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Sexually transmitted diseases

Section edited by Stefan Baral & Joseph Tucker

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of sexually transmitted diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV and HIV-associated infections are considered in a separate section.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    The Human papillomavirus is the most common sexually transmitted virus worldwide. The objective of this study was to estimate: 1) the prevalence and the incidence of external genital warts (eGW) in a sample of...

    Authors: Barbara Suligoi, Giorgio Vittori, Maria Cristina Salfa, Laura Timelli, Dario Corsini, Giovanni Fattorini and Luciano Mariani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:126

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  2. Content type: Research article

    The purpose of this study was to describe what is known about HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases, infection transmission routes, care, and sources of information, from the viewpoint of men h...

    Authors: Tarja Suominen, Teppo Heikkinen, Marja Pakarinen, Anne-Mari Sepponen and Jari Kylmä

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:121

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Cervical cancer and its precursor, high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3), are associated with persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HPV genotype prevalence varies with sev...

    Authors: Lei Zhang, Qingqing Bi, Hua Deng, Jing Xu, Juan Chen, Meilian Zhang and Xiaofeng Mu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:107

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality among women in Nepal and Bhutan. Data on high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and cervical abnormalities among Nepali and Bhu...

    Authors: Madhav P. Bhatta, Derek C. Johnson, Mingma Lama, Shilu Aryal, Pema Lhaki and Sadeep Shrestha

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:73

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Previous studies have discussed the overlapping and reinforcing effects (defined as a syndemic) of psychosocial problems on high-risk sexual behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM). The present study a...

    Authors: Ying Wang, Zezhou Wang, Mengmeng Jia, Ajuan Liang, Dong Yuan, Zhe Sun, Feng Gan, Yichen Wang, Yong Cai and Zhiruo Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:46

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  6. Content type: Study protocol

    Rectal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmissible infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) with diagnosis rates continuing to rise. Current treatment g...

    Authors: Andrew Lau, Fabian Kong, Christopher K. Fairley, Basil Donovan, Marcus Chen, Catriona Bradshaw, Mark Boyd, Janaki Amin, Peter Timms, Sepehr Tabrizi, David G. Regan, David A. Lewis, Anna McNulty and Jane S. Hocking

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:35

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Our study aimed to describe the concordance of chlamydia infections of the rectum and urethra in men who have sex with men (MSM) and their male partners.

    Authors: Vincent J. Cornelisse, Christopher J. Sherman, Jane S Hocking, Henrietta Williams, Lei Zhang, Marcus Y. Chen, Catriona S. Bradshaw, Clare Bellhouse, Christopher K Fairley and Eric P. F. Chow

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:22

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in China and globally. Engaging in commercial sex put them at even greater risk. This study estimated the prev...

    Authors: Cunge Zheng, Jun-jie Xu, Qing-hai Hu, Yan-qiu Yu, Zhen-xing Chu, Jing Zhang, Xiao-xu Han, Lin Lu, Zhe Wang, Ji-hua Fu, Xi Chen, Hong-jing Yan, Yong-jun Jiang, Wen-qing Geng, Sten H. Vermund, Han-Zhu Qian…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:765

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Late presentation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with heterosexual transmission, particularly among heterosexual men in Asia. Although data on HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) test...

    Authors: Raymond Boon Tar Lim, Dede Kam Tyng Tham, Olive N. Y. Cheung, Bee Choo Tai, Roy Chan and Mee Lian Wong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:763

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Use of treponemal tests to screen for syphilis (caused by Treponema pallidum pallidum) poses challenges with infection status classification, especially in settings where other treponemal infections are endemic. ...

    Authors: Edward Tieru Dassah, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie and Philippe Mayaud

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:745

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as primary screening for cervical cancer is currently being implemented in Norway in a randomized controlled fashion, involving three laboratories. As part of the quality ass...

    Authors: Birgit Engesæter, Bianca van Diermen Hidle, Mona Hansen, Pia Moltu, Kjersti Mangseth Staby, Siri Borchgrevink-Persen, Olav K. Vintermyr, Stefan Lönnberg, Mari Nygård, Emiel A. M. Janssen, Philip E. Castle and Irene Kraus Christiansen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:698

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Point-of-care (POC) tests are an important strategy to address the epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The leucocyte esterase test (LET) can be used as a POC test for chlamydia. The aim of this...

    Authors: Menne Bartelsman, Henry J. C. de Vries, Maarten F. Schim van der Loeff, Leslie O. A. Sabajo and Jannie J. van der Helm

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:625

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease (GUD) worldwide. Mother to child transmission causes high morbidity and mortality among infants. Russia is on the...

