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Tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases

Section edited by Edward Graviss and Eyal Oren 

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases in humans, including HIV-associated tuberculosis, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.

Page 1 of 16

  1. Fluoroquinolones are broad-spectrum antibiotics that are recommended, and increasingly important, for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Resistance to fluoroquinolones is caused by mut...

    Authors: Mahdieh Sayadi, Hosna Zare, Saeed Amel Jamedar, Seyed Isaac Hashemy, Zahra Meshkat, Saman Soleimanpour, Sven Hoffner and Kiarash Ghazvini

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:390

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Mycobacterium fortuitum complex is a group of rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) associated with skin and soft-tissue infections after surgery or trauma. Treatment of NTM is challenging, due to res...

    Authors: Johanna Erber, Simon Weidlich, Tristan Tschaikowsky, Kathrin Rothe, Roland M. Schmid, Jochen Schneider and Christoph D. Spinner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:365

    Content type: Case report

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  3. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is an automated molecular test that is designed to simultaneously detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex and rifampin resistance. However, there are relatively few studies on this...

    Authors: Shuguang Li, Liyan Lin, Feifei Zhang, Chunjiang Zhao, Han Meng and Hui Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:362

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Loss of patients in the latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) cascade of care is a major barrier to LTBI management. We evaluated the impact and acceptability of local solutions implemented to strengthen LTBI m...

    Authors: Leila Barss, Joseph Obeng, Federica Fregonese, Olivia Oxlade, Benjamin Adomako, Anthony Opoku Afriyie, Erica Dapaah Frimpong, Nicholas Winters, Chantal Valiquette and Dick Menzies

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:352

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Patients with clinically suspected tuberculosis are often treated empirically, as diagnosis - especially of extrapulmonary tuberculosis - remains challenging. This leads to an overtreatment of tuberculosis and...

    Authors: Robert Ndege, Omary Ngome, Farida Bani, Yvan Temba, Herieth Wilson, Fiona Vanobberghen, Jerry Hella, Winfrid Gingo, Mohamed Sasamalo, Dorcas Mnzava, Namvua Kimera, Helen Hiza, John Wigayi, Herry Mapesi, Irene B. Kato, Francis Mhimbira…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:349

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. The burden of drug resistant tuberculosis in Africa is largely driven by the emergence and spread of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. MDR-TB is de...

    Authors: Namaunga Kasumu Chisompola, Elizabeth Maria Streicher, Chishala Miriam Kapambwe Muchemwa, Robin Mark Warren and Samantha Leigh Sampson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:344

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Dynamically changed levels of serum cytokines might predict the development of active TB from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and monitor preventive treatment effectiveness. The aim of the study was to id...

    Authors: Haoran Zhang, Xuefang Cao, Henan Xin, Jianmin Liu, Shouguo Pan, Ling Guan, Fei Shen, Zisen Liu, Dakuan Wang, Xueling Guan, Jiaoxia Yan, Boxuan Feng, Na Li, Qi Jin and Lei Gao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:330

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare and potentially life-threatening disorder characterized by an exacerbated but ineffective inflammatory response, which can be classified as primary and second...

    Authors: Yan-Hong Wang, Jun-Hui Ba, Xiao-Wei Shi and Ben-Quan Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:321

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Sichuan is a province located in southwestern China, which have a higher incidence of tuberculosis (TB). This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, as well as drug resistance...

    Authors: Dong-Mei Wang, Qing-Feng Li, Ma Zhu, Gui-Hui Wu, Xi Li, Yuan-Hong Xu, Jing Zhong, Jia Luo, Ying-Jie Li, Bin-Wu Ying and Chuan-Min Tao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:318

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Despite the predictive role of body weight variation in treatment outcome in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), few corroborating data are available. We studied weight variation in patients with MDR-TB...

