Li and Shenjie Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:435

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease (LD) have a heterogeneous prognosis. This study aimed to develop and validate a prognostic scoring model for these patients using independent risk fact...

    Authors: Shogo Kumagai, Akihiro Ito, Toru Hashimoto, Satoshi Marumo, Hironobu Tokumasu, Aya Kotani, Haruka Yamaki, Masahiro Shirata, Koji Furuuchi, Motonari Fukui and Tadashi Ishida

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:436

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  15. Content type: Research article

    The incidence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections is increasing worldwide, however formal evaluations of the epidemiology of NTM infections are limited. Understanding the trends and true prevalence...

    Authors: Hee Jung Yoon, Hwa Young Choi and Moran Ki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:432

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Residents in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are vulnerable to tuberculosis (TB) transmission; however, to delineate possible routes of TB transmission in LTCFs is difficult. This study aimed to address the ...

    Authors: Wen-Cheng Chao, Pei-Chun Chuang, Don-Han Wu, Chieh-Liang Wu, Po-Yu Liu, Chi-Chang Shieh and Ruwen Jou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:421

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  17. Content type: Case report

    Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB with additional resistance to injectable agents or fluoroquinolones are challenging to treat due to lack of available, effect...

    Authors: Aravind Swaminathan, Philipp du Cros, James A. Seddon, Shamsiya Mirgayosieva, Rajabov Asladdin and Zulfiya Dusmatova

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:417

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Genitourinary tuberculosis is the third most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Diagnosis is difficult because of unspecific clinical manifestations and low accuracy of conventional tests. Unfortunate...

    Authors: Carlos Altez-Fernandez, Victor Ortiz, Majid Mirzazadeh, Luis Zegarra, Carlos Seas and Cesar Ugarte-Gil

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:390

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases tuberculosis (TB) risk, and there is increasing concern over the public health implications of the convergence of these two epidemics. Screening for TB among people with DM is ...

    Authors: Vidya Mave, Smita Nimkar, Haridas Prasad, Dileep Kadam, Sushant Meshram, Rahul Lokhande, Nikhil Gupte, Divyashri Jain, Amita Gupta and Jonathan E. Golub

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:388

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis, especially multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), is a major public health problem. Effective management of MDR-TB relies on accurate and rapid diagnosis. In this study, we ass...

    Authors: Ngu Njei Abanda, Josiane Yvonne Djieugoué, Eunjung Lim, Eric Walter Pefura-Yone, Wilfred Fon Mbacham, Guy Vernet, Veronique Mbeng Penlap, Sara Irene Eyangoh, Diane Wallace Taylor and Rose Gana Fomban Leke

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:379

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Harris County, Texas is the third most populous county in the United States and consistently has tuberculosis rates above the national average. Understanding jurisdictional epidemiologic characteristics for th...

    Authors: Saroochi Agarwal, Duc T. Nguyen, Larry D. Teeter and Edward A. Graviss

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:378

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  22. Content type: Correspondence

    Multidrug-resistant and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) represent an important challenge for global tuberculosis (TB) control. The high rates of MDR/RR-TB observed among re-treatment cases can ar...

    Authors: Romain Ragonnet, James M. Trauer, Justin T. Denholm, Ben J. Marais and Emma S. McBryde

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:374

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Foreign-born patients with tuberculosis (TB) may introduce globally disseminated isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis into large cities in Japan. The risk of dissemination of these isolates into local regions, ...

    Authors: Fuminori Mizukoshi, Tohru Miyoshi-Akiyama, Hiroki Iwai, Takako Suzuki, Reiko Kiritani, Teruo Kirikae and Keiji Funatogawa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:365

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Whereas high risk groups such as asylum seekers are systematically screened for active tuberculosis (TB) upon entry in Switzerland, this strategy does not apply to homeless persons despite a reported high risk...

    Authors: Jean-Paul Janssens, Timothee Wuillemin, Dan Adler and Yves Jackson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:347

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Strains of the Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are reportedly associated with the virulence of tuberculosis (TB) infection, unfavorable outcomes of anti-TB treatment, and the global TB pandem...

    Authors: Jingge Zhao, Takashi Matsuba, Xiaoyan Zhang, Susan Leano, Chie Nakajima, Haorile Chagan-Yasutan, Elizabeth Freda Telan, Yasuhiko Suzuki and Toshio Hattori

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:344

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  26. Content type: Research article

    The reason why Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most common fatal genetic disease among Caucasians has been incompletely studied. We aimed at deepening the hypothesis that CF carriers have a relative protection aga...