    Authors: Tatiana Balaeva, Andrej M. Grjibovski, Oleg Sidorenkov, Olga Samodova, Natalia Firsova, Anatoly Sannikov and Elise Klouman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:616

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Patients asking for a free anonymous HIV test may have contracted other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as Chlamydia trachomatis, yet Chlamydia prevalence in that population is unknown. This study aim...

    Authors: Anne Lallemand, Viviane Bremer, Klaus Jansen, Stine Nielsen, Dieter Münstermann, Andreas Lucht and Carsten Tiemann

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:610

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Performing a test of cure (TOC) could demonstrate success or failure of antimicrobial treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, but recommendations for the timing of a TOC using nucleic acid amplification tes...

    Authors: Carolien M. Wind, Maarten F. Schim van der Loeff, Magnus Unemo, Rob Schuurman, Alje P. van Dam and Henry J. C. de Vries

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:554

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Ordinary screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) among blood donors is essential for blood transfusion. Although there is several TTIs studies focus on human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis ...

    Authors: Shuguo Yang, Danmei Jiao, Changjun Liu, Ming Lv, Shan Li, Zongyun Chen, Yao Deng, Yanqing Zhao and Jian Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:531

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Despite a worldwide common and progressive nature of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in older men, no association has been observed between a causative pathogen and other etiology so far.

    Authors: Jamshaid Iqbal, Jumanah Al-Rashed and Elijah O. Kehinde

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:506

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Acquisition of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is common among the young, sexually active population. Genital HPV infections do not always lead to seroconversion. We aimed to assess the associatio...

    Authors: Alexandra Kovaleva, Catharina J. Alberts, Tim Waterboer, Angelika Michel, Marieke B. Snijder, Wilma Vermeulen, Liza Coyer, Maria Prins and Maarten Schim van der Loeff

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:502

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Cervical cancer remains an important cause of cancer mortality for Mexican women. HPV 16/18 typing may help to improve cervical cancer screening. Here we present the prevalence of high-risk human papillomaviru...

    Authors: Samantha E. Rudolph, Attila Lorincz, Cosette M. Wheeler, Patti Gravitt, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Leticia Torres-Ibarra, Leith León-Maldonado, Paula Ramírez, Berenice Rivera, Rubí Hernández, Eduardo L. Franco, Jack Cuzick, Pablo Méndez-Hernández and Jorge Salmerón

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:461

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Accurate and prompt diagnosis of HIV and syphilis simultaneously has reinforcing effect on their control program because of their prevalent co-infection. Availability of a simple user-friendly two-pronged and ...

    Authors: Geeta Shakya, Dipendra Raman Singh, Hemanta Chandra Ojha, Chet Raj Ojha, Shravan Kumar Mishra, Karishma Malla, Puspa Chaudhary and Kiran Regmi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:450

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  21. Content type: Research article

    We investigated the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and associated behavioural risk factors in men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) attending a clinical service in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Authors: Etienne E. Müller, Kevin Rebe, Tobias F. Chirwa, Helen Struthers, James McIntyre and David A. Lewis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:440

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Loss of a loved one has consistently been associated with various health risks. Little is however known about its relation to sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

    Authors: Emily Bond, Donghao Lu, Eva Herweijer, Karin Sundström, Unnur Valdimarsdóttir, Katja Fall, Lisen Arnheim-Dahlström, Pär Sparén and Fang Fang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:419

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  23. Content type: Study protocol

    In women, anorectal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are about as common as genital CT, yet the anorectal site remains largely untested in routine care. Anorectal CT frequently co-occurs with genital CT...

    Authors: Nicole H. T. M. Dukers-Muijrers, Petra F. G. Wolffs, Lisanne Eppings, Hannelore M. Götz, Sylvia M. Bruisten, Maarten F. Schim van der Loeff, Kevin Janssen, Mayk Lucchesi, Titia Heijman, Birgit H. van Benthem, Jan E. van Bergen, Servaas A. Morre, Jos Herbergs, Gerjo Kok, Mieke Steenbakkers, Arjan A. Hogewoning…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:381

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Genital herpes results in considerable morbidity, including risk of neonatal herpes, and is increasingly being caused by Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) type 1. Possibly children are less often HSV-1 infected, leav...