    Authors: Alhassane Diallo, Boubacar Djelo Diallo, Lansana Mady Camara, Lucrèce Ahouéfa Nadège Kounoudji, Boubacar Bah, Fulgence N’Zabintawali, Miguel Carlos-Bolumbu, Mamadou Hassimiou Diallo and Oumou Younoussa Sow

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:315

    Content type: Research article

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  11. This study aimed to establish and evaluate a simultaneous amplification and testing method for detection of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB).

    Authors: Tongxin Li, Tao Shi, Ying Sun, Kan Zhou, Zhenggu Huang, Pengsen Wang, Ming Luo, Xiaoping Nie, Guoqiang Yang, Yu Chen and Yaokai Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:303

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious public health problem with substantial financial burden in China. The incidence of TB in Guangxi province is much higher than that in the national level, however, there is n...

    Authors: Yanling Zheng, Liping Zhang, Lei Wang and Ramziya Rifhat

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:300

    Content type: Research article

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  13. There are unique challenges in the diagnosis and management of multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in children. It is difficult to obtain confirmatory microbiological diagnosis in TB pericarditis. It is...

    Authors: Aravind Swaminathan, Philipp du Cros, Jay Achar, Jarmila Kliescikova, Shamsiya Mirgayosieva and Bobojon Pirmahmadzoda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:298

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Soft tissue or skin infections due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been reported frequently and are mostly associated with trauma or cosmetic interventions like plastic surgery. However, infection wi...

    Authors: Ricardo Pérez-Alfonzo, Luisa Elena Poleo Brito, Marialejandra Solano Vergara, Angela Ruiz Damasco, Perla Luiguimar Meneses Rodríguez, Carmen Elena Kannee Quintero, Carolina Carrera Martinez, Ismar Alejandra Rivera-Oliver, Omaira J. Da Mata Jardin, Bárbara A. Rodríguez-Castillo and Jacobus H. de Waard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:295

    Content type: Case report

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  15. International contact-tracing (CT) following exposure during long-distance air travel is resource-intensive, whereas evidence for risk of tuberculosis (TB) transmission during international travel is weak. In ...

    Authors: Saskia Glasauer, Stefan Kröger, Walter Haas and Nita Perumal

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:267

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Mycobacterial species other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae are generally free-living organisms and Mycobacterium simiae is one of the slowest growing Non-tuberculous mycobacteria. This i...

    Authors: B. S. D. P. Keragala, C. N. Gunasekera, P. D. Yesudian, Chandima Guruge, B. S. Dissanayaka, D. P. Liyanagama, G. I. M. Jinadasa, S. R. Constantine and H. M. M. T. B. Herath

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:258

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Gastrointestinal tuberculosis (TB) is diagnostically challenging; therefore, many cases are treated presumptively. We aimed to describe features and outcomes of gastrointestinal TB, determine whether a clinica...

    Authors: Christopher Lowbridge, Soraya A. M. Fadhil, Gayathri D. Krishnan, Emma Schimann, Raman Muthu Karuppan, Nagaraj Sriram, Giri Shan Rajahram, Jayaram Menon, Aatish Patel, Timothy William, Dawn Carmel Paul and Anna P. Ralph

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:255

    Content type: Research article

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  18. In resource limited settings, Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients on antiretroviral treatment. Ethiopia is one of the 30 high TB burden countries. TB causes burden in h...

    Authors: Agazhe Aemro, Abebaw Jember and Degefaye Zelalem Anlay

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:245

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Peritoneal tuberculosis is the most common cause of low albumin gradient ascites in developing countries, but it can be easily confused with other causes of ascites. Peritoneal tuberculosis requires early reco...

    Authors: Jules Ntwari, Vincent Dusabejambo and Cameron Page

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:239

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in the intensive care unit (ICU) presents several challenges, mainly associated to the clinical state of the patient. The presence of HIV infection further aggrav...

