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Sexually transmitted diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of sexually transmitted diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV and HIV-associated infections are considered in a separate section.

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  1. Syphilis in children is uncommon with the mode of infection for this rare condition likely being congenital or acquired. While most acquired cases of syphilis in children result from sexual abuse, children can...

    Authors: Wen-Jia Yang, Hong-Hao Hu, Yang Yang, Jiu-Hong Li and Hao Guo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:528

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  2. Limited antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data for Neisseria gonorrhoeae are available in Eastern Europe. We investigated AMR in N. gonorrhoeae isolates in the Republic of Belarus from 2009 to 2019, antimicrobial tr...

    Authors: Aliaksandra Aniskevich, Iryna Shimanskaya, Iryna Boiko, Tatyana Golubovskaya, Daniel Golparian, Iryna Stanislavova, Susanne Jacobsson, Aliaksandr Adaskevich and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:520

    Content type: Research article

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  3. HPV self-sampling has been widely supported by the scientific community following a strong body of literature on the subject. Self-sampling is important in cervical cancer screening as it has been shown to imp...

    Authors: C. E. Aranda Flores, G. Gomez Gutierrez, J. M. Ortiz Leon, D. Cruz Rodriguez and S. W. Sørbye

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:504

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Syphilis is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM). Increasing syphilis testing is important to syphilis control. However, in low- and middle-income countries like ...

    Authors: Yajie Wang, Wei Zhang, Dongping Bao, Jason J. Ong, Joseph D. Tucker, Rouxuan Ye, Heping Zheng, Bin Yang and Cheng Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:491

    Content type: Study protocol

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  5. Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is an emerging sexually transmitted infection (STI) for whose management remains controversial. We aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of MG infection in patients attending ...

    Authors: Roxane Begnis, Nicolas Bouscaren, Loic Raffray, Cécile Saint Pastou Terrier, Fanny Andry, Malik Boukerrou, Yatrika Koumar, Marie-Pierre Moiton, Patrick Gerardin and Antoine Bertolotti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:482

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G may have an important role in the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Our aim was to evaluate the role of HLA-G in the outcome of genital and oral HPV infec...

    Authors: Anna Jaakola, Michel Roger, Marie-Claude Faucher, Kari Syrjänen, Seija Grénman, Stina Syrjänen and Karolina Louvanto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:419

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Aberrant microbiota composition has been linked to disease development at numerous anatomical sites. Microbiota changes in reaction to viral infections, such as human papillomavirus (HPV), have been investigat...

    Authors: Heidi Tuominen, Jaana Rautava, Katja Kero, Stina Syrjänen, Maria Carmen Collado and Samuli Rautava

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:373

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is the main cause of cervical cancer development, and the most common types were included in the last approved nonavalent vaccine (9vHPV). Geographical, so...

    Authors: Lays Paula Bondi Volpini, Jerusa Araújo Dias, Luciana Bueno de Freitas, Maria Carmen Lopes Ferreira Silva, Angélica Espinosa Miranda and Liliana Cruz Spano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:362

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The epidemiology on the human papillomavirus (HPV) among females in Southern China is not well-established. Baseline data on the prevalence of HPV infection in China prior to mass prophylactic HPV vaccination ...

    Authors: Li-pei Luo, Ping He, Qiao-tu Liu, Yang-hua Jiang, Yang-nan Zhang, Qing-zhao Li, Qiu Li, Sheng-tao Li, Fan Yang, Hua Ling, Xin-gui Dai, Zhong-yu Li and Hong-liang Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:328

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The causative agent of cervical cancer referred to as Human papillomavirus (HPV) remains a real public health problem. Many countries in West Africa, such as Togo have no data on the high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) inf...

