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Sexually transmitted diseases

Section edited by Stefan Baral & Joseph Tucker

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of sexually transmitted diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV and HIV-associated infections are considered in a separate section.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    High HIV incidence has been detected among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Thailand, but the relationship and timing of HIV, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), and syphilis is unknown. This analysis measures i...

    Authors: Warunee Thienkrua, Catherine S. Todd, Wannee Chonwattana, Wipas Wimonsate, Supaporn Chaikummao, Anchalee Varangrat, Anupong Chitwarakorn, Frits van Griensven and Timothy H. Holtz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:340

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen and is the most common cause of sexually transmitted diseases affecting both men and women. The pathogen can cause prostatitis and epididymitis in...

    Authors: Jekaterina Jevtuševskaja, Julia Uusna, Liis Andresen, Katrin Krõlov, Made Laanpere, Tiia Grellier, Indrek Tulp and Ülo Langel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:329

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Sexually transmitted and genital infections in pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal and neonatal health outcomes. High prevalences of sexually transmitted infections have been id...

    Authors: Steven G. Badman, Lisa M. Vallely, Pamela Toliman, Grace Kariwiga, Bomesina Lote, William Pomat, Caroline Holmer, Rebecca Guy, Stanley Luchters, Chris Morgan, Suzanne M. Garland, Sepehr Tabrizi, David Whiley, Stephen J. Rogerson, Glen Mola, Handan Wand…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:250

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Syphilis with ocular involvement has reemerged as a critical health problem. The aim of the present study was to explore the clinical manifestations and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) status in ocular syphilis in h...

    Authors: Ting Dai, Xinjun Wu, Shaona Zhou, Qianqiu Wang and Daning Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:245

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  5. Content type: Research article

    This study was designed to determine the Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and its distribution of genotypes in various regions of Yunnan Province, China.

    Authors: Zulqarnain Baloch, Yuanyue Li, Tao Yuan, Yue Feng, Yanqing Liu, Wenlin Tai, Li Liu, Binghui Wang, A-mei Zhang, Xiaomei Wu and Xueshan Xia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:228

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Rwanda that, in 2011, became the first African country to implement a national vaccination programme against human papillomavirus (HPV).

    Authors: Fidele Ngabo, Silvia Franceschi, Iacopo Baussano, M. Chantal Umulisa, Peter J. F. Snijders, Anne M. Uyterlinde, Fulvio Lazzarato, Vanessa Tenet, Maurice Gatera, Agnes Binagwaho and Gary M. Clifford

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:225

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  7. Content type: Research article

    To date, women are most often diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV) using microscopy based Nugent scoring or Amsel criteria. However, the accuracy is less than optimal. The aim of the present study was to co...

    Authors: Joke A. M. Dols, Douwe Molenaar, Jannie J. van der Helm, Martien P. M. Caspers, Alie de Kat Angelino-Bart, Frank H. J. Schuren, Adrianus G. C. L. Speksnijder, Hans V. Westerhoff, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Mathilde E. Boon, Gregor Reid, Henry J. C. de Vries and Remco Kort

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:180

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  8. Content type: Research article

    In our recent village-based cross-sectional study, the prevalence of nucleic acid amplification technique (NAAT) diagnosed Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in sexually active Samoan women was very high (36 %), and test...

    Authors: S. Menon, S. H. Stansfield, M. Walsh, E. Hope, L. Isaia, A. A. Righarts, T. Niupulusu, S. V. A. Temese, L. Iosefa-Siitia, L. Auvaa, S. A. Tapelu, M. F. Motu, T. Suaalii-Sauni, P. Timms, P. C. Hill and W. M. Huston

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:175

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections remain the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. To gain more insight into the epidemiology and transmission of C. trachomati...

    Authors: Bart Versteeg, Sylvia M. Bruisten, Arie van der Ende and Yvonne Pannekoek

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:162

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  10. Content type: Research article

    The recent emergence of azithromycin-resistant (AZM-R) N. gonorrhoeae isolates that have coevolved decreased susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins has caused great concern. Here we investigated the p...

