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Sexually transmitted diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of sexually transmitted diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV and HIV-associated infections are considered in a separate section.

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  1. In Poland, gonorrhoea has been a mandatorily reported infection since 1948, however, the reported incidences are likely underestimated. No antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data for Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been in...

    Authors: Beata Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Agnieszka Beata Serwin, Daniel Golparian, Szymon Walter de Walthoffen, Slawomir Majewski, Marta Koper, Magdalena Malejczyk, Marius Domeika and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:65

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Limited information on epidemiologic patterns of KSHV, with none focusing on heterosexual transmission, is available in mainland China. To clarify this, a cross-sectional study was conducted among a group of f...

    Authors: Tiejun Zhang, Ying Yang, Feng Yu, Yanping Zhao, Feifei Lin, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood and Na He

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:58

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has shown a gradual increase in male predominance due to the increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated OSCC. However, the mode of HPV transmissi...

    Authors: Kazufumi Nakashima, Kazuyoshi Shigehara, Shohei Kawaguchi, Akira Wakatsuki, Yoshitomo Kobori, Kazuyoshi Nakashima, Yasunori Ishii, Masayoshi Shimamura, Toshiyuki Sasagawa, Yasuhide Kitagawa, Atsushi Mizokami and Mikio Namiki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:43

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. A strong link between C. trachomatis serogroup/serovar and serological response has been suggested in a previ...

    Authors: Stephan P Verweij, Esmée Lanjouw, Caroline J Bax, Koen D Quint, Paul M Oostvogel, P Joep Dörr, Jolein Pleijster, Henry JC de Vries, Remco PH Peters, Sander Ouburg and Servaas A Morré

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:3

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The optimal treatment of early syphilis (primary, secondary and early latent) in HIV-infected patients remains controversial. The Center for Diseases Control STD Treatment Guidelines recommended 1 dose of benz...

    Authors: Sadao Jinno, Bryan Anker, Parveen Kaur, Claire C Bristow and Jeffrey D Klausner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:605

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Neisseria gonorrhoeae can rapidly develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. Over the last years, decreased gonococcal susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins, especially cefixime, emerged worldwide. ...

    Authors: Helen Kovari, Maria DG de Melo Oliveira, Paula Hauser, Severin Läuchli, Jürg Meyer, Rainer Weber and Reinhard Zbinden

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:603

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Human papillomavirus (HPV) currently represents an important risk factor for cancer development and infertility in humans. Whilst binding of HPV to spermatozoa has been associated with male infertility, an inv...

    Authors: Carlo Foresta, Alessandro Bertoldo, Andrea Garolla, Damiano Pizzol, Silvia Mason, Andrea Lenzi and Luca De Toni

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:593

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with mosaic penA alleles and reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is a major public health problem. While much work has been performed internation...

    Authors: Severin Gose, Duylinh Nguyen, Daniella Lowenberg, Michael Samuel, Heidi Bauer and Mark Pandori

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:570

    Content type: Research article

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  9. HIV disproportionately affects African-Caribbean women in Canada but the frequency and distribution of sexually transmitted infections in this community have not been previously studied.

    Authors: Robert S Remis, Juan Liu, Mona Loutfy, Wangari Tharao, Anuradha Rebbapragada, Stephen J Perusini, Lisungu Chieza, Megan Saunders, LoriAnn Green-Walker and Rupert Kaul

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:550

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The incidence of cervical cancer in Paraguay is among the highest in the world, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being a necessary factor for cervical cancer. Knowledge about HPV infection among indigenous ...

    Authors: Laura Mendoza, Pamela Mongelos, Malvina Paez, Amalia Castro, Isabel Rodriguez-Riveros, Graciela Gimenez, Patricia Araujo, Gloria Echagüe, Valentina Diaz, Florentina Laspina, Wilberto Castro, Rosa Jimenez, Ramón Marecos, Santiago Ever, Gerardo Deluca and María Alejandra Picconi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:531

    Content type: Research article

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  11. External quality assurance (EQA) programmes, which are routinely used in laboratories, have not been widely implemented for point-of- care tests (POCTs). A study was performed in ten health centres in Tanzania...

    Authors: Pieter W Smit, David Mabey, Thomas van der Vlis, Hans Korporaal, Julius Mngara, John Changalucha, Jim Todd and Rosanna W Peeling

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:530

    Content type: Research article

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  12. In developed countries, the incidence of cervical cancer has remained stable in HIV+ women but the prevalence and multiplicity of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection, a necessary cause of cervical cancer, appears ...