    Authors: Akouélé P. Kuassi-Kpede, Essolakina Dolou, Théodora M. Zohoncon, Ina Marie Angèle Traore, Gnatoulma Katawa, R. Alice Ouedraogo, Esther Mah Traore, Prosper Bado, T. Clarisse Ouedraogo, Florencia Wendkuuni Djigma, Simplice Damintoti Karou and Jacques Simpore

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:278

    Content type: Research article

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  11. HIV-1C has been shown to have a greater risk of virological failure and reduced susceptibility towards boosted protease inhibitors (bPIs), a component of second-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) i...

    Authors: Adetayo Emmanuel Obasa, Anoop T. Ambikan, Soham Gupta, Ujjwal Neogi and Graeme Brendon Jacobs

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:214

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Swingers are members of a heterosexual couple who, as a couple, have sex with others. They constitute a hidden subpopulation that is at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study aimed to dete...

    Authors: Anne-Marie Niekamp, Laura W. L. Spauwen, Nicole H. T. M. Dukers-Muijrers and Christian J. P. A. Hoebe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:172

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Recommendations for sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening vary significantly across countries. This study evaluated the prevalence of urogenital and extragenital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT...

    Authors: A. Calas, N. Zemali, G. Camuset, J. Jaubert, R. Manaquin, C. Saint-Pastou, Y. Koumar, P. Poubeau, P. Gerardin and A. Bertolotti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:95

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Congenital syphilis is completely preventable through screening and treatment, but rates have been rising in the United States. Certain areas are at particularly high risk. We aimed to assess attitudes, knowle...

    Authors: Emily W. Harville, Gloria P. Giarratano, Pierre Buekens, Eurydice Lang and Jennifer Wagman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:64

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Female adolescents and young women have the highest risk of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) globally. Data on the prevalence of STIs among young women in Uganda are limited. In this study, we in...

    Authors: Veronicah Masanja, Solomon Tsebeni Wafula, Tonny Ssekamatte, John Bosco Isunju, Richard K. Mugambe and Guido Van Hal

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:59

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Antimicrobial resistance in M. genitalium is a growing clinical problem. We investigated the mutations associated with macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance, two commonly used medical regimens for treatment in...

    Authors: Wujian Ke, Dongling Li, Lai Sze Tso, Ran Wei, Yinyuan Lan, Zhengyu Chen, Xiaohui Zhang, Liuyuan Wang, Chunmei Liang, Yuying Liao, Huiru Chen, Yahui Liu, Heping Zheng and Ligang Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:950

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Trans-women sex workers bear the greatest brunt of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Trans-women are 49 times more at risk of HIV infections compared to the general population. However, they...

    Authors: Tonny Ssekamatte, John Bosco Isunju, Muyanga Naume, Esther Buregyeya, Richard K. Mugambe, Rhoda K. Wanyenze and Justine N. Bukenya

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:932

    Content type: Research article

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  18. To reach non-participants, reluctant to undergo clinician-based cervical cancer screening and vaginal self-sampling, urine collection for high-risk human papillomavirus detection (hrHPV) may be valuable. Using...

    Authors: Mette Tranberg, Jørgen Skov Jensen, Bodil Hammer Bech and Berit Andersen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:926

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Not all men who have sex with men (MSM) at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection currently receive sexual healthcare. To increase the coverage of high...

    Authors: J. Leenen, C. J. P. A. Hoebe, R. P. Ackens, D. Posthouwer, I. H. M. van Loo, P. F. G. Wolffs and N. H. T. M. Dukers-Muijrers*

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:925

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Human papillomavirus infection is an important factor associated with cervical cancer (CC) development. The prevalence and genotype distribution vary greatly worldwide. Examining local epidemiological data con...

    Authors: Andrea Molina-Pineda, María Guadalupe López-Cardona, Laura Patricia Limón-Toledo, Juan Carlos Cantón-Romero, María Guadalupe Martínez-Silva, Holanda Vanesa Ramos-Sánchez, María Guadalupe Flores-Miramontes, Pedro de la Mata-González, Luis F. Jave-Suárez and Adriana Aguilar-Lemarroy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:889

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an emerging global health threat. Surveillance of AMR in N. gonorrhoeae in the Western Pacific Region is important, as resistant strains have typically e...

