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Sexually transmitted diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of sexually transmitted diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV and HIV-associated infections are considered in a separate section.

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  1. Human papillomavirus infection is an important factor associated with cervical cancer (CC) development. The prevalence and genotype distribution vary greatly worldwide. Examining local epidemiological data con...

    Authors: Andrea Molina-Pineda, María Guadalupe López-Cardona, Laura Patricia Limón-Toledo, Juan Carlos Cantón-Romero, María Guadalupe Martínez-Silva, Holanda Vanesa Ramos-Sánchez, María Guadalupe Flores-Miramontes, Pedro de la Mata-González, Luis F. Jave-Suárez and Adriana Aguilar-Lemarroy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:889

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an emerging global health threat. Surveillance of AMR in N. gonorrhoeae in the Western Pacific Region is important, as resistant strains have typically e...

    Authors: Paul C. Adamson, Hung Van Le, Hai Ha Long Le, Giang Minh Le, Trung Vu Nguyen and Jeffrey D. Klausner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:809

    Content type: Research article

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  3. According to the 2006 American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology guidelines, positive CIN2 p16 in women over the age of 25 should be managed with excisional treatment. However, excisional treatment...

    Authors: Maria Teresa Bruno, Guido Scalia, Nazario Cassaro, Maria Costanzo and Sara Boemi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:801

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Some patients who test positive for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) fail to return for results and treatment. To target improvement actions, we need to find out who these patients are. This study aimed ...

    Authors: Camille Rolland, Elise de La Rochebrochard, Prescillia Piron, Marc Shelly, Christophe Segouin and Pénélope Troude

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:795

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The program for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was launched in 2003 in China, but few studies have been conducted to describe the panorama of PMTCT...

    Authors: Yu Dong, Wei Guo, Xien Gui, Yanbin Liu, Yajun Yan, Ling Feng and Ke Liang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:792

    Content type: Research article

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  6. HIV is a major public health issue, especially in developing countries. It is important to track and design successful intervention programs to explore the spatial pattern, distribution, and associated factors...

    Authors: Bayuh Asmamaw Hailu, Fentaw Tadese, Getahun Gebre Bogale, Asressie Molla, Birhan Asmame Miheretu and Joseph Beyene

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:751

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Adolescent sexual debut and non-consensual sex have been linked to higher sexual risk and STI infection in adulthood among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income countries. This study aimed to examine ...

    Authors: Weiming Tang, Yehua Wang, Wenting Huang, Dan Wu, Fan Yang, Yongshi Xu, Jason J. Ong, Hongyun Fu, Bin Yang, Cheng Wang, Wei Ma, Chongyi Wei and Joseph D. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:732

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Women are under-represented in many mid-career infectious diseases research fellowships, including a TDR fellowship for low- and middle-income country (LMIC) researchers. TDR solicited creative ideas as part o...

    Authors: Ewen Liu, Juliet Iwelunmor, Grace Gabagaya, Helen Anyasi, Alejandra Leyton, Karen A. Goraleski, Shufang Wei, Mariam Otmani del Barrio, Atinuke Olaleye, Pascal Launois and Joseph D. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:715

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Untreated male partners are a critical source of maternal re-infection. Contact tracing is a good way to identify infection among partners and reduce risk of mother-to-child transmission related to maternal re...

    Authors: Ruilin Yan, Baoqing Deng, Guichun Wen, Licheng Huang, Limei Li and Zhiming Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:684

    Content type: Research article

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  10. External genital lesions (EGL) are the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We aimed to evaluate the prevalence, determinants and sex differences in EGL among young adults from Brazil.

    Authors: Juliana Comerlato, Natália Luiza Kops, Marina Bessel, Jaqueline Driemeyer Horvath, Bruna Vieira Fernandes, Luisa Lina Villa, Flavia Moreno Alves de Souza, Gerson Fernando Mendes Pereira and Eliana Márcia Wendland

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:683

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Key populations - men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW) and people who inject drugs (PWID) – are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) given their sexual risk behaviours al...

