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Sexually transmitted diseases

Section edited by Stefan Baral & Joseph Tucker

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of sexually transmitted diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV and HIV-associated infections are considered in a separate section.

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  1. Acquisition of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is common among the young, sexually active population. Genital HPV infections do not always lead to seroconversion. We aimed to assess the associatio...

    Authors: Alexandra Kovaleva, Catharina J. Alberts, Tim Waterboer, Angelika Michel, Marieke B. Snijder, Wilma Vermeulen, Liza Coyer, Maria Prins and Maarten Schim van der Loeff

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:502

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Cervical cancer remains an important cause of cancer mortality for Mexican women. HPV 16/18 typing may help to improve cervical cancer screening. Here we present the prevalence of high-risk human papillomaviru...

    Authors: Samantha E. Rudolph, Attila Lorincz, Cosette M. Wheeler, Patti Gravitt, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Leticia Torres-Ibarra, Leith León-Maldonado, Paula Ramírez, Berenice Rivera, Rubí Hernández, Eduardo L. Franco, Jack Cuzick, Pablo Méndez-Hernández and Jorge Salmerón

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:461

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Accurate and prompt diagnosis of HIV and syphilis simultaneously has reinforcing effect on their control program because of their prevalent co-infection. Availability of a simple user-friendly two-pronged and ...

    Authors: Geeta Shakya, Dipendra Raman Singh, Hemanta Chandra Ojha, Chet Raj Ojha, Shravan Kumar Mishra, Karishma Malla, Puspa Chaudhary and Kiran Regmi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:450

    Content type: Research article

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  4. We investigated the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and associated behavioural risk factors in men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) attending a clinical service in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Authors: Etienne E. Müller, Kevin Rebe, Tobias F. Chirwa, Helen Struthers, James McIntyre and David A. Lewis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:440

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Loss of a loved one has consistently been associated with various health risks. Little is however known about its relation to sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

    Authors: Emily Bond, Donghao Lu, Eva Herweijer, Karin Sundström, Unnur Valdimarsdóttir, Katja Fall, Lisen Arnheim-Dahlström, Pär Sparén and Fang Fang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:419

    Content type: Research article

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  6. In women, anorectal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are about as common as genital CT, yet the anorectal site remains largely untested in routine care. Anorectal CT frequently co-occurs with genital CT...

    Authors: Nicole H. T. M. Dukers-Muijrers, Petra F. G. Wolffs, Lisanne Eppings, Hannelore M. Götz, Sylvia M. Bruisten, Maarten F. Schim van der Loeff, Kevin Janssen, Mayk Lucchesi, Titia Heijman, Birgit H. van Benthem, Jan E. van Bergen, Servaas A. Morre, Jos Herbergs, Gerjo Kok, Mieke Steenbakkers, Arjan A. Hogewoning…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:381

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. Genital herpes results in considerable morbidity, including risk of neonatal herpes, and is increasingly being caused by Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) type 1. Possibly children are less often HSV-1 infected, leav...

    Authors: Petra J. Woestenberg, Jeroen H. T. Tjhie, Hester E. de Melker, Fiona R. M. van der Klis, Jan E. A. M van Bergen, Marianne A. B. van der Sande and Birgit H. B. van Benthem

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:364

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Globally, increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoea has led to decreased treatment options for gonorrhoea. Continuous monitoring of resistance is crucial to determine evolving resistance t...

    Authors: Kauser Jabeen, Pushpa Bhawan Mal, Erum Khan, Saeeda Chandio, Susanne Jacobsson and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:353

    Content type: Research article

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  9. High HIV incidence has been detected among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Thailand, but the relationship and timing of HIV, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), and syphilis is unknown. This analysis measures i...

    Authors: Warunee Thienkrua, Catherine S. Todd, Wannee Chonwattana, Wipas Wimonsate, Supaporn Chaikummao, Anchalee Varangrat, Anupong Chitwarakorn, Frits van Griensven and Timothy H. Holtz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:340

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen and is the most common cause of sexually transmitted diseases affecting both men and women. The pathogen can cause prostatitis and epididymitis in...

    Authors: Jekaterina Jevtuševskaja, Julia Uusna, Liis Andresen, Katrin Krõlov, Made Laanpere, Tiia Grellier, Indrek Tulp and Ülo Langel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:329

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Sexually transmitted and genital infections in pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal and neonatal health outcomes. High prevalences of sexually transmitted infections have been id...

    Authors: Steven G. Badman, Lisa M. Vallely, Pamela Toliman, Grace Kariwiga, Bomesina Lote, William Pomat, Caroline Holmer, Rebecca Guy, Stanley Luchters, Chris Morgan, Suzanne M. Garland, Sepehr Tabrizi, David Whiley, Stephen J. Rogerson, Glen Mola, Handan Wand…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:250

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Syphilis with ocular involvement has reemerged as a critical health problem. The aim of the present study was to explore the clinical manifestations and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) status in ocular syphilis in h...