    Authors: Paul C. Adamson, Hung Van Le, Hai Ha Long Le, Giang Minh Le, Trung Vu Nguyen and Jeffrey D. Klausner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:809

    Content type: Research article

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  22. According to the 2006 American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology guidelines, positive CIN2 p16 in women over the age of 25 should be managed with excisional treatment. However, excisional treatment...

    Authors: Maria Teresa Bruno, Guido Scalia, Nazario Cassaro, Maria Costanzo and Sara Boemi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:801

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Some patients who test positive for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) fail to return for results and treatment. To target improvement actions, we need to find out who these patients are. This study aimed ...

    Authors: Camille Rolland, Elise de La Rochebrochard, Prescillia Piron, Marc Shelly, Christophe Segouin and Pénélope Troude

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:795

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The program for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was launched in 2003 in China, but few studies have been conducted to describe the panorama of PMTCT...

    Authors: Yu Dong, Wei Guo, Xien Gui, Yanbin Liu, Yajun Yan, Ling Feng and Ke Liang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:792

    Content type: Research article

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  25. HIV is a major public health issue, especially in developing countries. It is important to track and design successful intervention programs to explore the spatial pattern, distribution, and associated factors...

    Authors: Bayuh Asmamaw Hailu, Fentaw Tadese, Getahun Gebre Bogale, Asressie Molla, Birhan Asmame Miheretu and Joseph Beyene

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:751

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Adolescent sexual debut and non-consensual sex have been linked to higher sexual risk and STI infection in adulthood among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income countries. This study aimed to examine ...

    Authors: Weiming Tang, Yehua Wang, Wenting Huang, Dan Wu, Fan Yang, Yongshi Xu, Jason J. Ong, Hongyun Fu, Bin Yang, Cheng Wang, Wei Ma, Chongyi Wei and Joseph D. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:732

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Women are under-represented in many mid-career infectious diseases research fellowships, including a TDR fellowship for low- and middle-income country (LMIC) researchers. TDR solicited creative ideas as part o...

    Authors: Ewen Liu, Juliet Iwelunmor, Grace Gabagaya, Helen Anyasi, Alejandra Leyton, Karen A. Goraleski, Shufang Wei, Mariam Otmani del Barrio, Atinuke Olaleye, Pascal Launois and Joseph D. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:715

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Untreated male partners are a critical source of maternal re-infection. Contact tracing is a good way to identify infection among partners and reduce risk of mother-to-child transmission related to maternal re...

    Authors: Ruilin Yan, Baoqing Deng, Guichun Wen, Licheng Huang, Limei Li and Zhiming Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:684

    Content type: Research article

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  29. External genital lesions (EGL) are the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We aimed to evaluate the prevalence, determinants and sex differences in EGL among young adults from Brazil.

    Authors: Juliana Comerlato, Natália Luiza Kops, Marina Bessel, Jaqueline Driemeyer Horvath, Bruna Vieira Fernandes, Luisa Lina Villa, Flavia Moreno Alves de Souza, Gerson Fernando Mendes Pereira and Eliana Márcia Wendland

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:683

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Key populations - men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW) and people who inject drugs (PWID) – are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) given their sexual risk behaviours al...

    Authors: Makini A. S. Boothe, Charlotte Comé, Cynthia Semá Baltazar, Noela Chicuecue, Jessica Seleme, Denise Chitsondzo Langa, Isabel Sathane, Henry F. Raymond, Erika Fazito, Marleen Temmerman and Stanley Luchters

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:636

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Estimating prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) worldwide is necessary in designing control programs and allocating health resources. We performed a meta-analysis to calculate the prevalence of CT in the g...