    Authors: Makini A. S. Boothe, Charlotte Comé, Cynthia Semá Baltazar, Noela Chicuecue, Jessica Seleme, Denise Chitsondzo Langa, Isabel Sathane, Henry F. Raymond, Erika Fazito, Marleen Temmerman and Stanley Luchters

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:636

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Estimating prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) worldwide is necessary in designing control programs and allocating health resources. We performed a meta-analysis to calculate the prevalence of CT in the g...

    Authors: Pengcheng Huai, Furong Li, Tongsheng Chu, Dianchang Liu, Jian Liu and Furen Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:589

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Despite several intervention programmes in South Africa, risky sexual behaviours among women of reproductive age remain a public health concern, making them vulnerable to unintended pregnancies and/or sexually...

    Authors: Mbuzeleni Hlongwa, Karl Peltzer and Khumbulani Hlongwana

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:563

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Worldwide, an increase in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been observed. Until now, no protocol for an external quality assessment (EQA) has been available for Germany. The German gono...

    Authors: Regina Selb, Klaus Jansen, Matthias Eckardt, Thalea Tamminga, Sandra Dudareva, Martyna Gassowski, Ingeborg Graeber, Eva Guhl, Dagmar Heuer and Susanne Buder

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:514

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) increases HIV risk and adverse reproductive outcomes. Standard-of-care (SOC) for BV are antibiotics; however, cure rates are low. Probiotics for vaginal health may be useful in improvi...

    Authors: Anna-Ursula Happel, Ravesh Singh, Nireshni Mitchev, Koleka Mlisana, Heather B. Jaspan, Shaun L. Barnabas and Jo-Ann S. Passmore

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:491

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Asymptomatic screening for gonorrhoea in heterosexual men is currently not recommended in many countries including Australia, given the prevalence is relatively low in the heterosexual population. We aimed to ...

    Authors: Mario Martín-Sánchez, Jason J. Ong, Christopher K. Fairley, Marcus Y. Chen, Deborah A. Williamson, Kate Maddaford, Ei T. Aung, Georgia Carter, Catriona S. Bradshaw and Eric P. F. Chow

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:486

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a high burden of syphilis infection. Expanding syphilis testing to improve timely diagnosis and treatment is critical to improve syphilis control. However, syphilis testing...

    Authors: Weibin Cheng, Cheng Wang, Weiming Tang, Jason J. Ong, Hongyun Fu, Michael Marks, M. Kumi Smith, Changchang Li, Juan Nie, Peizhen Zhao, Heping Zheng, Bin Yang and Joseph D. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:455

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. The syphilis epidemic continues to cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, despite several recent disease control initiatives. Though our understa...

    Authors: Ethan Osias, Phoebe Hung, Lorenzo Giacani, Chrysovalantis Stafylis, Kelika A. Konda, Silver K. Vargas, E. Michael Reyes-Díaz, W. Scott Comulada, David A. Haake, Austin M. Haynes, Carlos F. Caceres and Jeffrey D. Klausner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:444

    Content type: Study protocol

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  19. Four new variants of Chlamydia trachomatis (nvCTs), detected in several countries, cause false-negative or equivocal results using the Aptima Combo 2 assay (AC2; Hologic). We evaluated the clinical sensitivity an...

    Authors: Magnus Unemo, Marit Hansen, Ronza Hadad, Mirja Puolakkainen, Henrik Westh, Kaisu Rantakokko-Jalava, Carina Thilesen, Michelle J. Cole, Iryna Boiko, Pham T. Lan, Daniel Golparian, Shin Ito and Martin Sundqvist

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:419

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Syphilis is a sexually and vertically transmitted infection caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum for which there are few proven alternatives to penicillin for treatment. For pregnant women infected with syph...