    Authors: Lander Bosch, Barbara Bosch, Kris De Boeck, Tim Nawrot, Isabelle Meyts, Dominique Vanneste, Cleonice Alexandre Le Bourlegat, Julio Croda and Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira da Silva Filho

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:340

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Currently, there is limited data on the risk factors associated with treatment delay in tuberculous meningitis (TBM). This study aimed to assess the duration of delay in the treatment TBM and to investigate it...

    Authors: Yu He, Chao Han, Kai-Feng Chang, Mao-Shui Wang and Tian-Ren Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:341

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Urine LAM testing has been approved by the WHO for use in hospitalised patients with advanced immunosuppression. However, sensitivity remains suboptimal. We therefore examined the incremental diagnostic sensit...

    Authors: Phindile Gina, Philippa J. Randall, Tapuwa E. Muchinga, Anil Pooran, Richard Meldau, Jonny G. Peter and Keertan Dheda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:339

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Private healthcare providers are important to tuberculosis (TB) management globally, although internationally there are reports of suboptimal management and disparities in treatment commencement in the private...

    Authors: Katie D. Dale, Ee Laine Tay, James M. Trauer, Peter G. Trevan and Justin T. Denholm

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:324

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  30. Content type: Research article

    To reduce global tuberculosis (TB) burden, the active disease must be diagnosed quickly and accurately and patients should be treated and cured. In Ethiopia, TB diagnosis mainly relies on spot-morning-spot (SM...

    Authors: Abraham Tesfaye, Daniel Fiseha, Dawit Assefa, Eveline Klinkenberg, Silvia Balanco and Ivor Langley

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:318

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Vitamin D deficiency (low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25D] concentration) is often reported in tuberculosis. Adjunctive vitamin D has been tested for its potential to improve treatment outcomes, but has proven...

    Authors: Anna P. Ralph, Muhammad Redzwan S. Rashid Ali, Timothy William, Kim Piera, Uma Parameswaran, Elspeth Bird, Christopher S. Wilkes, Wai Khew Lee, Tsin Wen Yeo and Nicholas M. Anstey

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:312

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Estimates of month-2 culture conversion, a proxy indicator of tuberculosis (TB) treatment efficacy in phase-2 trials can vary by culture-type and geographically with lower rates reported among African sites. T...

    Authors: Daniel Atwine, Patrick Orikiriza, Ivan Taremwa, Arnold Ayebare, Suzan Logoose, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Amina Jindani and Maryline Bonnet

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:299

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  33. Content type: Research article

    African pouched rats sniffing sputum samples provided by local clinics have significantly increased tuberculosis case findings in Tanzania and Mozambique. The objective of this study was to determine the repro...

    Authors: Haylee Ellis, Christiaan Mulder, Emilio Valverde, Alan Poling and Timothy Edwards

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:298

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Household (HH) contact tracing is a strategy that targets high risk groups for TB. Symptom based screening is the standard used to identify HH contacts at risk for TB during HH contact tracing for TB. However,...

    Authors: Monde Muyoyeta, Nkatya Chanda Kasese, Deborah Milimo, Isaac Mushanga, Mapopa Ndhlovu, Nathan Kapata, Maureen Moyo-Chilufya and Helen Ayles

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:301

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) is a major hurdle for TB control programs especially in developing countries like China. Resistance to fluoroquinolones is high am...

    Authors: Jun Chen, Peng Peng, Yixiang Du, Yi Ren, Lifeng Chen, Youyi Rao and Weihua Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:300

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  36. Content type: Case report

    Due to its chronic subclinical course and large spectrum of manifestations, leprosy often represents a diagnostic challenge. Even with proper anti-mycobacteria treatment, leprosy follow up remains challenging:...

    Authors: Ana Paula Vieira, Maria Angela Bianconcini Trindade, Flávio Jota de Paula, Neusa Yurico Sakai-Valente, Alberto José da Silva Duarte, Francine Brambate Carvalhinho Lemos and Gil Benard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:305

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Untreated, miliary tuberculosis (TB) has a mortality approaching 100%. As it is uncommon there is little specific data to guide its management. We report detailed data from a UK cohort of patients with miliary...

    Authors: Jonathan Underwood, Fiona Cresswell, Alex P Salam, Alex J Keeley, Charles Cleland, Laurence John and Robert N Davidson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:295

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Early tuberculosis (TB) case finding and adequate chemotherapy are essential for interrupting disease transmission and preventing complications due to delayed care seeking. This study was undertaken in order t...

    Authors: Robel Yirgu, Firaol Lemessa, Selamawit Hirpa, Abraham Alemayehu and Eveline Klinkenberg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:292

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses formidable challenges to TB control due to its complex diagnostic and treatment challenges and often associated with a high rate of mortality. Accurate and rapi...