    Authors: Sally N Akarolo-Anthony, Maryam Al-Mujtaba, Ayotunde O Famooto, Eileen O Dareng, Olayinka B Olaniyan, Richard Offiong, Cosette M Wheeler and Clement A Adebamowo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:521

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Estimation of pre-immunisation prevalence of HPV and distribution of HPV types is fundamental to understanding the subsequent impact of HPV vaccination. We describe the type specific prevalence of HPV in femal...

    Authors: Kimberley Kavanagh, Katy Sinka, Kate Cuschieri, John Love, Alison Potts, Kevin GJ Pollock, Heather Cubie, Martin Donaghy and Chris Robertson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:519

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Cervical cancer is caused by high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). DNA testing of such high-risk types of HPV could improve cervical screening.The aim of the study was to compare the sensitivities and...

    Authors: Philippe Halfon, Maria Teresa Sandri, Audrey Raimondo, Sophie Ravet, Hacène Khiri, Mario Sideri, Guillaume Penaranda, Claire Camus and Maria Luisa Mateos Lindemann

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:499

    Content type: Research article

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  15. High prevalence rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) have been reported in Aboriginal people in remote and regional areas of Australia for well over two decades, and repeat positivit...

    Authors: Rebecca J Guy, Lisa Natoli, James Ward, Louise Causer, Belinda Hengel, David Whiley, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Basil Donovan, Christopher K Fairley, Steven B Badman, Annie Tangey, Handan Wand, Mark Shephard, David G Regan, David Wilson, David Anderson…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:485

    Content type: Study protocol

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  16. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common condition, although its aetiology remains unexplained. The aim of this study was to analyse the composition of vaginal microbiota in women from Greenland to provide a quant...

    Authors: Raluca Datcu, Dionne Gesink, Gert Mulvad, Ruth Montgomery-Andersen, Elisabeth Rink, Anders Koch, Peter Ahrens and Jørgen Skov Jensen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:480

    Content type: Research article

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  17. In Italy the prevalence of genital warts in women (15–64 years) is approximately 0.6% with an incidence of 0.4% per year. Treatments for GW are usually long, with moderate success and high costs. The aim of th...

    Authors: Maria Michela Gianino, Sergio Delmonte, Emanuela Lovato, Morena Martinese, Sabrina Rondoletti, Maria Grazia Bernengo and Carla Maria Zotti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:470

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually-transmitted pathogens. A number of studies in the literature have estimated the burden of HPV-related diseases by collecting data at primary care l...

    Authors: Vincenzo Baldo, Silvia Cocchio, Alessandra Buja, Tatjana Baldovin, Patrizia Furlan, Chiara Bertoncello and Mario Saia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:462

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Genital mycoplasmas are opportunistic bacteria that are associated with undesirable gynaecologic and reproductive events. Mycoplasmas are fastidious bacteria with increasing resistance to routine antimicrobial...

    Authors: Mathys J Redelinghuys, Marthie M Ehlers, Andries W Dreyer, Hennie A Lombaard and Marleen M Kock

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:453

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Syphilis is an important sexually transmitted infection (STI) with serious public health consequences. Among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Lima, the prevalence and incidence are extraordinarily high. Curr...

    Authors: Robert G Deiss, Segundo R Leon, Kelika A Konda, Brandon Brown, Eddy R Segura, Jerome T Galea, Carlos F Caceres and Jeffrey D Klausner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:426

    Content type: Study protocol

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  21. Despite two decades of interventions, rates of sexually transmissible infections (STI) in remote Australian Aboriginal communities remain unacceptably high. Routine notifications data from 2011 indicate rates ...

    Authors: James Ward, Skye McGregor, Rebecca J Guy, Alice R Rumbold, Linda Garton, Bronwyn J Silver, Debbie Taylor-Thomson, Belinda Hengel, Janet Knox, Amalie Dyda, Matthew G Law, Handan Wand, Basil Donovan, Christopher K Fairley, Steven Skov, Donna Ah Chee…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:425

    Content type: Study protocol

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  22. The occurrence of antibiotic resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates is a serious public health problem in different corners of the globe. The objective of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibil...

    Authors: Martha Tibebu, Ambachew Shibabaw, Girmay Medhin and Afework Kassu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:415

    Content type: Research article

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  23. There are no accurate data regarding the real prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Spain. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis infections and the risk factors for acquiring them a...

    Authors: Carlos Fernández-Benítez, Patricia Mejuto-López, Luis Otero-Guerra, Mario Juan Margolles-Martins, Pilar Suárez-Leiva and Fernando Vazquez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:388

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly diagnosed bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the developed world and diagnosis rates have increased dramatically over the last decade. Repeat infections of chl...