    Authors: Cynthia Pessoa Neves, Allyson Guimarães Costa, Izabella Picinin Safe, Alexandra de Souza Brito, Jaquelane Silva Jesus, Afranio Lineu Kritski, Marcus Vinicius Guimarães Lacerda, Miguel Viveiros and Marcelo Cordeiro-Santos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:229

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The poorly known mycobacterial species Mycobacterium monacense is a rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium that was first described in 2006 (Reischl et al., Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:2575-8, 2006); it h...

    Authors: Chenyan Yuan, Huixia Lu, Congshan Yang, Wei Gao, Hailiang Wang and Guoqiu Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:215

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Well-functioning health systems are essential to achieving global and national tuberculosis (TB) control targets. This study examined health system factors affecting implementation of TB control programme from...

    Authors: Daniel Chukwuemeka Ogbuabor

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:206

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Tuberculosis (TB) burden shows wide disparities across ages in Taiwan. In 2016, the age-specific notification rate in those older than 65 years old was about 100 times as much as in those younger than 15 years...

    Authors: Han Fu, Hsien-Ho Lin, Timothy B. Hallett and Nimalan Arinaminpathy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:191

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health burden, with an estimated quarter of the world’s population being infected. The World Health Organization (WHO) launched the “End TB Strategy” in 2014 emphasising kno...

    Authors: Ana Bonell, Lucie Contamin, Pham Quang Thai, Hoang Thi Thanh Thuy, H. Rogier van Doorn, Richard White, Behzad Nadjm and Marc Choisy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:184

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains a serious public health problem with poor treatment outcomes. Predictors of poor outcomes vary in different regions. Vietnam is among the top 30 high burden of...

    Authors: Le Hong Van, Phan Trieu Phu, Dao Nguyen Vinh, Vo Thanh Son, Nguyen Thi Hanh, Le Thanh Hoang Nhat, Nguyen Huu Lan, Truong Van Vinh, Nguyen Thi Mai Trang, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Guy E. Thwaites and Nguyen Thuy Thuong Thuong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:164

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is an automated molecular test recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). This study evaluated the effect of Xpert implementation on the detection ...

    Authors: Zheyuan Wu, Zulma Vanessa Rueda, Tao Li, Zurong Zhang, Yuan Jiang, Wei Sha, Fangyou Yu, Jing Chen, Qichao Pan, Xin Shen and Zheng’an Yuan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:153

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is thought to affect tuberculosis (TB) clinical presentation and treatment response. Whether DM impacts radiological manifestations of pulmonary TB is still not clear. This study investi...

    Authors: Nadia Nilda Barreda, Maria B. Arriaga, Juan Gonzalo Aliaga, Kattya Lopez, Oswaldo Martin Sanabria, Thomas A. Carmo, José F. Fróes Neto, Leonid Lecca, Bruno B. Andrade and Roger I. Calderon

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:139

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of avoidable deaths. Economic migrants represent a vulnerable population due to their exposure to medical and social risk factors. These factors expose them to higher ri...

    Authors: Luan Nguyen Quang Vo, Andrew James Codlin, Rachel Jeanette Forse, Hoa Trung Nguyen, Thanh Nguyen Vu, Vinh Van Truong, Giang Chau Do, Lan Huu Nguyen, Giang Truong Le and Maxine Caws

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:134

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) poses diagnostic challenges due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease. The immunochemistry-based MPT64 antigen detection test (MPT64 test) has shown promising results f...

    Authors: Ida Marie Hoel, Lisbet Sviland, Heidi Syre, Anne Ma Dyrhol-Riise, Ingerid Skarstein, Peter Jebsen, Melissa Davidsen Jørstad, Harald Wiker and Tehmina Mustafa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:130

    Content type: Research article

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  30. While several studies have assessed the associations between biological factors and tuberculosis (TB) transmission, our understanding of the associations between TB transmission and social and economic factors...

