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Sexually transmitted diseases

Section edited by Stefan Baral & Joseph Tucker

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of sexually transmitted diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV and HIV-associated infections are considered in a separate section.

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  1. Content type: Debate

    Anorectal and pharyngeal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrheae (NG) are commonly observed in men who have sex with men (MSM). There is increasing evidence that such infections at ext...

    Authors: Nicole H. T. M. Dukers-Muijrers, Julius Schachter, Genevieve A. F. S. van Liere, Petra F. G. Wolffs and Christian J. P. A. Hoebe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:533

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  2. Content type: Research article

    The commercial Kalon HSV-2 IgG ELISA is currently recommended for research use in sub-Saharan Africa because of its superior accuracy compared to other serologic assays. However, there are no data on key preci...

    Authors: Eshan U. Patel, Jordyn Manucci, Erin M. Kahle, Jairam R. Lingappa, Rhoda Ashley Morrow, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Anelet James, Kwitaka F. Maluzi, Maina M. Cheeba, Glenda Gray, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Mubiana Inambao, Bellington Vwalika, Thomas C. Quinn and Oliver Laeyendecker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:398

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:355

  3. Content type: Research article

    Single-dose azithromycin is recommended over multi-dose doxycycline as treatment for chlamydial infection. However, even with imperfect adherence, doxycycline is more effective in treating genital and rectal i...

    Authors: Andrew P Craig, Fabian YS Kong, Laxmi Yeruva, Jane S Hocking, Roger G Rank, David P Wilson and Basil Donovan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:200

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women of reproductive age in Thailand. However, information on the prevalence and correlates of anogenital HPV infection in Thailand is sparse.

    Authors: Morgan A Marks, Swati Gupta, Kai-Li Liaw, Amha Tadesse, Esther Kim, Chailert Phongnarisorn, Virach Wootipoom, Pissamai Yuenyao, Charoen Vipupinyo, Sungwal Rugpao, Somchai Sriplienchan, Patti E Gravitt and David D Celentano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:159

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  5. Content type: Research article

    There is little data regarding the effect of ramping up new screening interventions on their uptake by target populations into routine care services in developing countries. This study aimed to determine patie...

    Authors: Edward Tieru Dassah, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie and Philippe Mayaud

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:125

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa are vulnerable to acquiring HIV infection and reproductive tract infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a disruption of the vaginal microbiota, has been shown to be strongly associat...

    Authors: Vicky Jespers, Janneke van de Wijgert, Piet Cools, Rita Verhelst, Hans Verstraelen, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Mary Mwaura, Gilles F Ndayisaba, Kishor Mandaliya, Joris Menten, Liselotte Hardy and Tania Crucitti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:115

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Syphilis and HIV infections in pregnancy result in a number of adverse outcomes including neonatal death and vertical transmission. Ethiopia is a country where these infections are highly prevalent. However, d...

    Authors: Mengistu Endris, Tekalign Deressa, Yeshambel Belyhun and Feleke Moges

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:111

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical correlates of the vaginal microbiome (VMB) as characterized by molecular methods have not been adequately studied. VMB dominated by bacteria other than lactobacilli ma...

    Authors: Raju Gautam, Hanneke Borgdorff, Vicky Jespers, Suzanna C Francis, Rita Verhelst, Mary Mwaura, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Gilles Ndayisaba, Jordan K Kyongo, Liselotte Hardy, Joris Menten, Tania Crucitti, Evgeni Tsivtsivadze, Frank Schuren and Janneke HHM van de Wijgert

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:86

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  9. Content type: Research article

    No cases of transfusion-transmitted syphilis have been described for over four decades. While there is mandatory transfusion screening for syphilis, the absence of transmission is in part ascribed to a low pre...

    Authors: Mark Andrew Kane, Evan Martin Bloch, Roberta Bruhn, Zhanna Kaidarova and Edward Laurence Murphy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:63

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  10. Content type: Research article

    The role of Mycoplasma hominis and M. genitalium in urogenital tract infections remains unknown. Furthermore these mollicutes present a complex relationship with the host immune response. The role of inflammatory...

    Authors: Guilherme Barreto Campos, Tássia Neves Lobão, Nathan Neves Selis, Aline Teixeira Amorim, Hellen Braga Martins, Maysa Santos Barbosa, Thiago Henrique Caldeira Oliveira, Djanilson Barbosa dos Santos, Tiana Baqueiro Figueiredo, Lucas Miranda Marques and Jorge Timenetsky

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:60

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Azithromycin has been widely used for Mycoplasma genitalium treatment internationally. However, the eradication efficacy has substantially declined recent decade. In Russia, josamycin (another macrolide) is the r...