    Authors: Pengcheng Huai, Furong Li, Tongsheng Chu, Dianchang Liu, Jian Liu and Furen Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:589

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Despite several intervention programmes in South Africa, risky sexual behaviours among women of reproductive age remain a public health concern, making them vulnerable to unintended pregnancies and/or sexually...

    Authors: Mbuzeleni Hlongwa, Karl Peltzer and Khumbulani Hlongwana

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:563

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Worldwide, an increase in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been observed. Until now, no protocol for an external quality assessment (EQA) has been available for Germany. The German gono...

    Authors: Regina Selb, Klaus Jansen, Matthias Eckardt, Thalea Tamminga, Sandra Dudareva, Martyna Gassowski, Ingeborg Graeber, Eva Guhl, Dagmar Heuer and Susanne Buder

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:514

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) increases HIV risk and adverse reproductive outcomes. Standard-of-care (SOC) for BV are antibiotics; however, cure rates are low. Probiotics for vaginal health may be useful in improvi...

    Authors: Anna-Ursula Happel, Ravesh Singh, Nireshni Mitchev, Koleka Mlisana, Heather B. Jaspan, Shaun L. Barnabas and Jo-Ann S. Passmore

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:491

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Asymptomatic screening for gonorrhoea in heterosexual men is currently not recommended in many countries including Australia, given the prevalence is relatively low in the heterosexual population. We aimed to ...

    Authors: Mario Martín-Sánchez, Jason J. Ong, Christopher K. Fairley, Marcus Y. Chen, Deborah A. Williamson, Kate Maddaford, Ei T. Aung, Georgia Carter, Catriona S. Bradshaw and Eric P. F. Chow

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:486

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a high burden of syphilis infection. Expanding syphilis testing to improve timely diagnosis and treatment is critical to improve syphilis control. However, syphilis testing...

    Authors: Weibin Cheng, Cheng Wang, Weiming Tang, Jason J. Ong, Hongyun Fu, Michael Marks, M. Kumi Smith, Changchang Li, Juan Nie, Peizhen Zhao, Heping Zheng, Bin Yang and Joseph D. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:455

    Content type: Study protocol

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  37. The syphilis epidemic continues to cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, despite several recent disease control initiatives. Though our understa...

    Authors: Ethan Osias, Phoebe Hung, Lorenzo Giacani, Chrysovalantis Stafylis, Kelika A. Konda, Silver K. Vargas, E. Michael Reyes-Díaz, W. Scott Comulada, David A. Haake, Austin M. Haynes, Carlos F. Caceres and Jeffrey D. Klausner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:444

    Content type: Study protocol

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  38. Four new variants of Chlamydia trachomatis (nvCTs), detected in several countries, cause false-negative or equivocal results using the Aptima Combo 2 assay (AC2; Hologic). We evaluated the clinical sensitivity an...

    Authors: Magnus Unemo, Marit Hansen, Ronza Hadad, Mirja Puolakkainen, Henrik Westh, Kaisu Rantakokko-Jalava, Carina Thilesen, Michelle J. Cole, Iryna Boiko, Pham T. Lan, Daniel Golparian, Shin Ito and Martin Sundqvist

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:419

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Syphilis is a sexually and vertically transmitted infection caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum for which there are few proven alternatives to penicillin for treatment. For pregnant women infected with syph...

    Authors: Melanie M. Taylor, Edna Oliveira Kara, Maria Alix Leite Araujo, Mariangela Freitas Silveira, Angelica Espinosa Miranda, Ivo Castelo Branco Coelho, Maria Luiza Bazzo, Gerson Fernando Mendes Pereira, Silvana Pereira Giozza, Ximena Pamela Díaz Bermudez, Maeve B. Mello, Ndema Habib, My Huong Nguyen, Soe Soe Thwin and Nathalie Broutet

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:405

    Content type: Study protocol

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  40. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) cause a major public health problem that affect both men and women in developing and developed countries. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of 11 STIs a...