    Authors: Rebecca Tadokera, Linda-Gail Bekker, Barry N. Kreiswirth, Barun Mathema and Keren Middelkoop

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:120

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Currently available injectable agents are inadequate to address the high drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) burden in China. Regimens including the oral agent bedaquiline have been shown to be efficacious and...

    Authors: Abela Mpobela Agnarson, Xiao Chun Wang, Ravi Potluri, Hitesh Bhandari, Amit Dhir, Chrispin Kambili and Laurent Metz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:113

    Content type: Research article

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  32. HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are intricably interlinked in South Africa. The social aspects of this co-epidemic remain relatively unexplored. More specifically, no research has quantitatively explored the double ...

    Authors: Edwin Wouters, Nina Sommerland, Caroline Masquillier, Asta Rau, Michelle Engelbrecht, André Janse Van Rensburg, Gladys Kigozi, Koen Ponnet and Wim Van Damme

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:106

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Urogenital tuberculosis (TB) is rare in children and usually develops due to reactivation of the foci in the genitourinary tract after the latency period following initial infection. Urogenital TB in children ...

    Authors: Darja Aleinikova, Ilva Pole, Janis Kimsis, Anita Skangale, Olga Bobrikova, Regina Kazelnika, Inta Jansone, Inga Norvaisa, Iveta Ozere and Renate Ranka

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:105

    Content type: Case report

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  34. The goal of tuberculosis elimination put forward in the End TB Strategy prioritizes diagnosis and treatment of incipient and subclinical TB, recently defined by key stakeholders as “asymptomatic, early pre-clinic...

    Authors: Gry Klouman Bekken, Christian Ritz, Sumithra Selvam, Nelson Jesuraj, Anneke C. Hesseling, T. Mark Doherty, Harleen M. S. Grewal, Mario Vaz and Synne Jenum

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:96

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Xpert® MTB/RIF assay is currently used in Ethiopia for the rapid diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and mutations that confer Rifampicin resistance. Rifampicin resistance is determined based on any mut...

    Authors: Ayinalem Alemu, Mengistu Tadesse, Getachew Seid, Helina Mollalign, Kirubel Eshetu, Waganeh Sinshaw, Yeshiwork Abebaw, Misikir Amare, Biniyam Dagne, Getu Diriba, Bazezew Yenew, Melak Getu and Betselot Zerihun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:87

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Macrophages play a key role in the infection process, and alternatively activated macrophages (M2 polarization) play important roles in persistent infection via the immune escape of pathogens. This suggests th...

    Authors: Hyun Jin Cho, Yun-Ji Lim, Jhingook Kim, Won-Jung Koh, Chang-Hwa Song and Min-Woong Kang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:81

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the most common causative pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), accounting for as many as 30–50% of CAP during peak years. An early and rapid diagnostic method is key fo...

    Authors: Guanhua Xue, Shaoli Li, Hanqing Zhao, Chao Yan, Yanling Feng, Jinghua Cui, Tingting Jiang and Jing Yuan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:79

    Content type: Research article

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  38. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the World Health Organization antibiotic regimen for the treatment of paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) leprosy compared to other available regimens.

    Authors: Maria Lazo-Porras, Gabriela J. Prutsky, Patricia Barrionuevo, Jose Carlos Tapia, Cesar Ugarte-Gil, Oscar J. Ponce, Ana Acuña-Villaorduña, Juan Pablo Domecq, Celso De la Cruz-Luque, Larry J. Prokop and Germán Málaga

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:62

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Compliance to anti-TB treatment is crucial in achieving cure and avoiding the emergence of drug resistance. Electronic health (eHealth) interventions are included in the strategy to end the global Tuberculosis...

    Authors: Kassahun Dessie Gashu, Kassahun Alemu Gelaye, Zeleke Abebaw Mekonnen, Richard Lester and Binyam Tilahun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:42

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The WHO recently recommended the new Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra assay (Ultra) instead of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay because Ultra has improved sensitivity. We report the diagnostic accuracy of Ultra for tuberculous aden...

