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Sexually transmitted diseases

Section edited by Stefan Baral & Joseph Tucker

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of sexually transmitted diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV and HIV-associated infections are considered in a separate section.

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  1. Recreational drug use (RDU) may result in sexual disinhibition and higher risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. We assessed whether RDU w...

    Authors: Jun-Jie Xu, Chen Zhang, Qing-Hai Hu, Zhen-Xing Chu, Jing Zhang, Yong-Ze Li, Lin Lu, Zhe Wang, Ji-Hua Fu, Xi Chen, Hong-Jing Yan, Ming-Hua Zhuang, Yong-Jun Jiang, Wen-Qing Geng, Sten H Vermund, Hong Shang…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:642

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Evolving gonococcal antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a serious threat to public health. The aim of this study was to: update antimicrobial susceptibility data of Neisseria gonorrhoeae recently isolated in Nan...

    Authors: Sai Li, Xiao-Hong Su, Wen-Jing Le, Fa-Xing Jiang, Bao-Xi Wang and Peter A Rice

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:622

    Content type: Research article

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  3. UNAIDS has called for greater HIV/syphilis testing worldwide just as local HIV/syphilis testing programs are cut or altered. New models are needed to make HIV/syphilis testing services sustainable while retain...

    Authors: Joseph D Tucker, Kathryn E Muessig, Rosa Cui, Cedric H Bien, Elaine J Lo, Ramon Lee, Kaidi Wang, Larry Han, Feng-Ying Liu, Li-Gang Yang, Bin Yang, Heidi Larson and Rosanna W Peeling

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:601

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Internet-based Chlamydia Screening Implementation (chlamydia screening programme) was introduced in the Netherlands in 2008-2010 to detect and treat asymptomatic infections and to limit ongoing transmission th...

    Authors: Geneviève AFS van Liere, Nicole HTM Dukers-Muijrers, Jan EAM van Bergen, Hannelore M Götz, Frans Stals and Christian JPA Hoebe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:612

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Immunity plays an important role in controlling human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and associated lesions. Unlike infections caused by other viruses, natural HPV infection does not always result in a protect...

    Authors: Patrícia S de Araujo-Souza, Agnihotram V Ramanakumar, João M G Candeias, Patrícia Thomann, Andrea Trevisan, Eduardo L Franco and Luisa L Villa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:578

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Chlamydia trachomatis is a pathogen of worldwide importance, causing more than 100 million cases of sexually transmitted infections annually. Whole-genome sequencing is a powerful high resolution tool that can b...

    Authors: Mette T Christiansen, Amanda C Brown, Samit Kundu, Helena J Tutill, Rachel Williams, Julianne R Brown, Jolyon Holdstock, Martin J Holland, Simon Stevenson, Jayshree Dave, CY William Tong, Katja Einer-Jensen, Daniel P Depledge and Judith Breuer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:591

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Female general practitioners (GPs) have higher chlamydia testing rates than male GPs, yet it is unclear whether this is due to lack of knowledge among male GPs or because female GPs consult and test more femal...

    Authors: Anna Yeung, Meredith Temple-Smith, Simone Spark, Rebecca Guy, Christopher K Fairley, Matthew Law, Anna Wood, Kirsty Smith, Basil Donovan, John Kaldor, Jane Gunn, Marie Pirotta, Rob Carter and Jane Hocking

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:584

    Content type: Research article

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  8. More information is needed about time between sexual initiation and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and development of cervical precancer.

    Authors: Xavier Castellsagué, Jorma Paavonen, Unnop Jaisamrarn, Cosette M Wheeler, S Rachel Skinner, Matti Lehtinen, Paulo Naud, Song-Nan Chow, Maria Rowena Del Rosario-Raymundo, Julio C Teixeira, Johanna Palmroth, Newton S de Carvalho, Maria Julieta V Germar, Klaus Peters, Suzanne M Garland, Anne Szarewski…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:551

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Rapid economic development in urban China has led to a mass migration of surplus rural residents into urban areas for better employment opportunities. This study aims to identify prevalence levels and risks of...

    Authors: Xia Zou, Eric PF Chow, Peizhen Zhao, Yong Xu, Li Ling and Lei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:490

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Smoking has been identified in observational studies as a risk factor for bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition defined in part by decimation of Lactobacillus spp. The anti-estrogenic effect of smoking and trace ...