    Authors: Jing-Yao Liang, Wen-Ling Cao, Xiao-Dong Li, Chao Bi, Ri-Dong Yang, Yan-Hua Liang, Ping Li, Xing-Dong Ye, Xiao-Xiao Chen and Xi-Bao Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:152

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  11. Content type: Research article

    There are inconsistencies in the literature on reproductive and genital health determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the primary cause of cervical cancer. We examined these factors in the Ludwi...

    Authors: Eileen Shaw, Agnihotram V. Ramanakumar, Mariam El-Zein, Flavia R. Silva, Lenice Galan, Maria L. Baggio, Luisa L. Villa and Eduardo L. Franco

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:116

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Male sex workers (MSW) are particularly exposed to sexually transmitted infections (STI) including HIV. In the Netherlands, data about STI among MSW are scarce. We estimated chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and...

    Authors: N. Fournet, F. D. H. Koedijk, A. P. van Leeuwen, M. S. van Rooijen, M. A. B. van der Sande and M. G. van Veen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:63

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The 1980’s economic boom has been associated with a rapid expansion of China’s sex industry over the past three decades. Consequently, the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and hepatitis infecti...

    Authors: Shu Su, Eric P. F. Chow, Kathryn E. Muessig, Lei Yuan, Joseph D. Tucker, Xiaohu Zhang, Jiehui Ren, Christopher K. Fairley, Jun Jing and Lei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:2

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  14. Content type: Research Article

    HPV infects multiple sites in the epithelium, including the genitals and oral cavity. The relation between genital and oral infections and serum antibodies can help explain the natural history and epidemiology...

    Authors: Andrew F. Brouwer, Marisa C. Eisenberg, Thomas E. Carey and Rafael Meza

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:575

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorroheae (PPNG) was first isolated in 1976. PPNG strains carrying bla TEM-1 and bla TEM-135 gene have been described in d...

    Authors: Ricardo Gianecini, Claudia Oviedo, Cristina Guantay, Laura Piccoli, Graciela Stafforini and Patricia Galarza

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:571

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is associated with maternal morbidity and occasionally mortality during the first trimester. A history of sexually transmitted infection (STI) and pelvic inflammatory disease have been i...

    Authors: Ahmed Mohamed Ashshi, Sarah Abdullah Batwa, Seham Yahia Kutbi, Faizah Ahmed Malibary, Mohamed Batwa and Bassem Refaat

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:569

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cervical tissue is important for understanding cervical carcinogenesis and for evaluating cervical cancer prevention approaches. However, HPV genotyping usin...

    Authors: Felipe A. Castro, Jill Koshiol, Wim Quint, Cosette M. Wheeler, Maura L. Gillison, Laurence M. Vaughan, Bernhard Kleter, Leen-Jan van Doorn, Anil K. Chaturvedi, Allan Hildesheim, Mark Schiffman, Sophia S. Wang, Rosemary E. Zuna, Joan L. Walker, S. Terence Dunn and Nicolas Wentzensen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:544

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  18. Content type: Research article

    The rate of spontaneous regression in CIN III lesions is controversial. Whereas some studies have reported high regression rates of up to 38 % after prolonged biopsy-conus intervals, others have shown rates be...

    Authors: Melodi Motamedi, Gerd Böhmer, Heinrich H. Neumann and Reinhard von Wasielewski

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:541

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  19. Content type: Debate

    Anorectal and pharyngeal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrheae (NG) are commonly observed in men who have sex with men (MSM). There is increasing evidence that such infections at ext...

    Authors: Nicole H. T. M. Dukers-Muijrers, Julius Schachter, Genevieve A. F. S. van Liere, Petra F. G. Wolffs and Christian J. P. A. Hoebe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:533

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  20. Content type: Research article

    The commercial Kalon HSV-2 IgG ELISA is currently recommended for research use in sub-Saharan Africa because of its superior accuracy compared to other serologic assays. However, there are no data on key preci...