    Authors: Ting Dai, Xinjun Wu, Shaona Zhou, Qianqiu Wang and Daning Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:245

    Content type: Research article

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  13. This study was designed to determine the Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and its distribution of genotypes in various regions of Yunnan Province, China.

    Authors: Zulqarnain Baloch, Yuanyue Li, Tao Yuan, Yue Feng, Yanqing Liu, Wenlin Tai, Li Liu, Binghui Wang, A-mei Zhang, Xiaomei Wu and Xueshan Xia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:228

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Rwanda that, in 2011, became the first African country to implement a national vaccination programme against human papillomavirus (HPV).

    Authors: Fidele Ngabo, Silvia Franceschi, Iacopo Baussano, M. Chantal Umulisa, Peter J. F. Snijders, Anne M. Uyterlinde, Fulvio Lazzarato, Vanessa Tenet, Maurice Gatera, Agnes Binagwaho and Gary M. Clifford

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:225

    Content type: Research article

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  15. To date, women are most often diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV) using microscopy based Nugent scoring or Amsel criteria. However, the accuracy is less than optimal. The aim of the present study was to co...

    Authors: Joke A. M. Dols, Douwe Molenaar, Jannie J. van der Helm, Martien P. M. Caspers, Alie de Kat Angelino-Bart, Frank H. J. Schuren, Adrianus G. C. L. Speksnijder, Hans V. Westerhoff, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Mathilde E. Boon, Gregor Reid, Henry J. C. de Vries and Remco Kort

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:180

    Content type: Research article

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  16. In our recent village-based cross-sectional study, the prevalence of nucleic acid amplification technique (NAAT) diagnosed Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in sexually active Samoan women was very high (36 %), and test...

    Authors: S. Menon, S. H. Stansfield, M. Walsh, E. Hope, L. Isaia, A. A. Righarts, T. Niupulusu, S. V. A. Temese, L. Iosefa-Siitia, L. Auvaa, S. A. Tapelu, M. F. Motu, T. Suaalii-Sauni, P. Timms, P. C. Hill and W. M. Huston

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:175

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Chlamydia trachomatis infections remain the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. To gain more insight into the epidemiology and transmission of C. trachomati...

    Authors: Bart Versteeg, Sylvia M. Bruisten, Arie van der Ende and Yvonne Pannekoek

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:162

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The recent emergence of azithromycin-resistant (AZM-R) N. gonorrhoeae isolates that have coevolved decreased susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins has caused great concern. Here we investigated the p...

    Authors: Jing-Yao Liang, Wen-Ling Cao, Xiao-Dong Li, Chao Bi, Ri-Dong Yang, Yan-Hua Liang, Ping Li, Xing-Dong Ye, Xiao-Xiao Chen and Xi-Bao Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:152

    Content type: Research article

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  19. There are inconsistencies in the literature on reproductive and genital health determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the primary cause of cervical cancer. We examined these factors in the Ludwi...

    Authors: Eileen Shaw, Agnihotram V. Ramanakumar, Mariam El-Zein, Flavia R. Silva, Lenice Galan, Maria L. Baggio, Luisa L. Villa and Eduardo L. Franco

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:116

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Male sex workers (MSW) are particularly exposed to sexually transmitted infections (STI) including HIV. In the Netherlands, data about STI among MSW are scarce. We estimated chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and...

    Authors: N. Fournet, F. D. H. Koedijk, A. P. van Leeuwen, M. S. van Rooijen, M. A. B. van der Sande and M. G. van Veen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:63

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The 1980’s economic boom has been associated with a rapid expansion of China’s sex industry over the past three decades. Consequently, the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and hepatitis infecti...

    Authors: Shu Su, Eric P. F. Chow, Kathryn E. Muessig, Lei Yuan, Joseph D. Tucker, Xiaohu Zhang, Jiehui Ren, Christopher K. Fairley, Jun Jing and Lei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:2

    Content type: Research article

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  22. HPV infects multiple sites in the epithelium, including the genitals and oral cavity. The relation between genital and oral infections and serum antibodies can help explain the natural history and epidemiology...

    Authors: Andrew F. Brouwer, Marisa C. Eisenberg, Thomas E. Carey and Rafael Meza

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:575

    Content type: Research Article

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  23. Penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorroheae (PPNG) was first isolated in 1976. PPNG strains carrying bla TEM-1 and bla TEM-135 gene have been described in d...

    Authors: Ricardo Gianecini, Claudia Oviedo, Cristina Guantay, Laura Piccoli, Graciela Stafforini and Patricia Galarza

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:571

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is associated with maternal morbidity and occasionally mortality during the first trimester. A history of sexually transmitted infection (STI) and pelvic inflammatory disease have been i...