    Authors: Melanie M. Taylor, Edna Oliveira Kara, Maria Alix Leite Araujo, Mariangela Freitas Silveira, Angelica Espinosa Miranda, Ivo Castelo Branco Coelho, Maria Luiza Bazzo, Gerson Fernando Mendes Pereira, Silvana Pereira Giozza, Ximena Pamela Díaz Bermudez, Maeve B. Mello, Ndema Habib, My Huong Nguyen, Soe Soe Thwin and Nathalie Broutet

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:405

    Content type: Study protocol

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  21. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) cause a major public health problem that affect both men and women in developing and developed countries. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of 11 STIs a...

    Authors: Jessica Hanna, Ruba Yassine, Rana El-Bikai, Martin D. Curran, Mathilde Azar, Joumana Yeretzian, Rana Skaf, Claude Afif, Toufic Saber, Saadeddine Itani, Manal Hubeish, Tamima El Jisr, Fadia Hamzeh and Mira El Chaar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:375

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The prevalence of HIV/HCV/HBV/ Treponema pallidum is an essential health issue in China. However, there are few studies focused on foreigners living in China. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-d...

    Authors: Benard Chimungu, Muqing Fu, Jian Wu, Jiali Wu, Liping Huang, Yingchun Dai, Shixing Tang, Jianming Zhang and Chengsong Wan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:345

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted infection, with increasing rates of resistance to fluroquinolones and macrolides, the recommended treatments. Despite this, M. genitalium is not part of r...

    Authors: Tim Hart, Wen Ying Tang, Siti Aminah bte Mansoor, Martin T. W. Chio and Timothy Barkham

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:314

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been divided into mucosal and cutaneous types according to their primary epithelial tissue tropism. However, recent studies showed the presence of several cutaneous types in ...

    Authors: Elisa M. Bolatti, Lea Hošnjak, Diego Chouhy, Pablo E. Casal, María F. Re-Louhau, Hebe Bottai, Kristina Fujs Komloš, Mario Poljak and Adriana A. Giri

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:274

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Bolivia has the highest prevalence of cervical cancer in South America and the prevalence of viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among people in urban cities is increasing. Little is known about the p...

    Authors: Marianela Patzi-Churqui, Katty Terrazas-Aranda, Jan-Åke Liljeqvist, Magnus Lindh and Kristina Eriksson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:204

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) infection evokes significant immune responses, resulting in tissue damage. The immune mechanism underlying T. pallidum infection is still unclear, although microRNAs (miRNAs) have...

    Authors: Tao Huang, Jun Zhang, Wujian Ke, Xiaohui Zhang, Wentao Chen, Jieyi Yang, Yiwen Liao, Fangwen Liang, Shuqing Mei, Mingjiu Li, Zhenzhou Luo, Qiwei Zhang, Bin Yang and Heping Zheng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:165

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmitted from person to person mainly by sexual intercourse or through vertical transmission during pregnancy. Female sex workers (FSWs) are exposed especi...

    Authors: Ronaldo Lopes de Souza, Lucimar Di Paula dos Santos Madeira, Marcelo Victor Serejo Pereira, Rachel Macedo da Silva, João Bráullio de Luna Sales, Vania Nakauth Azevedo, Rosimar Neris Martins Feitosa, Jacqueline Cortinhas Monteiro, Marluisa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak, Ricardo Ishak, Andre Luis Ribeiro Ribeiro, Aldemir B. Oliveira-Filho and Luiz Fernando Almeida Machado

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:129

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionally affected by sexually transmitted infections (STI). STI are often extragenital and asymptomatic. Both can delay diagnosis and treatment. Approval of HIV pre...

    Authors: Klaus Jansen, Gyde Steffen, Anja Potthoff, Ann-Kathrin Schuppe, Daniel Beer, Heiko Jessen, Stefan Scholten, Petra Spornraft-Ragaller, Viviane Bremer and Carsten Tiemann

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:110

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The rates of newly diagnosed cases of sexually transmitted diseases, including genital chlamydial infection and gonorrhea, are important for prevention and control of these diseases. However, nationwide rates ...