    Authors: Abyot Meaza, Abebaw Kebede, Zelalem Yaregal, Zekarias Dagne, Shewki Moga, Bazezew Yenew, Getu Diriba, Helina Molalign, Mengistu Tadesse, Desalegn Adisse, Muluwork Getahun and Kassu Desta

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:280

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  40. Content type: Research article

    We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) to examine the efficacy and completion rates of treatments for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). While a previous review found newer, short-...

    Authors: Christopher Pease, Brian Hutton, Fatemeh Yazdi, Dianna Wolfe, Candyce Hamel, Pauline Quach, Becky Skidmore, David Moher and Gonzalo G. Alvarez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:265

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  41. Content type: Research article

    In Côte d’Ivoire, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a serious public health problem with a prevalence estimated at 2.5% in 2006. Zinc and copper are essential Trace element needed to strengthen the ...

    Authors: Gnogbo Alexis Bahi, Lydie Boyvin, Souleymane Méité, Gervais Melaine M’Boh, Kadjowely Yeo, Kouassi Raymond N’Guessan, Alain Dit Philippe Bidié and Allico Joseph Djaman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:257

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Screening household contacts of active tuberculosis (TB) patients is recommended for TB control. Due to resource constraints this rarely occurs in lower income countries. Demographic and clinical features of i...

    Authors: Jonas Hector, Suzanne T. Anderson, Gertrude Banda, Mercy Kamdolozi, Laura F. Jefferys, Doris Shani, Natalie J. Garton, Agnes Mwale, Annie Jobe, Geraint R. Davies and Derek J Sloan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:259

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Death under care is a major challenge for tuberculosis (TB) treatment programs. We derived and validated a simple score to predict mortality during tuberculosis treatment in high endemicity areas.

    Authors: Eric Walter Pefura-Yone, Adamou Dodo Balkissou, Virginie Poka-Mayap, Hadja Koté Fatime-Abaicho, Patrick Thierry Enono-Edende and André Pascal Kengne

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:251

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection is one of the main drivers of poor outcome for both diseases in Zambia. HIV infection has been found to predict TB infection/disease and TB has been reported as a major cause ...

    Authors: Pascalina Chanda-Kapata, Nathan Kapata, Eveline Klinkenberg, Martin P. Grobusch and Frank Cobelens

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:236

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  45. Content type: Research article

    We describe drug-induced liver injury (DILI) secondary to antituberculous treatment (ATT) in a large tuberculosis (TB) centre in London; we identify the proportion who had risk factors for DILI and the timing ...

    Authors: Aula Abbara, Sarah Chitty, Jennifer K. Roe, Rohma Ghani, Simon M. Collin, Andrew Ritchie, Onn Min Kon, John Dzvova, Harriet Davidson, Thomas E. Edwards, Charlotte Hateley, Matthew Routledge, Jim Buckley, Robert N. Davidson and Laurence John

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:231

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Efforts to control the global burden of tuberculosis (TB) have been jeopardized by the rapid evolution of multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), which is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifamp...

    Authors: Setegn Eshetie, Mucheye Gizachew, Mulat Dagnew, Gemechu Kumera, Haile Woldie, Fekadu Ambaw, Belay Tessema and Feleke Moges

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:219

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  47. Content type: Research article

    The real burden of smear-positive (PTB+) and bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (BCTB) in Ethiopia is not known. Thus, the aim of this community-based study was to measure the prevalence and incidence of...

    Authors: ShalloDaba Hamusse, Meaza Demissie, Dejene Teshome, Mohammed Suaudi Hassen and Bernt Lindtjørn

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:214

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an important protein in the lectin pathway of the immune system. This study explores the association between MBL polymorphism and the susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). The as...

    Authors: Yan-Ling Guo, Yang Liu, Wu-Juan Ban, Qi Sun and Guang-Li Shi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:210

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  49. Content type: Research article

    Timely and accurate identification of people with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is important for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB). There is no gold standard for diagnosis of LTBI. Screening test...

    Authors: Peter Auguste, Alexander Tsertsvadze, Joshua Pink, Rachel Court, Noel McCarthy, Paul Sutcliffe and Aileen Clarke

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:200

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  50. Content type: Research article

    Difficult-to-treat infections caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are increasingly observed in clinical settings. However, studies on antimicrobial susceptibilities and effective treatments against RG...

    Authors: Shuji Hatakeyama, Yuki Ohama, Mitsuhiro Okazaki, Yoko Nukui and Kyoji Moriya

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:197

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