    Authors: Alexander Guschin, Pavel Ryzhikh, Tatiana Rumyantseva, Mikhail Gomberg and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:40

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Chlamydia notifications continue to rise in young people in many countries and regular chlamydia testing is an important prevention strategy. Although there have been initiatives to increase testing in primary...

    Authors: Rebecca Lorch, Jane Hocking, Rebecca Guy, Alaina Vaisey, Anna Wood, Basil Donovan, Christopher Fairley, Jane Gunn, John Kaldor and Meredith Temple-Smith

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:31

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Gonorrhoea and widely spread antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in its etiological agent Neisseria gonorrhoeae are major public health concerns worldwide. Gonococcal AMR surveillance nationally and internationally, t...

    Authors: Fiodar Lebedzeu, Daniel Golparian, Leonid Titov, Nataliya Pankratava, Slavyana Glazkova, Irina Shimanskaya, Natallia Charniakova, Aliaksandr Lukyanau, Marius Domeika and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:29

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Syphilis infection during pregnancy leads to avoidable morbidity and mortality and remains a significant problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite global initiatives to increase the proportion of pregnant women s...

    Authors: Yukari C Manabe, Gertrude Namale, Elizabeth Nalintya, Joseph Sempa, Rosalind Parkes Ratanshi, Nadine Pakker and Elly Katabira

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:15

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a serious health problem in China. Gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility has been monitored in Shanghai since 1988. In this study, we examined the changing p...

    Authors: Wei-Ming Gu, Yue Chen, Yang Yang, Lei Wu, Wei-Zhong Hu and Yue-Lan Jin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:731

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Australia commenced human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in 2007, with a two-year catch-up to the age of 26; catch-up cohorts are thus now entering their thirties. Plans for monitoring vaccine impact involve...

    Authors: Louiza S Velentzis, Freddy Sitas, Dianne L O’Connell, Jessica Darlington-Brown, Sam Egger, Rohit Sinha, Emily Banks, Ian H Frazer and Karen Canfell

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:3861

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  17. Content type: Research article

    China experiencing an increasing HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM), and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) has played a key role in this process. The aims of this study were to examine the tre...

    Authors: Weibin Cheng, Weiming Tang, Fei Zhong, Giridhar R Babu, Zhigang Han, Faju Qin, Kai Gao, Huixia Mai, Yuteng Zhao, Caiyun Liang, Lirui Fan, Hao Wu, Huifang Xu and Ming Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:696

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Cervical cancer (CC) is caused by persistent infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types. In Saudi Arabia which has a population of 6.5 million women over the age of 15 years, approximately ...

    Authors: Abdulaziz AlObaid, Ismail A Al-Badawi, Hanan Al-Kadri, Kusuma Gopala, Walid Kandeil, Wim Quint, Murad Al-Aker and Rodrigo DeAntonio

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:643

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  19. Content type: Research article

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) testing has been shown to be a valuable tool in cervical cancer screening for the detection of cervical pre-cancer and cancer.

    Authors: Gerd Boehmer, Lisa Wang, Angelika Iftner, Barbara Holz, Juliane Haedicke, Reinhard von Wasielewski, Peter Martus and Thomas Iftner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:674

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Healthcare providers (HCPs) play a critical role in controlling the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through early and accurate diagnosis, appropriate treatment and prevention counselling. This ...

    Authors: Pham Thi Lan, Ho Dang Phuc, Nguyen Quynh Hoa, Nguyen Thi Kim Chuc and Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:646

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increase HIV infectivity through local inflammatory processes. Prevalent and incident STIs among people who live with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are indicators of high-risk sexual ...

    Authors: Qing-hai Hu, Jun-jie Xu, Hua-chun Zou, Jing Liu, Jing Zhang, Hai-bo Ding, Han-Zhu Qian, Si-ruo Li, Yu Liu, Yong-jun Jiang, Hong Shang and Ning Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:658

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Recreational drug use (RDU) may result in sexual disinhibition and higher risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. We assessed whether RDU w...

    Authors: Jun-Jie Xu, Chen Zhang, Qing-Hai Hu, Zhen-Xing Chu, Jing Zhang, Yong-Ze Li, Lin Lu, Zhe Wang, Ji-Hua Fu, Xi Chen, Hong-Jing Yan, Ming-Hua Zhuang, Yong-Jun Jiang, Wen-Qing Geng, Sten H Vermund, Hong Shang…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:642

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Evolving gonococcal antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a serious threat to public health. The aim of this study was to: update antimicrobial susceptibility data of Neisseria gonorrhoeae recently isolated in Nan...