    Authors: Petra J. Woestenberg, Jeroen H. T. Tjhie, Hester E. de Melker, Fiona R. M. van der Klis, Jan E. A. M van Bergen, Marianne A. B. van der Sande and Birgit H. B. van Benthem

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:364

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  25. Content type: Research article

    High HIV incidence has been detected among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Thailand, but the relationship and timing of HIV, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), and syphilis is unknown. This analysis measures i...

    Authors: Warunee Thienkrua, Catherine S. Todd, Wannee Chonwattana, Wipas Wimonsate, Supaporn Chaikummao, Anchalee Varangrat, Anupong Chitwarakorn, Frits van Griensven and Timothy H. Holtz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:340

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Globally, increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoea has led to decreased treatment options for gonorrhoea. Continuous monitoring of resistance is crucial to determine evolving resistance t...

    Authors: Kauser Jabeen, Pushpa Bhawan Mal, Erum Khan, Saeeda Chandio, Susanne Jacobsson and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:353

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen and is the most common cause of sexually transmitted diseases affecting both men and women. The pathogen can cause prostatitis and epididymitis in...

    Authors: Jekaterina Jevtuševskaja, Julia Uusna, Liis Andresen, Katrin Krõlov, Made Laanpere, Tiia Grellier, Indrek Tulp and Ülo Langel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:329

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Sexually transmitted and genital infections in pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal and neonatal health outcomes. High prevalences of sexually transmitted infections have been id...

    Authors: Steven G. Badman, Lisa M. Vallely, Pamela Toliman, Grace Kariwiga, Bomesina Lote, William Pomat, Caroline Holmer, Rebecca Guy, Stanley Luchters, Chris Morgan, Suzanne M. Garland, Sepehr Tabrizi, David Whiley, Stephen J. Rogerson, Glen Mola, Handan Wand…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:250

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Syphilis with ocular involvement has reemerged as a critical health problem. The aim of the present study was to explore the clinical manifestations and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) status in ocular syphilis in h...

    Authors: Ting Dai, Xinjun Wu, Shaona Zhou, Qianqiu Wang and Daning Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:245

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  30. Content type: Research article

    This study was designed to determine the Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and its distribution of genotypes in various regions of Yunnan Province, China.

    Authors: Zulqarnain Baloch, Yuanyue Li, Tao Yuan, Yue Feng, Yanqing Liu, Wenlin Tai, Li Liu, Binghui Wang, A-mei Zhang, Xiaomei Wu and Xueshan Xia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:228

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Rwanda that, in 2011, became the first African country to implement a national vaccination programme against human papillomavirus (HPV).

    Authors: Fidele Ngabo, Silvia Franceschi, Iacopo Baussano, M. Chantal Umulisa, Peter J. F. Snijders, Anne M. Uyterlinde, Fulvio Lazzarato, Vanessa Tenet, Maurice Gatera, Agnes Binagwaho and Gary M. Clifford

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:225

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  32. Content type: Research article

    To date, women are most often diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV) using microscopy based Nugent scoring or Amsel criteria. However, the accuracy is less than optimal. The aim of the present study was to co...

    Authors: Joke A. M. Dols, Douwe Molenaar, Jannie J. van der Helm, Martien P. M. Caspers, Alie de Kat Angelino-Bart, Frank H. J. Schuren, Adrianus G. C. L. Speksnijder, Hans V. Westerhoff, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Mathilde E. Boon, Gregor Reid, Henry J. C. de Vries and Remco Kort

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:180

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  33. Content type: Research article

    In our recent village-based cross-sectional study, the prevalence of nucleic acid amplification technique (NAAT) diagnosed Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in sexually active Samoan women was very high (36 %), and test...

    Authors: S. Menon, S. H. Stansfield, M. Walsh, E. Hope, L. Isaia, A. A. Righarts, T. Niupulusu, S. V. A. Temese, L. Iosefa-Siitia, L. Auvaa, S. A. Tapelu, M. F. Motu, T. Suaalii-Sauni, P. Timms, P. C. Hill and W. M. Huston

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:175

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections remain the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. To gain more insight into the epidemiology and transmission of C. trachomati...

    Authors: Bart Versteeg, Sylvia M. Bruisten, Arie van der Ende and Yvonne Pannekoek

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:162

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  35. Content type: Research article

    The recent emergence of azithromycin-resistant (AZM-R) N. gonorrhoeae isolates that have coevolved decreased susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins has caused great concern. Here we investigated the p...