    Authors: Jane S Hocking, Lenka A Vodstrcil, Wilhelmina M Huston, Peter Timms, Marcus Y Chen, Karen Worthington, Ruthy McIver and Sepehr N Tabrizi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:379

    Content type: Study protocol

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  25. Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) play a crucial role in the etiology of cervical cancer and the most prevalent genotype is HPV16. HPV 1...

    Authors: Zineb Qmichou, Meriem Khyatti, Mohamed Berraho, My Mustapha Ennaji, Laila Benbacer, Chakib Nejjari, Noureddine Benjaafar, Abdellatif Benider, Mohammed Attaleb and Mohammed El Mzibri

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:378

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Mucosal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. Vaccine and non-vaccine genotype prevalences may change after vaccine introduction. Therefore, it appears essential to rank...

    Authors: Erik Bernard, Margarita Pons-Salort, Michel Favre, Isabelle Heard, Elisabeth Delarocque-Astagneau, Didier Guillemot and Anne CM Thiébaut

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:373

    Content type: Research article

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  27. High school based chlamydia screening has been shown to increase uptake and detect hidden infections among sexually active adolescents. Our study aimed to: i) examine the proportions of 15–20 year-olds tested ...

    Authors: Kirsten Gravningen, Gunnar Skov Simonsen, Anne-Sofie Furberg and Tom Wilsgaard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:361

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Syphilis has been referred to as “the great imitator” due to its ability to imitate other diseases. Untreated syphilis becomes a systemic infection that can involve almost every organ systems. Treponema pallidum ...

    Authors: Thilde Fabricius, Charlotte Winther, Caroline Ewertsen, Michael Kemp and Susanne Dam Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:347

    Content type: Case report

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  29. High risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are known to be extremely common, sexually transmitted infections, but more information is needed regarding the absolute risks of type-specific HR-HPV infections in th...

    Authors: Megan Clarke, Mark Schiffman, Sholom Wacholder, Ana Cecilia Rodriguez, Allan Hildesheim and Wim Quint

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:308

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The study objective was to investigate the effect of the introduction of a sexual health practice nurse on HIV and STI testing in a general practice that specialized in gay men’s health.

    Authors: Anthony F Snow, Lenka A Vodstrcil, Christopher K Fairley, Carol El-Hayek, Rosey Cummings, Louise Owen, Norman Roth, Margaret E Hellard and Marcus Y Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:298

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The female genital tract is an important bacterial habitat of the human body, and vaginal microbiota plays a crucial role in vaginal health. The alteration of vaginal microbiota affects millions of women annua...

    Authors: Weijiao Gao, Jinlong Weng, Yunong Gao and Xiaochi Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:271

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Since 2000, reported syphilis cases increased ten-fold in Canada, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) co-infected with HIV. We characterized temporal patterns of of syphilis testing in a large c...

    Authors: Ann N Burchell, Vanessa G Allen, Veronika Moravan, Sandra Gardner, Janet Raboud, Darrell HS Tan, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Rupert Kaul, Tony Mazzulli, Frank McGee, Peggy Millson, Robert S Remis and Sean B Rourke

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:246

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Reinfections of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) are common. In a two-armed intervention study at an urban STI clinic in the Netherlands, heterosexual Ct-positive visitors received an invitation for retesting after 4–5...

    Authors: Hannelore M Götz, Mireille EG Wolfers, Ad Luijendijk and Ingrid VF van den Broek

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:239

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Although among women a decreasing prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection with increasing age has been consistently observed in high-resource countries, different age profiles have been reported els...

    Authors: Iacopo Baussano, Silvia Franceschi, Anna Gillio-Tos, Francesca Carozzi, Massimo Confortini, Paolo Dalla Palma, Margherita De Lillo, Annarosa Del Mistro, Laura De Marco, Carlo Naldoni, Paola Pierotti, Patrizia Schincaglia, Nereo Segnan, Manuel Zorzi, Paolo Giorgi-Rossi and Guglielmo Ronco

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:238

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Data on risk factors of recurrent bacterial vaginosis (RBV) are still scarce. We used data from female sex workers (FSW) participating in a randomized controlled microbicide trial to examine predictors of BV r...

    Authors: Fernand A Guédou, Lut Van Damme, Jennifer Deese, Tania Crucitti, Marissa Becker, Florence Mirembe, Suniti Solomon and Michel Alary

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:208

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Cervicitis is a syndrome of cervical inflammation and a common condition in female sex workers (FSW), a subpopulation vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections. Local data is essential for guiding syndromi...