    Authors: Katherine Antel, Jenna Oosthuizen, Francois Malherbe, Vernon J. Louw, Mark P. Nicol, Gary Maartens and Estelle Verburgh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:33

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:187

  41. Pyrazinamide still may be a useful drug for treatment of rifampin-resistant (RR-TB) or multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in China while awaiting scale up of new drugs and regimens including bedaquiline...

    Authors: Hui Xia, Susan van den Hof, Frank Cobelens, Yang Zhou, Bing Zhao, Shengfen Wang and Yanlin Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:19

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Recurrence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) after treatment occurs through relapse of the initial infection or reinfection by a new drug-resistant strain. Outbreaks of DR-TB in high burden regions presen...

    Authors: Kurt Wollenberg, Michael Harris, Andrei Gabrielian, Nelly Ciobanu, Dumitru Chesov, Alyssa Long, Jessica Taaffe, Darrell Hurt, Alex Rosenthal, Michael Tartakovsky and Valeriu Crudu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:17

    Content type: Research article

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  43. The Xpert® MTB/RIF assay (Xpert; Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is a cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification assay for rapidly diagnosing tuberculosis and assessing antibiotic sensitivity. Although previous e...

    Authors: Young Seok Seo, Ji-Man Kang, Dong Soo Kim and Jong Gyun Ahn

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:14

    Content type: Research article

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  44. In most developing countries, smear-negative pulmonary TB (SNPT) often gets missed from the diagnosis of consideration, though it accounts 30–65% of total PTB cases, due to deficient or inaccessible molecular ...

    Authors: Priyatam Khadka, Januka Thapaliya, Ramesh Bahadur Basnet, Gokarna Raj Ghimire, Jyoti Amatya and Basista Parsad Rijal

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1090

    Content type: Research article

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  45. At least 13–20% of all Tuberculosis (TB) cases are recurrent TB. Recurrent TB has critical public health importance because recurrent TB patients have high risk of Multi-Drug Resistant TB (MDR-TB). It is criti...

    Authors: Simon Mutembo, Jane N. Mutanga, Kebby Musokotwane, Cuthbert Kanene, Kevin Dobbin, Xiaobai Yao, Changwei Li, Vincent C. Marconi and Christopher C. Whalen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1087

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Tuberculosis represents a serious public health problem and a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge worldwide. Molecular diagnostic techniques are crucial in the World Health Organization’s new tube...

    Authors: Youness Mechal, Elmostafa Benaissa, Nadia El mrimar, Yassine Benlahlou, Fatna Bssaibis, Adil Zegmout, Mariama Chadli, Yashpal S. Malik, Nadia Touil, Ahmed Abid, Adil Maleb and Mostafa Elouennass

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1069

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Contacting patients with tuberculosis have a substantial risk of developing the disease. Household contact screening has recently been recommended as a strategy to enhance case detection in high-burden countri...

    Authors: Dessie Alemnew Shiferaw, Habtamu Sewunet Mekonnen and Addisu Taye Abate

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1063

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Assessing the clinical relevance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolated from respiratory samples can be challenging. The epidemiology and pathogenicity of NTM species vary geographically. We aimed to o...

    Authors: Yannick Vande Weygaerde, Nina Cardinaels, Peter Bomans, Taeyang Chin, Jerina Boelens, Emmanuel André, Eva Van Braeckel and Natalie Lorent

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1061

    Content type: Research article

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  49. The risk factors for Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MAC-LD) are not well known. We hypothesized that low serum estradiol (E2) levels are related to MAC-LD as most patients with MAC-LD are postmenopausa...

    Authors: Yoshifumi Uwamino, Tomoyasu Nishimura, Yasunori Sato, Eiko Tamizu, Takanori Asakura, Shunsuke Uno, Masaaki Mori, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Makoto Ishii, Hiroshi Kawabe, Mitsuru Murata and Naoki Hasegawa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1055

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:131