    Authors: Miyuki Kawado, Shuji Hashimoto, Akiko Ohta, Mari S. Oba, Ritei Uehara, Kiyosu Taniguchi, Tomimasa Sunagawa, Masaki Nagai and Yoshitaka Murakami

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:77

    Content type: Research article

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  30. This study was conducted to understand the molecular epidemiology of circulating Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) strains in Sapporo, Japan.

    Authors: Jeewan Thapa, Takanori Watanabe, Mana Isoba, Torahiko Okubo, Kiyotake Abe, Kunihiro Minami and Hiroyuki Yamaguchi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:53

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Incidence of anal and oral infections with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is increasing, particularly among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive (HIV+) men. HPV type 16 has exhibited the highest incidence and onl...

    Authors: Rocío Méndez-Martínez, Silvia Maldonado-Frías, Salvador Vázquez-Vega, Yanink Caro-Vega, José Guadalupe Rendón-Maldonado, Miriam Guido-Jiménez, Brenda Crabtree-Ramírez, Juan G. Sierra-Madero and Alejandro García-Carrancá

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:27

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Does the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae include the erasure of highly susceptible strains or does it merely involve a stretching of the MIC distribution? If it was the former this ...

    Authors: Chris Kenyon, Jolein Laumen, Dorien Van Den Bossche and Christophe Van Dijck

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1085

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is one of the most pervasive sexually transmitted infections and has high prevalence in urogenital and extra-urogenital sites among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study...

    Authors: Ying Zhou, Yu-Mao Cai, Shi-Liang Li, Ning-Xiao Cao, Xiao-Feng Zhu, Feng Wang, Yan Han, Yue-Ping Yin and Xiang-Sheng Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1041

    Content type: Research article

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  34. European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data are used to inform gonorrhoea treatment guidelines; therefore the data need to be robust and representat...

    Authors: Michelle J. Cole, Chantal Quinten, Susanne Jacobsson, Michaela Day, Andrew J. Amato-Gauci, Neil Woodford, Gianfranco Spiteri and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1040

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Early diagnosis and treatment of neurosyphilis is of great significance for regression. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. We did this study to explore the factors associated with th...

    Authors: Yong Lu, Wujian Ke, Ligang Yang, Zhenyu Wang, Ping Lv, Jing Gu, Chun Hao, Jinghua Li, Yumao Cai, Mei Gu, Hongfang Liu, Wenjing Chen, Xiaohui Zhang, Liuyuan Wang, Yahui Liu, Bin Yang…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1017

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Although Streptococcus agalactiae is the leading causative agent of neonatal sepsis and meningitis, recently it is increasingly isolated from non-pregnant adults. The relation between its presence in the genitour...

    Authors: Szilvia Kardos, Adrienn Tóthpál, Krisztina Laub, Katalin Kristóf, Eszter Ostorházi, Ferenc Rozgonyi and Orsolya Dobay

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1009

    Content type: Research article

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  37. High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology for the detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. However, limited and inconsistent data are available about the efficacy ...

    Authors: Fengxiang Xie, Liran Zhang, Dongman Zhao, Xuefen Wu, Mingsong Wei, Xuelian Zhang, Xiaohui Wu, Hao Fang, Xue Xu, Meng Yang and Debo Qi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:962

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Condomless anal intercourse (CAI) appears to be increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM) globally, and is reported to be as high as 70% in recent studies in Peru. To improve understanding of the evolvi...

    Authors: R. Colby Passaro, Angelica Castañeda-Huaripata, Williams Gonzales-Saavedra, Susan Chavez-Gomez, Eddy R. Segura, Jordan E. Lake, Robinson Cabello and Jesse L. Clark

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:958

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The potential HPV transmission route includes horizontal transmission “in utero” and vertical transmission from parents. Less is known about the role of child’s father as a potential source of HPV infection an...

    Authors: Mariusz Skoczyński, Anna Goździcka-Józefiak and Anna Kwaśniewska

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:930

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Penicillin G Benzathine (PGB) is the cornerstone of syphilis treatment. However, its intramuscular (IM) administration is associated with pain at the site of injection. The dilution of PGB with local anestheti...