    Authors: Ahmed Mohamed Ashshi, Sarah Abdullah Batwa, Seham Yahia Kutbi, Faizah Ahmed Malibary, Mohamed Batwa and Bassem Refaat

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:569

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cervical tissue is important for understanding cervical carcinogenesis and for evaluating cervical cancer prevention approaches. However, HPV genotyping usin...

    Authors: Felipe A. Castro, Jill Koshiol, Wim Quint, Cosette M. Wheeler, Maura L. Gillison, Laurence M. Vaughan, Bernhard Kleter, Leen-Jan van Doorn, Anil K. Chaturvedi, Allan Hildesheim, Mark Schiffman, Sophia S. Wang, Rosemary E. Zuna, Joan L. Walker, S. Terence Dunn and Nicolas Wentzensen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:544

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The rate of spontaneous regression in CIN III lesions is controversial. Whereas some studies have reported high regression rates of up to 38 % after prolonged biopsy-conus intervals, others have shown rates be...

    Authors: Melodi Motamedi, Gerd Böhmer, Heinrich H. Neumann and Reinhard von Wasielewski

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:541

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Anorectal and pharyngeal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrheae (NG) are commonly observed in men who have sex with men (MSM). There is increasing evidence that such infections at ext...

    Authors: Nicole H. T. M. Dukers-Muijrers, Julius Schachter, Genevieve A. F. S. van Liere, Petra F. G. Wolffs and Christian J. P. A. Hoebe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:533

    Content type: Debate

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  28. The commercial Kalon HSV-2 IgG ELISA is currently recommended for research use in sub-Saharan Africa because of its superior accuracy compared to other serologic assays. However, there are no data on key preci...

    Authors: Eshan U. Patel, Jordyn Manucci, Erin M. Kahle, Jairam R. Lingappa, Rhoda Ashley Morrow, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Anelet James, Kwitaka F. Maluzi, Maina M. Cheeba, Glenda Gray, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Mubiana Inambao, Bellington Vwalika, Thomas C. Quinn and Oliver Laeyendecker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:398

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:355

  29. Single-dose azithromycin is recommended over multi-dose doxycycline as treatment for chlamydial infection. However, even with imperfect adherence, doxycycline is more effective in treating genital and rectal i...

    Authors: Andrew P Craig, Fabian YS Kong, Laxmi Yeruva, Jane S Hocking, Roger G Rank, David P Wilson and Basil Donovan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:200

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women of reproductive age in Thailand. However, information on the prevalence and correlates of anogenital HPV infection in Thailand is sparse.

    Authors: Morgan A Marks, Swati Gupta, Kai-Li Liaw, Amha Tadesse, Esther Kim, Chailert Phongnarisorn, Virach Wootipoom, Pissamai Yuenyao, Charoen Vipupinyo, Sungwal Rugpao, Somchai Sriplienchan, Patti E Gravitt and David D Celentano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:159

    Content type: Research article

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  31. There is little data regarding the effect of ramping up new screening interventions on their uptake by target populations into routine care services in developing countries. This study aimed to determine patie...

    Authors: Edward Tieru Dassah, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie and Philippe Mayaud

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:125

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Women in sub-Saharan Africa are vulnerable to acquiring HIV infection and reproductive tract infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a disruption of the vaginal microbiota, has been shown to be strongly associat...

    Authors: Vicky Jespers, Janneke van de Wijgert, Piet Cools, Rita Verhelst, Hans Verstraelen, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Mary Mwaura, Gilles F Ndayisaba, Kishor Mandaliya, Joris Menten, Liselotte Hardy and Tania Crucitti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:115

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Syphilis and HIV infections in pregnancy result in a number of adverse outcomes including neonatal death and vertical transmission. Ethiopia is a country where these infections are highly prevalent. However, d...

    Authors: Mengistu Endris, Tekalign Deressa, Yeshambel Belyhun and Feleke Moges

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:111

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical correlates of the vaginal microbiome (VMB) as characterized by molecular methods have not been adequately studied. VMB dominated by bacteria other than lactobacilli ma...

    Authors: Raju Gautam, Hanneke Borgdorff, Vicky Jespers, Suzanna C Francis, Rita Verhelst, Mary Mwaura, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Gilles Ndayisaba, Jordan K Kyongo, Liselotte Hardy, Joris Menten, Tania Crucitti, Evgeni Tsivtsivadze, Frank Schuren and Janneke HHM van de Wijgert

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:86

    Content type: Research article

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  35. No cases of transfusion-transmitted syphilis have been described for over four decades. While there is mandatory transfusion screening for syphilis, the absence of transmission is in part ascribed to a low pre...