    Authors: Eshan U. Patel, Jordyn Manucci, Erin M. Kahle, Jairam R. Lingappa, Rhoda Ashley Morrow, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Anelet James, Kwitaka F. Maluzi, Maina M. Cheeba, Glenda Gray, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Mubiana Inambao, Bellington Vwalika, Thomas C. Quinn and Oliver Laeyendecker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:398

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:355

  21. Content type: Research article

    Single-dose azithromycin is recommended over multi-dose doxycycline as treatment for chlamydial infection. However, even with imperfect adherence, doxycycline is more effective in treating genital and rectal i...

    Authors: Andrew P Craig, Fabian YS Kong, Laxmi Yeruva, Jane S Hocking, Roger G Rank, David P Wilson and Basil Donovan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:200

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women of reproductive age in Thailand. However, information on the prevalence and correlates of anogenital HPV infection in Thailand is sparse.

    Authors: Morgan A Marks, Swati Gupta, Kai-Li Liaw, Amha Tadesse, Esther Kim, Chailert Phongnarisorn, Virach Wootipoom, Pissamai Yuenyao, Charoen Vipupinyo, Sungwal Rugpao, Somchai Sriplienchan, Patti E Gravitt and David D Celentano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:159

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  23. Content type: Research article

    There is little data regarding the effect of ramping up new screening interventions on their uptake by target populations into routine care services in developing countries. This study aimed to determine patie...

    Authors: Edward Tieru Dassah, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie and Philippe Mayaud

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:125

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa are vulnerable to acquiring HIV infection and reproductive tract infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a disruption of the vaginal microbiota, has been shown to be strongly associat...

    Authors: Vicky Jespers, Janneke van de Wijgert, Piet Cools, Rita Verhelst, Hans Verstraelen, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Mary Mwaura, Gilles F Ndayisaba, Kishor Mandaliya, Joris Menten, Liselotte Hardy and Tania Crucitti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:115

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Syphilis and HIV infections in pregnancy result in a number of adverse outcomes including neonatal death and vertical transmission. Ethiopia is a country where these infections are highly prevalent. However, d...

    Authors: Mengistu Endris, Tekalign Deressa, Yeshambel Belyhun and Feleke Moges

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:111

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical correlates of the vaginal microbiome (VMB) as characterized by molecular methods have not been adequately studied. VMB dominated by bacteria other than lactobacilli ma...

    Authors: Raju Gautam, Hanneke Borgdorff, Vicky Jespers, Suzanna C Francis, Rita Verhelst, Mary Mwaura, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Gilles Ndayisaba, Jordan K Kyongo, Liselotte Hardy, Joris Menten, Tania Crucitti, Evgeni Tsivtsivadze, Frank Schuren and Janneke HHM van de Wijgert

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:86

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  27. Content type: Research article

    No cases of transfusion-transmitted syphilis have been described for over four decades. While there is mandatory transfusion screening for syphilis, the absence of transmission is in part ascribed to a low pre...

    Authors: Mark Andrew Kane, Evan Martin Bloch, Roberta Bruhn, Zhanna Kaidarova and Edward Laurence Murphy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:63

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  28. Content type: Research article

    The role of Mycoplasma hominis and M. genitalium in urogenital tract infections remains unknown. Furthermore these mollicutes present a complex relationship with the host immune response. The role of inflammatory...

    Authors: Guilherme Barreto Campos, Tássia Neves Lobão, Nathan Neves Selis, Aline Teixeira Amorim, Hellen Braga Martins, Maysa Santos Barbosa, Thiago Henrique Caldeira Oliveira, Djanilson Barbosa dos Santos, Tiana Baqueiro Figueiredo, Lucas Miranda Marques and Jorge Timenetsky

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:60

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Azithromycin has been widely used for Mycoplasma genitalium treatment internationally. However, the eradication efficacy has substantially declined recent decade. In Russia, josamycin (another macrolide) is the r...