    Authors: Jessica Hanna, Ruba Yassine, Rana El-Bikai, Martin D. Curran, Mathilde Azar, Joumana Yeretzian, Rana Skaf, Claude Afif, Toufic Saber, Saadeddine Itani, Manal Hubeish, Tamima El Jisr, Fadia Hamzeh and Mira El Chaar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:375

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The prevalence of HIV/HCV/HBV/ Treponema pallidum is an essential health issue in China. However, there are few studies focused on foreigners living in China. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-d...

    Authors: Benard Chimungu, Muqing Fu, Jian Wu, Jiali Wu, Liping Huang, Yingchun Dai, Shixing Tang, Jianming Zhang and Chengsong Wan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:345

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted infection, with increasing rates of resistance to fluroquinolones and macrolides, the recommended treatments. Despite this, M. genitalium is not part of r...

    Authors: Tim Hart, Wen Ying Tang, Siti Aminah bte Mansoor, Martin T. W. Chio and Timothy Barkham

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:314

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been divided into mucosal and cutaneous types according to their primary epithelial tissue tropism. However, recent studies showed the presence of several cutaneous types in ...

    Authors: Elisa M. Bolatti, Lea Hošnjak, Diego Chouhy, Pablo E. Casal, María F. Re-Louhau, Hebe Bottai, Kristina Fujs Komloš, Mario Poljak and Adriana A. Giri

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:274

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Bolivia has the highest prevalence of cervical cancer in South America and the prevalence of viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among people in urban cities is increasing. Little is known about the p...

    Authors: Marianela Patzi-Churqui, Katty Terrazas-Aranda, Jan-Åke Liljeqvist, Magnus Lindh and Kristina Eriksson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:204

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) infection evokes significant immune responses, resulting in tissue damage. The immune mechanism underlying T. pallidum infection is still unclear, although microRNAs (miRNAs) have...

    Authors: Tao Huang, Jun Zhang, Wujian Ke, Xiaohui Zhang, Wentao Chen, Jieyi Yang, Yiwen Liao, Fangwen Liang, Shuqing Mei, Mingjiu Li, Zhenzhou Luo, Qiwei Zhang, Bin Yang and Heping Zheng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:165

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmitted from person to person mainly by sexual intercourse or through vertical transmission during pregnancy. Female sex workers (FSWs) are exposed especi...

    Authors: Ronaldo Lopes de Souza, Lucimar Di Paula dos Santos Madeira, Marcelo Victor Serejo Pereira, Rachel Macedo da Silva, João Bráullio de Luna Sales, Vania Nakauth Azevedo, Rosimar Neris Martins Feitosa, Jacqueline Cortinhas Monteiro, Marluisa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak, Ricardo Ishak, Andre Luis Ribeiro Ribeiro, Aldemir B. Oliveira-Filho and Luiz Fernando Almeida Machado

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:129

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionally affected by sexually transmitted infections (STI). STI are often extragenital and asymptomatic. Both can delay diagnosis and treatment. Approval of HIV pre...

    Authors: Klaus Jansen, Gyde Steffen, Anja Potthoff, Ann-Kathrin Schuppe, Daniel Beer, Heiko Jessen, Stefan Scholten, Petra Spornraft-Ragaller, Viviane Bremer and Carsten Tiemann

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:110

    Content type: Research article

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  48. The rates of newly diagnosed cases of sexually transmitted diseases, including genital chlamydial infection and gonorrhea, are important for prevention and control of these diseases. However, nationwide rates ...

    Authors: Miyuki Kawado, Shuji Hashimoto, Akiko Ohta, Mari S. Oba, Ritei Uehara, Kiyosu Taniguchi, Tomimasa Sunagawa, Masaki Nagai and Yoshitaka Murakami

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:77

    Content type: Research article

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COVID-19 Announcement

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.