    Authors: Mark Andrew Kane, Evan Martin Bloch, Roberta Bruhn, Zhanna Kaidarova and Edward Laurence Murphy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:63

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The role of Mycoplasma hominis and M. genitalium in urogenital tract infections remains unknown. Furthermore these mollicutes present a complex relationship with the host immune response. The role of inflammatory...

    Authors: Guilherme Barreto Campos, Tássia Neves Lobão, Nathan Neves Selis, Aline Teixeira Amorim, Hellen Braga Martins, Maysa Santos Barbosa, Thiago Henrique Caldeira Oliveira, Djanilson Barbosa dos Santos, Tiana Baqueiro Figueiredo, Lucas Miranda Marques and Jorge Timenetsky

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:60

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Azithromycin has been widely used for Mycoplasma genitalium treatment internationally. However, the eradication efficacy has substantially declined recent decade. In Russia, josamycin (another macrolide) is the r...

    Authors: Alexander Guschin, Pavel Ryzhikh, Tatiana Rumyantseva, Mikhail Gomberg and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:40

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Chlamydia notifications continue to rise in young people in many countries and regular chlamydia testing is an important prevention strategy. Although there have been initiatives to increase testing in primary...

    Authors: Rebecca Lorch, Jane Hocking, Rebecca Guy, Alaina Vaisey, Anna Wood, Basil Donovan, Christopher Fairley, Jane Gunn, John Kaldor and Meredith Temple-Smith

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:31

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Gonorrhoea and widely spread antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in its etiological agent Neisseria gonorrhoeae are major public health concerns worldwide. Gonococcal AMR surveillance nationally and internationally, t...

    Authors: Fiodar Lebedzeu, Daniel Golparian, Leonid Titov, Nataliya Pankratava, Slavyana Glazkova, Irina Shimanskaya, Natallia Charniakova, Aliaksandr Lukyanau, Marius Domeika and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:29

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Syphilis infection during pregnancy leads to avoidable morbidity and mortality and remains a significant problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite global initiatives to increase the proportion of pregnant women s...

    Authors: Yukari C Manabe, Gertrude Namale, Elizabeth Nalintya, Joseph Sempa, Rosalind Parkes Ratanshi, Nadine Pakker and Elly Katabira

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:15

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a serious health problem in China. Gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility has been monitored in Shanghai since 1988. In this study, we examined the changing p...

    Authors: Wei-Ming Gu, Yue Chen, Yang Yang, Lei Wu, Wei-Zhong Hu and Yue-Lan Jin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:731

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Australia commenced human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in 2007, with a two-year catch-up to the age of 26; catch-up cohorts are thus now entering their thirties. Plans for monitoring vaccine impact involve...

    Authors: Louiza S Velentzis, Freddy Sitas, Dianne L O’Connell, Jessica Darlington-Brown, Sam Egger, Rohit Sinha, Emily Banks, Ian H Frazer and Karen Canfell

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:3861

    Content type: Research article

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  43. China experiencing an increasing HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM), and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) has played a key role in this process. The aims of this study were to examine the tre...

    Authors: Weibin Cheng, Weiming Tang, Fei Zhong, Giridhar R Babu, Zhigang Han, Faju Qin, Kai Gao, Huixia Mai, Yuteng Zhao, Caiyun Liang, Lirui Fan, Hao Wu, Huifang Xu and Ming Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:696

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Cervical cancer (CC) is caused by persistent infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types. In Saudi Arabia which has a population of 6.5 million women over the age of 15 years, approximately ...

    Authors: Abdulaziz AlObaid, Ismail A Al-Badawi, Hanan Al-Kadri, Kusuma Gopala, Walid Kandeil, Wim Quint, Murad Al-Aker and Rodrigo DeAntonio

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:643

    Content type: Research article

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  45. High-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) testing has been shown to be a valuable tool in cervical cancer screening for the detection of cervical pre-cancer and cancer.

    Authors: Gerd Boehmer, Lisa Wang, Angelika Iftner, Barbara Holz, Juliane Haedicke, Reinhard von Wasielewski, Peter Martus and Thomas Iftner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:674

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increase HIV infectivity through local inflammatory processes. Prevalent and incident STIs among people who live with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are indicators of high-risk sexual ...

    Authors: Qing-hai Hu, Jun-jie Xu, Hua-chun Zou, Jing Liu, Jing Zhang, Hai-bo Ding, Han-Zhu Qian, Si-ruo Li, Yu Liu, Yong-jun Jiang, Hong Shang and Ning Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:658

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Healthcare providers (HCPs) play a critical role in controlling the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through early and accurate diagnosis, appropriate treatment and prevention counselling. This ...

    Authors: Pham Thi Lan, Ho Dang Phuc, Nguyen Quynh Hoa, Nguyen Thi Kim Chuc and Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:646

    Content type: Research article

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