    Authors: Sai Li, Xiao-Hong Su, Wen-Jing Le, Fa-Xing Jiang, Bao-Xi Wang and Peter A Rice

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:622

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  24. Content type: Research article

    UNAIDS has called for greater HIV/syphilis testing worldwide just as local HIV/syphilis testing programs are cut or altered. New models are needed to make HIV/syphilis testing services sustainable while retain...

    Authors: Joseph D Tucker, Kathryn E Muessig, Rosa Cui, Cedric H Bien, Elaine J Lo, Ramon Lee, Kaidi Wang, Larry Han, Feng-Ying Liu, Li-Gang Yang, Bin Yang, Heidi Larson and Rosanna W Peeling

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:601

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Immunity plays an important role in controlling human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and associated lesions. Unlike infections caused by other viruses, natural HPV infection does not always result in a protect...

    Authors: Patrícia S de Araujo-Souza, Agnihotram V Ramanakumar, João M G Candeias, Patrícia Thomann, Andrea Trevisan, Eduardo L Franco and Luisa L Villa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:578

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Internet-based Chlamydia Screening Implementation (chlamydia screening programme) was introduced in the Netherlands in 2008-2010 to detect and treat asymptomatic infections and to limit ongoing transmission th...

    Authors: Geneviève AFS van Liere, Nicole HTM Dukers-Muijrers, Jan EAM van Bergen, Hannelore M Götz, Frans Stals and Christian JPA Hoebe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:612

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a pathogen of worldwide importance, causing more than 100 million cases of sexually transmitted infections annually. Whole-genome sequencing is a powerful high resolution tool that can b...

    Authors: Mette T Christiansen, Amanda C Brown, Samit Kundu, Helena J Tutill, Rachel Williams, Julianne R Brown, Jolyon Holdstock, Martin J Holland, Simon Stevenson, Jayshree Dave, CY William Tong, Katja Einer-Jensen, Daniel P Depledge and Judith Breuer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:591

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Female general practitioners (GPs) have higher chlamydia testing rates than male GPs, yet it is unclear whether this is due to lack of knowledge among male GPs or because female GPs consult and test more femal...

    Authors: Anna Yeung, Meredith Temple-Smith, Simone Spark, Rebecca Guy, Christopher K Fairley, Matthew Law, Anna Wood, Kirsty Smith, Basil Donovan, John Kaldor, Jane Gunn, Marie Pirotta, Rob Carter and Jane Hocking

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:584

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  29. Content type: Research article

    More information is needed about time between sexual initiation and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and development of cervical precancer.

    Authors: Xavier Castellsagué, Jorma Paavonen, Unnop Jaisamrarn, Cosette M Wheeler, S Rachel Skinner, Matti Lehtinen, Paulo Naud, Song-Nan Chow, Maria Rowena Del Rosario-Raymundo, Julio C Teixeira, Johanna Palmroth, Newton S de Carvalho, Maria Julieta V Germar, Klaus Peters, Suzanne M Garland, Anne Szarewski…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:551

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Rapid economic development in urban China has led to a mass migration of surplus rural residents into urban areas for better employment opportunities. This study aims to identify prevalence levels and risks of...

    Authors: Xia Zou, Eric PF Chow, Peizhen Zhao, Yong Xu, Li Ling and Lei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:490

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Smoking has been identified in observational studies as a risk factor for bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition defined in part by decimation of Lactobacillus spp. The anti-estrogenic effect of smoking and trace ...

    Authors: Rebecca M Brotman, Xin He, Pawel Gajer, Doug Fadrosh, Eva Sharma, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Jacques Ravel, Elbert D Glover and Jessica M Rath

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:471

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Previous studies showed that C. trachomatis strains found in MSM are different from those in heterosexuals. This study investigates whether the differences in strain distribution between MSM and heterosexuals are...

    Authors: Bart Versteeg, Martijn S van Rooijen, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Henry JC de Vries and Sylvia M Bruisten

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:464

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major concern worldwide. It has been recently feared that the bla TEM-1 gene is, via bla TEM-135, evolving into an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)...

    Authors: Ibrahim Muhammad, Daniel Golparian, Jo-Anne R Dillon, Åsa Johansson, Makoto Ohnishi, Sunil Sethi, Shao-chun Chen, Shu-ichi Nakayama, Martin Sundqvist, Manju Bala and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:454

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  34. Content type: Research article

    The Hungarian national guidelines for the treatment of gonorrhoea were published in 2002 but are now widely considered to be outdated. Improved knowledge is needed with respect to the epidemiology and antimicr...

    Authors: Alexandra Brunner, Eva Nemes-Nikodem, Noemi Mihalik, Marta Marschalko, Sarolta Karpati and Eszter Ostorhazi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:433

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  35. Content type: Research article

    The Republic of Cyprus is recognized as a low level HIV epidemic country with strong evidence of an increase in the transmission through the male to male sexual contact. Little is known about the factors that ...