    Authors: Vicente Estrada, Eva Santiago, Inmaculada Cabezas, Juan Luis Cotano, Juan Carlos Carrió, Manuel Fuentes-Ferrer, Mar Vera, Oskar Ayerdi, Carmen Rodríguez, Laura López, Noemí Cabello, María José Núñez, Teresa Puerta, Iñigo Sagastagoitia and Jorge Del Romero

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:883

    Content type: Research article

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  41. In Yemen, the underlying causes of infectious vaginitis have been neglected. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal cand...

    Authors: Maha Abdul-Aziz, Mohammed A. K. Mahdy, Rashad Abdul-Ghani, Nuha A. Alhilali, Leena K. A. Al-Mujahed, Salma A. Alabsi, Fatima A. M. Al-Shawish, Noura J. M. Alsarari, Wala Bamashmos, Shahad J. H. Abdulwali, Mahdi Al Karawani and Abdullah A. Almikhlafy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:879

    Content type: Research article

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  42. HPV test implementation as a primary screening tool has the potential to decrease cervical cancer incidence as shown by several studies around the world. However, in many low-resource settings, the HPV test in...

    Authors: Pedro Surriabre, Andrea Torrico, Tania Vargas, Fuantina Ugarte, Patricia Rodriguez and Véronique Fontaine

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:842

    Content type: Research article

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  43. The worldwide expansion of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) in cases of genital infections has led to an increased recurrence rate of these infections after first-line azithromycin treatment. By det...

    Authors: Olivier Thellin, Benaïssa Elmoualij, Willy Zorzi, Jorgen S. Jensen, Renaud Close, Valerie Deregowski, Muriel Le Guern Fellous and Pascale Quatresooz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:827

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is common in men who have sex with men (MSM) with HIV. The Swiss HCVree Trial targeted a micro-elimination by using a treat and counsel strategy. Self-reported condomless anal intercour...

    Authors: Patrizia Künzler-Heule, Sandra Engberg, Manuel Battegay, Axel J. Schmidt, Katharina Fierz, Huyen Nguyen, Agnes Kocher, Christiana Nöstlinger, Benjamin Hampel, Marcel Stöckle, Charles Béguelin, Julie Delaloye, Patrick Schmid, Markus Flepp, Mathieu Rougement, Dominique Laurent Braun…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:821

    Content type: Research article

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  45. The global burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is high and there have been reports of increasing chlamydial and gonorrheal infections. High-volume screening programs for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) an...

    Authors: André Frontzek, Gudrun Aretzweiler, Daniela Winkens, Dana Duncan and Elizabeth M. Marlowe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:797

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Since 2000, substantial increases in syphilis in men who have sex with men (MSM) have been reported in many cities. Condomless anal sex (CAS) is one of the factors, along with drugs for sex and sex in group. T...

    Authors: Maider Arando, Candela Fernandez-Naval, Miriam Mota-Foix, Desi Martinez, Pere Armengol, Maria Jesús Barberá, Juliana Esperalba and Martí Vall-Mayans

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:727

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Despite effective antiretroviral therapy developed over the last decade, HIV infection remains a major worldwide public health problem. Recently, a promising preventive treatment has been made available for HI...

    Authors: Elise K. Van Obberghen, Delphine Viard, Alain Lafeuillade, Alexandre Civiletti, Fanny Rocher and Milou-Daniel Drici

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:601

    Content type: Case report

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  48. In Japan and other countries, the number of patients with syphilis is increasing year by year. Recently, the cases of the pulmonary involvement in patients with secondary syphilis have been reported. However, ...

    Authors: Shinji Futami, Takayuki Takimoto, Futoshi Nakagami, Shingo Satoh, Masanari Hamaguchi, Muneyoshi Kuroyama, Kotaro Miyake, Shohei Koyama, Kota Iwahori, Haruhiko Hirata, Izumi Nagatomo, Yoshito Takeda, Hiroshi Kida and Atsushi Kumanogoh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:598

    Content type: Case report

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