    Authors: Rebecca M Brotman, Xin He, Pawel Gajer, Doug Fadrosh, Eva Sharma, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Jacques Ravel, Elbert D Glover and Jessica M Rath

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:471

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Previous studies showed that C. trachomatis strains found in MSM are different from those in heterosexuals. This study investigates whether the differences in strain distribution between MSM and heterosexuals are...

    Authors: Bart Versteeg, Martijn S van Rooijen, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Henry JC de Vries and Sylvia M Bruisten

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:464

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major concern worldwide. It has been recently feared that the bla TEM-1 gene is, via bla TEM-135, evolving into an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)...

    Authors: Ibrahim Muhammad, Daniel Golparian, Jo-Anne R Dillon, Åsa Johansson, Makoto Ohnishi, Sunil Sethi, Shao-chun Chen, Shu-ichi Nakayama, Martin Sundqvist, Manju Bala and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:454

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The Hungarian national guidelines for the treatment of gonorrhoea were published in 2002 but are now widely considered to be outdated. Improved knowledge is needed with respect to the epidemiology and antimicr...

    Authors: Alexandra Brunner, Eva Nemes-Nikodem, Noemi Mihalik, Marta Marschalko, Sarolta Karpati and Eszter Ostorhazi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:433

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The Republic of Cyprus is recognized as a low level HIV epidemic country with strong evidence of an increase in the transmission through the male to male sexual contact. Little is known about the factors that ...

    Authors: Magdalini Pylli, Nicos Middleton, Andreas Charalambous and Vasilios Raftopoulos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:432

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping assays are becoming increasingly attractive for use in mass screening, as they offer a possibility to integrate HPV screening with HPV vaccine monitoring, thereby generati...

    Authors: Jesper Bonde, Matejka Rebolj, Ditte Møller Ejegod, Sarah Preisler, Elsebeth Lynge and Carsten Rygaard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:413

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The design of new healthcare schemes which involve using molecular HPV screening means that both persistence and clearance data regarding the most prevalent types of HR-HPV occurring in cities in Colombia must...

    Authors: Sara C Soto-De León, Luisa Del Río-Ospina, Milena Camargo, Ricardo Sánchez, Darwin A Moreno-Pérez, Antonio Pérez-Prados, Manuel E Patarroyo and Manuel A Patarroyo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:395

    Content type: Research article

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  17. It is important to understand the specific HPV genotype distribution in screen-detected lesions. HPV Genotype is helpful for separating HPV-positive women at greater risk of cancer from those who can regress s...

    Authors: Lipeng Jing, Xingming Zhong, Weihuang Huang, Yang Liu, Man Wang, Zhulin Miao, Xiaoping Zhang, Jing Zou, Baowen Zheng, Congde Chen, Xiaoman Liang, Guang Yang, Chunxia Jing and Xiangcai Wei

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:388

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Published data on the epidemiology of HPV in women with invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in New Zealand (NZ) are limited. This cross-sectiona...

    Authors: Peter Sykes, Kusuma Gopala, Ai Ling Tan, Diane Kenwright, Simone Petrich, Anco Molijn and Jing Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:374

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Human papillomavirus (HPV) serology is a main factor for designing vaccination programs and surveillance strategies; nevertheless, there are few reports of HPV seroprevalence in the general population, especia...

    Authors: Felipe A Castro, Angelica Dominguez, Klaus Puschel, Vanessa Van De Wyngard, Peter JF Snijders, Silvia Franceschi, Michael Pawlita and Catterina Ferreccio

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:361

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Similar to many developed countries, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is provided only to girls in New Zealand and coverage is relatively low (47% in school-aged girls for dose 3). Some jurisdict...

    Authors: Amber L Pearson, Giorgi Kvizhinadze, Nick Wilson, Megan Smith, Karen Canfell and Tony Blakely

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:351

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major concern worldwide and gonococcal AMR surveillance globally is imperative for public health purposes. In Eastern Europe, gonococcal AMR surveillan...

    Authors: Anna Kubanova, Alexey Kubanov, Nataliya Frigo, Viktoria Solomka, Vera Semina, Denis Vorobyev, Rafil Khairullin and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:342

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Chlamydial infection is the most common notifiable disease in Australia, Europe and the US. Australian notifications of chlamydia rose four-fold from 20,274 cases in 2002 to 80,846 cases in 2011; the majority ...

    Authors: Wayne Dimech, Megan SC Lim, Caroline Van Gemert, Rebecca Guy, Douglas Boyle, Basil Donovan and Margaret Hellard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:325

    Content type: Research article

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  23. To reduce the incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is necessary to target high-risk populations such as prison inmates. This study aims to explore the range of knowledge on HIV and S...