    Authors: Magdalini Pylli, Nicos Middleton, Andreas Charalambous and Vasilios Raftopoulos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:432

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping assays are becoming increasingly attractive for use in mass screening, as they offer a possibility to integrate HPV screening with HPV vaccine monitoring, thereby generati...

    Authors: Jesper Bonde, Matejka Rebolj, Ditte Møller Ejegod, Sarah Preisler, Elsebeth Lynge and Carsten Rygaard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:413

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  37. Content type: Research article

    The design of new healthcare schemes which involve using molecular HPV screening means that both persistence and clearance data regarding the most prevalent types of HR-HPV occurring in cities in Colombia must...

    Authors: Sara C Soto-De León, Luisa Del Río-Ospina, Milena Camargo, Ricardo Sánchez, Darwin A Moreno-Pérez, Antonio Pérez-Prados, Manuel E Patarroyo and Manuel A Patarroyo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:395

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  38. Content type: Research article

    It is important to understand the specific HPV genotype distribution in screen-detected lesions. HPV Genotype is helpful for separating HPV-positive women at greater risk of cancer from those who can regress s...

    Authors: Lipeng Jing, Xingming Zhong, Weihuang Huang, Yang Liu, Man Wang, Zhulin Miao, Xiaoping Zhang, Jing Zou, Baowen Zheng, Congde Chen, Xiaoman Liang, Guang Yang, Chunxia Jing and Xiangcai Wei

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:388

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Published data on the epidemiology of HPV in women with invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in New Zealand (NZ) are limited. This cross-sectiona...

    Authors: Peter Sykes, Kusuma Gopala, Ai Ling Tan, Diane Kenwright, Simone Petrich, Anco Molijn and Jing Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:374

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) serology is a main factor for designing vaccination programs and surveillance strategies; nevertheless, there are few reports of HPV seroprevalence in the general population, especia...

    Authors: Felipe A Castro, Angelica Dominguez, Klaus Puschel, Vanessa Van De Wyngard, Peter JF Snijders, Silvia Franceschi, Michael Pawlita and Catterina Ferreccio

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:361

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Similar to many developed countries, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is provided only to girls in New Zealand and coverage is relatively low (47% in school-aged girls for dose 3). Some jurisdict...

    Authors: Amber L Pearson, Giorgi Kvizhinadze, Nick Wilson, Megan Smith, Karen Canfell and Tony Blakely

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:351

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major concern worldwide and gonococcal AMR surveillance globally is imperative for public health purposes. In Eastern Europe, gonococcal AMR surveillan...

    Authors: Anna Kubanova, Alexey Kubanov, Nataliya Frigo, Viktoria Solomka, Vera Semina, Denis Vorobyev, Rafil Khairullin and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:342

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Chlamydial infection is the most common notifiable disease in Australia, Europe and the US. Australian notifications of chlamydia rose four-fold from 20,274 cases in 2002 to 80,846 cases in 2011; the majority ...

    Authors: Wayne Dimech, Megan SC Lim, Caroline Van Gemert, Rebecca Guy, Douglas Boyle, Basil Donovan and Margaret Hellard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:325

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  44. Content type: Research article

    To reduce the incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is necessary to target high-risk populations such as prison inmates. This study aims to explore the range of knowledge on HIV and S...

    Authors: Wafa MK Fageeh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:290

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Symptom- and sexual history-based testing i.e., testing on indication, for anorectal sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women is common. Yet, it is unknown whether this strategy is effective. Moreover, ...

    Authors: Geneviève AFS van Liere, Christian JPA Hoebe, Petra FG Wolffs and Nicole HTM Dukers-Muijrers

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:274

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  46. Content type: Study protocol

    Repeat infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is common and increases the risk of sequelae in women and HIV seroconversion in men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite guidelines recommending chlamydia retesting thr...

    Authors: Kirsty S Smith, Jane S Hocking, Marcus Chen, Christopher K Fairley, Anna McNulty, Phillip Read, Catriona S Bradshaw, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Handan Wand, Marion Saville, William Rawlinson, Suzanne M Garland, Basil Donovan, John M Kaldor and Rebecca Guy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:223

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Cervical cancer ranks third in prevalence and fourth as cause of death in women worldwide. In Brazil, 17,540 women were diagnosed in 2012 with the disease. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV types is a ne...

    Authors: Leandro Santos de Araújo Resende, Sílvia Helena Rabelo-Santos, Luís Otávio Sarian, Rosane Ribeiro Figueiredo Alves, Andréa Alves Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos Zeferino and Sophie Derchain

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:214

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