    Authors: Jing-Yao Liang, Wen-Ling Cao, Xiao-Dong Li, Chao Bi, Ri-Dong Yang, Yan-Hua Liang, Ping Li, Xing-Dong Ye, Xiao-Xiao Chen and Xi-Bao Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:152

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  36. Content type: Research article

    There are inconsistencies in the literature on reproductive and genital health determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the primary cause of cervical cancer. We examined these factors in the Ludwi...

    Authors: Eileen Shaw, Agnihotram V. Ramanakumar, Mariam El-Zein, Flavia R. Silva, Lenice Galan, Maria L. Baggio, Luisa L. Villa and Eduardo L. Franco

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:116

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Male sex workers (MSW) are particularly exposed to sexually transmitted infections (STI) including HIV. In the Netherlands, data about STI among MSW are scarce. We estimated chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and...

    Authors: N. Fournet, F. D. H. Koedijk, A. P. van Leeuwen, M. S. van Rooijen, M. A. B. van der Sande and M. G. van Veen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:63

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  38. Content type: Research article

    The 1980’s economic boom has been associated with a rapid expansion of China’s sex industry over the past three decades. Consequently, the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and hepatitis infecti...

    Authors: Shu Su, Eric P. F. Chow, Kathryn E. Muessig, Lei Yuan, Joseph D. Tucker, Xiaohu Zhang, Jiehui Ren, Christopher K. Fairley, Jun Jing and Lei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:2

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  39. Content type: Research Article

    HPV infects multiple sites in the epithelium, including the genitals and oral cavity. The relation between genital and oral infections and serum antibodies can help explain the natural history and epidemiology...

    Authors: Andrew F. Brouwer, Marisa C. Eisenberg, Thomas E. Carey and Rafael Meza

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:575

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorroheae (PPNG) was first isolated in 1976. PPNG strains carrying bla TEM-1 and bla TEM-135 gene have been described in d...

    Authors: Ricardo Gianecini, Claudia Oviedo, Cristina Guantay, Laura Piccoli, Graciela Stafforini and Patricia Galarza

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:571

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is associated with maternal morbidity and occasionally mortality during the first trimester. A history of sexually transmitted infection (STI) and pelvic inflammatory disease have been i...

    Authors: Ahmed Mohamed Ashshi, Sarah Abdullah Batwa, Seham Yahia Kutbi, Faizah Ahmed Malibary, Mohamed Batwa and Bassem Refaat

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:569

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cervical tissue is important for understanding cervical carcinogenesis and for evaluating cervical cancer prevention approaches. However, HPV genotyping usin...

    Authors: Felipe A. Castro, Jill Koshiol, Wim Quint, Cosette M. Wheeler, Maura L. Gillison, Laurence M. Vaughan, Bernhard Kleter, Leen-Jan van Doorn, Anil K. Chaturvedi, Allan Hildesheim, Mark Schiffman, Sophia S. Wang, Rosemary E. Zuna, Joan L. Walker, S. Terence Dunn and Nicolas Wentzensen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:544

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  43. Content type: Research article

    The rate of spontaneous regression in CIN III lesions is controversial. Whereas some studies have reported high regression rates of up to 38 % after prolonged biopsy-conus intervals, others have shown rates be...

    Authors: Melodi Motamedi, Gerd Böhmer, Heinrich H. Neumann and Reinhard von Wasielewski

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:541

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  44. Content type: Debate

    Anorectal and pharyngeal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrheae (NG) are commonly observed in men who have sex with men (MSM). There is increasing evidence that such infections at ext...

    Authors: Nicole H. T. M. Dukers-Muijrers, Julius Schachter, Genevieve A. F. S. van Liere, Petra F. G. Wolffs and Christian J. P. A. Hoebe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:533

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  45. Content type: Research article

    The commercial Kalon HSV-2 IgG ELISA is currently recommended for research use in sub-Saharan Africa because of its superior accuracy compared to other serologic assays. However, there are no data on key preci...

    Authors: Eshan U. Patel, Jordyn Manucci, Erin M. Kahle, Jairam R. Lingappa, Rhoda Ashley Morrow, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Anelet James, Kwitaka F. Maluzi, Maina M. Cheeba, Glenda Gray, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Mubiana Inambao, Bellington Vwalika, Thomas C. Quinn and Oliver Laeyendecker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:398

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:355

  46. Content type: Research article

    Single-dose azithromycin is recommended over multi-dose doxycycline as treatment for chlamydial infection. However, even with imperfect adherence, doxycycline is more effective in treating genital and rectal i...

    Authors: Andrew P Craig, Fabian YS Kong, Laxmi Yeruva, Jane S Hocking, Roger G Rank, David P Wilson and Basil Donovan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:200

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