    Authors: Wafa MK Fageeh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:290

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Symptom- and sexual history-based testing i.e., testing on indication, for anorectal sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women is common. Yet, it is unknown whether this strategy is effective. Moreover, ...

    Authors: Geneviève AFS van Liere, Christian JPA Hoebe, Petra FG Wolffs and Nicole HTM Dukers-Muijrers

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:274

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Repeat infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is common and increases the risk of sequelae in women and HIV seroconversion in men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite guidelines recommending chlamydia retesting thr...

    Authors: Kirsty S Smith, Jane S Hocking, Marcus Chen, Christopher K Fairley, Anna McNulty, Phillip Read, Catriona S Bradshaw, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Handan Wand, Marion Saville, William Rawlinson, Suzanne M Garland, Basil Donovan, John M Kaldor and Rebecca Guy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:223

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. Blinding trachoma, caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis, is a neglected tropical disease targeted for elimination by 2020. A major component of the elimination strategy is mass drug administration (MDA) w...

    Authors: Erica Brook Goodhew, Sheri Maria G Morgan, Andrew J Switzer, Beatriz Munoz, Laura Dize, Charlotte Gaydos, Harran Mkocha, Sheila K West, Ryan E Wiegand, Patrick J Lammie and Diana L Martin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:216

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Cervical cancer ranks third in prevalence and fourth as cause of death in women worldwide. In Brazil, 17,540 women were diagnosed in 2012 with the disease. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV types is a ne...

    Authors: Leandro Santos de Araújo Resende, Sílvia Helena Rabelo-Santos, Luís Otávio Sarian, Rosane Ribeiro Figueiredo Alves, Andréa Alves Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos Zeferino and Sophie Derchain

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:214

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The HIV prevalence and incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) are high. Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with male regular partners (RP) is an important but under-emphasized risk behavior. The curre...

    Authors: Yong Cai and Joseph T F Lau

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:205

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Genital mycoplasmas colonise up to 80% of sexually mature women and may invade the amniotic cavity during pregnancy and cause complications. Tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones are contraindicated in pregnancy ...

    Authors: Mathys J Redelinghuys, Marthie M Ehlers, Andries W Dreyer, Hennie A Lombaard and Marleen M Kock

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:171

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Several assays are used to measure type-specific serological responses to human papillomavirus (HPV), including the bead-based glutathione S-transferase (GST)-L1 multiplex serology assay and virus-like particl...

    Authors: Hilary A Robbins, Yan Li, Carolina Porras, Michael Pawlita, Arpita Ghosh, Ana Cecilia Rodriguez, Mark Schiffman, Sholom Wacholder, Troy J Kemp, Paula Gonzalez, John Schiller, Douglas Lowy, Mark Esser, Katie Matys, Wim Quint, Leen-Jan van Doorn…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:120

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) isolates resistant to the clinically implemented antibiotics is challenging the efficacy of treatments. Unfortunately, phenotypic and molecular data regarding Ng detected ...

    Authors: Andrea Endimiani, Yuvia N Guilarte, Regula Tinguely, Lea Hirzberger, Sylvia Selvini, Agnese Lupo, Christoph Hauser and Hansjakob Furrer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:106

    Content type: Research article

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  32. In China, high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) prevalence is unexpectedly high in older women, but the possible reasons have not been well studied yet. This study investigated the age trends of HR-HPV infec...

    Authors: Le-Ni Kang, Philip E Castle, Fang-Hui Zhao, Jose Jeronimo, Feng Chen, Pooja Bansil, Jing Li, Wen Chen, Xun Zhang and You-Lin Qiao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:96

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Rectal products used with anal intercourse (AI) may facilitate transmission of STIs/HIV. However, there is limited data on rectal douching behavior in populations practicing AI. We examined the content, types ...

    Authors: Marjan Javanbakht, Shauna Stahlman, Jim Pickett, Marc-André LeBlanc and Pamina M Gorbach

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:95

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Estimates of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in a population prior to and after HPV vaccine introduction are essential to evaluate the short-term impact of vaccination.

    Authors: Yvonne Deleré, Cornelius Remschmidt, Josefine Leuschner, Melanie Schuster, Michaela Fesenfeld, Achim Schneider, Ole Wichmann and Andreas M Kaufmann

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:87

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Reported associations of male circumcision (MC) with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men have been inconsistent.