    Authors: Simon Pollett, Martha Calderon, Kristen Heitzinger, Vicky Solari, Silvia M Montano and Joseph Zunt

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:195

    Content type: Research article

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  37. For almost two decades, chlamydia and gonorrhoea diagnosis rates in remote Indigenous communities have been up to 30 times higher than for non-Indigenous Australians. The high levels of population movement kno...

    Authors: Ben B Hui, Richard T Gray, David P Wilson, James S Ward, Anthony M A Smith, David J Philip, Matthew G Law, Jane S Hocking and David G Regan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:188

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:86

  38. There has been a rapid decline in the number of young heterosexuals diagnosed with genital warts at outpatient sexual health services since the national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program started i...

    Authors: Hammad Ali, Rebecca J Guy, Handan Wand, Tim RH Read, David G Regan, Andrew E Grulich, Christopher K Fairley and Basil Donovan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:140

    Content type: Research article

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  39. High-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) infection is associated with the development of cervical cancer. HPV vaccination reduces the risk of developing malignant lesions and is expected to change the dynamics...

    Authors: Karl Ulrich Petry, Alexander Luyten, Annika Justus, Angelika Iftner, Sarah Strehlke, Axel Reinecke-Lüthge, Elisabeth Grunwald, Renate Schulze-Rath and Thomas Iftner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:135

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The national Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunisation Programme in New Zealand was introduced in 2008, and involves routine vaccination of girls 12–13 years with a catch-up for females aged up to 19 years. The ...

    Authors: Leonardo M Simonella, Hazel Lewis, Megan Smith, Harold Neal, Collette Bromhead and Karen Canfell

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:114

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Syphilis causes up to 1,500,000 congenital syphilis cases annually. These could be prevented if all pregnant women were screened, and those with syphilis treated with a single dose of penicillin before 28 week...

    Authors: Pieter W Smit, Thomas van der Vlis, David Mabey, John Changalucha, Julius Mngara, Benjamin D Clark, Aura Andreasen, Jim Todd, Mark Urassa, Basia Zaba and Rosanna W Peeling

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:102

    Content type: Technical advance

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  42. Seroreactivity, processes of seroconversion and seroreversion, in the context of HPV infection has been investigated in numerous studies. However, the data resulting from these studies are usually not accounte...

    Authors: Igor A Korostil, Suzanne M Garland, Matthew G Law and David G Regan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:83

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Pre-vaccination information on HPV type-specific prevalence in target populations is essential for designing and monitoring immunization strategies for cervical cancer (CC) prevention. Data on HPV prevalence i...

    Authors: Cristina Giambi, Serena Donati, Francesca Carozzi, Stefania Salmaso, Silvia Declich, Marta L Ciofi degli Atti, Guglielmo Ronco, Maria P Alibrandi, Silvia Brezzi, Natalina Collina, Daniela Franchi, Amedeo Lattanzi, Maria C Minna, Roberto Nannini, Elena Barretta, Elena Burroni…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:74

    Content type: Research article

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  44. A cross sectional study to investigate HPV prevalence according to age and cytology.

    Authors: Elena Argyri, Stefanos Papaspyridakos, Elpida Tsimplaki, Lina Michala, Evangelia Myriokefalitaki, Issidora Papassideri, Dimitra Daskalopoulou, Ioanna Tsiaoussi, George Magiakos and Efstathia Panotopoulou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:53

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major public health concern worldwide. In Vietnam, knowledge regarding N. gonorrhoeae prevalence and AMR is limited, and data concerning genetic charac...

    Authors: Birgitta Olsen, Pham Thi Lan, Daniel Golparian, Emma Johansson, Tran Hau Khang and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:40

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Anogenital warts (AGWs) are a common, highly infectious disease caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), whose high recurrence rates contribute to direct medical costs, productivity loss and increased psychos...

    Authors: Harshila Patel, Monika Wagner, Puneet Singhal and Smita Kothari

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:39

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Chlamydia trachomatis may cause multiple different urogenital tract disorders, but current non-culture assays for rapid screening of C. trachomatis typically use immunochromatography-based methods. We establishe...

    Authors: Ze-yu Wang, Guang-yu Fu, Shan-mei Wang, Dong-chun Qin, Zhong-quan Wang and Jing Cui

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:36

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Knowledge on antimicrobial drug resistance and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates circulating in India, Pakistan, and Bhutan is sorely lacking. In this paper, we describe the prevalence of ...

    Authors: Sunil Sethi, Daniel Golparian, Manju Bala, Dorji Dorji, Muhammad Ibrahim, Kausar Jabeen and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:35

    Content type: Research article

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