    Authors: Alexander Guschin, Pavel Ryzhikh, Tatiana Rumyantseva, Mikhail Gomberg and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:40

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Chlamydia notifications continue to rise in young people in many countries and regular chlamydia testing is an important prevention strategy. Although there have been initiatives to increase testing in primary...

    Authors: Rebecca Lorch, Jane Hocking, Rebecca Guy, Alaina Vaisey, Anna Wood, Basil Donovan, Christopher Fairley, Jane Gunn, John Kaldor and Meredith Temple-Smith

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:31

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Gonorrhoea and widely spread antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in its etiological agent Neisseria gonorrhoeae are major public health concerns worldwide. Gonococcal AMR surveillance nationally and internationally, t...

    Authors: Fiodar Lebedzeu, Daniel Golparian, Leonid Titov, Nataliya Pankratava, Slavyana Glazkova, Irina Shimanskaya, Natallia Charniakova, Aliaksandr Lukyanau, Marius Domeika and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:29

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Syphilis infection during pregnancy leads to avoidable morbidity and mortality and remains a significant problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite global initiatives to increase the proportion of pregnant women s...

    Authors: Yukari C Manabe, Gertrude Namale, Elizabeth Nalintya, Joseph Sempa, Rosalind Parkes Ratanshi, Nadine Pakker and Elly Katabira

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:15

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a serious health problem in China. Gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility has been monitored in Shanghai since 1988. In this study, we examined the changing p...

    Authors: Wei-Ming Gu, Yue Chen, Yang Yang, Lei Wu, Wei-Zhong Hu and Yue-Lan Jin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:731

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Australia commenced human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in 2007, with a two-year catch-up to the age of 26; catch-up cohorts are thus now entering their thirties. Plans for monitoring vaccine impact involve...

    Authors: Louiza S Velentzis, Freddy Sitas, Dianne L O’Connell, Jessica Darlington-Brown, Sam Egger, Rohit Sinha, Emily Banks, Ian H Frazer and Karen Canfell

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:3861

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  35. Content type: Research article

    China experiencing an increasing HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM), and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) has played a key role in this process. The aims of this study were to examine the tre...

    Authors: Weibin Cheng, Weiming Tang, Fei Zhong, Giridhar R Babu, Zhigang Han, Faju Qin, Kai Gao, Huixia Mai, Yuteng Zhao, Caiyun Liang, Lirui Fan, Hao Wu, Huifang Xu and Ming Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:696

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Cervical cancer (CC) is caused by persistent infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types. In Saudi Arabia which has a population of 6.5 million women over the age of 15 years, approximately ...

    Authors: Abdulaziz AlObaid, Ismail A Al-Badawi, Hanan Al-Kadri, Kusuma Gopala, Walid Kandeil, Wim Quint, Murad Al-Aker and Rodrigo DeAntonio

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:643

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  37. Content type: Research article

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) testing has been shown to be a valuable tool in cervical cancer screening for the detection of cervical pre-cancer and cancer.

    Authors: Gerd Boehmer, Lisa Wang, Angelika Iftner, Barbara Holz, Juliane Haedicke, Reinhard von Wasielewski, Peter Martus and Thomas Iftner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:674

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Healthcare providers (HCPs) play a critical role in controlling the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through early and accurate diagnosis, appropriate treatment and prevention counselling. This ...

    Authors: Pham Thi Lan, Ho Dang Phuc, Nguyen Quynh Hoa, Nguyen Thi Kim Chuc and Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:646

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increase HIV infectivity through local inflammatory processes. Prevalent and incident STIs among people who live with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are indicators of high-risk sexual ...