    Authors: Ginesa Albero, Xavier Castellsagué, Hui-Yi Lin, William Fulp, Luisa L Villa, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Mary Papenfuss, Martha Abrahamsen, Jorge Salmerón, Manuel Quiterio, Alan G Nyitray, Beibei Lu, F Xavier Bosch and Anna R Giuliano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:75

    Content type: Research article

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  36. In Poland, gonorrhoea has been a mandatorily reported infection since 1948, however, the reported incidences are likely underestimated. No antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data for Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been in...

    Authors: Beata Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Agnieszka Beata Serwin, Daniel Golparian, Szymon Walter de Walthoffen, Slawomir Majewski, Marta Koper, Magdalena Malejczyk, Marius Domeika and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:65

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Limited information on epidemiologic patterns of KSHV, with none focusing on heterosexual transmission, is available in mainland China. To clarify this, a cross-sectional study was conducted among a group of f...

    Authors: Tiejun Zhang, Ying Yang, Feng Yu, Yanping Zhao, Feifei Lin, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood and Na He

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:58

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has shown a gradual increase in male predominance due to the increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated OSCC. However, the mode of HPV transmissi...

    Authors: Kazufumi Nakashima, Kazuyoshi Shigehara, Shohei Kawaguchi, Akira Wakatsuki, Yoshitomo Kobori, Kazuyoshi Nakashima, Yasunori Ishii, Masayoshi Shimamura, Toshiyuki Sasagawa, Yasuhide Kitagawa, Atsushi Mizokami and Mikio Namiki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:43

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. A strong link between C. trachomatis serogroup/serovar and serological response has been suggested in a previ...

    Authors: Stephan P Verweij, Esmée Lanjouw, Caroline J Bax, Koen D Quint, Paul M Oostvogel, P Joep Dörr, Jolein Pleijster, Henry JC de Vries, Remco PH Peters, Sander Ouburg and Servaas A Morré

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:3

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The optimal treatment of early syphilis (primary, secondary and early latent) in HIV-infected patients remains controversial. The Center for Diseases Control STD Treatment Guidelines recommended 1 dose of benz...

    Authors: Sadao Jinno, Bryan Anker, Parveen Kaur, Claire C Bristow and Jeffrey D Klausner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:605

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Neisseria gonorrhoeae can rapidly develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. Over the last years, decreased gonococcal susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins, especially cefixime, emerged worldwide. ...

    Authors: Helen Kovari, Maria DG de Melo Oliveira, Paula Hauser, Severin Läuchli, Jürg Meyer, Rainer Weber and Reinhard Zbinden

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:603

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Human papillomavirus (HPV) currently represents an important risk factor for cancer development and infertility in humans. Whilst binding of HPV to spermatozoa has been associated with male infertility, an inv...

    Authors: Carlo Foresta, Alessandro Bertoldo, Andrea Garolla, Damiano Pizzol, Silvia Mason, Andrea Lenzi and Luca De Toni

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:593

    Content type: Research article

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  43. The spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with mosaic penA alleles and reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is a major public health problem. While much work has been performed internation...

    Authors: Severin Gose, Duylinh Nguyen, Daniella Lowenberg, Michael Samuel, Heidi Bauer and Mark Pandori

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:570

    Content type: Research article

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  44. HIV disproportionately affects African-Caribbean women in Canada but the frequency and distribution of sexually transmitted infections in this community have not been previously studied.

    Authors: Robert S Remis, Juan Liu, Mona Loutfy, Wangari Tharao, Anuradha Rebbapragada, Stephen J Perusini, Lisungu Chieza, Megan Saunders, LoriAnn Green-Walker and Rupert Kaul

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:550

    Content type: Research article

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  45. The incidence of cervical cancer in Paraguay is among the highest in the world, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being a necessary factor for cervical cancer. Knowledge about HPV infection among indigenous ...

    Authors: Laura Mendoza, Pamela Mongelos, Malvina Paez, Amalia Castro, Isabel Rodriguez-Riveros, Graciela Gimenez, Patricia Araujo, Gloria Echagüe, Valentina Diaz, Florentina Laspina, Wilberto Castro, Rosa Jimenez, Ramón Marecos, Santiago Ever, Gerardo Deluca and María Alejandra Picconi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:531

    Content type: Research article

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  46. External quality assurance (EQA) programmes, which are routinely used in laboratories, have not been widely implemented for point-of- care tests (POCTs). A study was performed in ten health centres in Tanzania...

    Authors: Pieter W Smit, David Mabey, Thomas van der Vlis, Hans Korporaal, Julius Mngara, John Changalucha, Jim Todd and Rosanna W Peeling

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:530

    Content type: Research article

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