    Authors: Qing-hai Hu, Jun-jie Xu, Hua-chun Zou, Jing Liu, Jing Zhang, Hai-bo Ding, Han-Zhu Qian, Si-ruo Li, Yu Liu, Yong-jun Jiang, Hong Shang and Ning Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:658

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Recreational drug use (RDU) may result in sexual disinhibition and higher risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. We assessed whether RDU w...

    Authors: Jun-Jie Xu, Chen Zhang, Qing-Hai Hu, Zhen-Xing Chu, Jing Zhang, Yong-Ze Li, Lin Lu, Zhe Wang, Ji-Hua Fu, Xi Chen, Hong-Jing Yan, Ming-Hua Zhuang, Yong-Jun Jiang, Wen-Qing Geng, Sten H Vermund, Hong Shang…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:642

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Evolving gonococcal antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a serious threat to public health. The aim of this study was to: update antimicrobial susceptibility data of Neisseria gonorrhoeae recently isolated in Nan...

    Authors: Sai Li, Xiao-Hong Su, Wen-Jing Le, Fa-Xing Jiang, Bao-Xi Wang and Peter A Rice

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:622

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  42. Content type: Research article

    UNAIDS has called for greater HIV/syphilis testing worldwide just as local HIV/syphilis testing programs are cut or altered. New models are needed to make HIV/syphilis testing services sustainable while retain...

    Authors: Joseph D Tucker, Kathryn E Muessig, Rosa Cui, Cedric H Bien, Elaine J Lo, Ramon Lee, Kaidi Wang, Larry Han, Feng-Ying Liu, Li-Gang Yang, Bin Yang, Heidi Larson and Rosanna W Peeling

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:601

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Immunity plays an important role in controlling human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and associated lesions. Unlike infections caused by other viruses, natural HPV infection does not always result in a protect...

    Authors: Patrícia S de Araujo-Souza, Agnihotram V Ramanakumar, João M G Candeias, Patrícia Thomann, Andrea Trevisan, Eduardo L Franco and Luisa L Villa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:578

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Internet-based Chlamydia Screening Implementation (chlamydia screening programme) was introduced in the Netherlands in 2008-2010 to detect and treat asymptomatic infections and to limit ongoing transmission th...

    Authors: Geneviève AFS van Liere, Nicole HTM Dukers-Muijrers, Jan EAM van Bergen, Hannelore M Götz, Frans Stals and Christian JPA Hoebe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:612

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a pathogen of worldwide importance, causing more than 100 million cases of sexually transmitted infections annually. Whole-genome sequencing is a powerful high resolution tool that can b...

    Authors: Mette T Christiansen, Amanda C Brown, Samit Kundu, Helena J Tutill, Rachel Williams, Julianne R Brown, Jolyon Holdstock, Martin J Holland, Simon Stevenson, Jayshree Dave, CY William Tong, Katja Einer-Jensen, Daniel P Depledge and Judith Breuer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:591

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Female general practitioners (GPs) have higher chlamydia testing rates than male GPs, yet it is unclear whether this is due to lack of knowledge among male GPs or because female GPs consult and test more femal...

    Authors: Anna Yeung, Meredith Temple-Smith, Simone Spark, Rebecca Guy, Christopher K Fairley, Matthew Law, Anna Wood, Kirsty Smith, Basil Donovan, John Kaldor, Jane Gunn, Marie Pirotta, Rob Carter and Jane Hocking

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:584

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  47. Content type: Research article

    More information is needed about time between sexual initiation and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and development of cervical precancer.

    Authors: Xavier Castellsagué, Jorma Paavonen, Unnop Jaisamrarn, Cosette M Wheeler, S Rachel Skinner, Matti Lehtinen, Paulo Naud, Song-Nan Chow, Maria Rowena Del Rosario-Raymundo, Julio C Teixeira, Johanna Palmroth, Newton S de Carvalho, Maria Julieta V Germar, Klaus Peters, Suzanne M Garland, Anne Szarewski…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:551

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