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Parasitological diseases

Section edited by Honorine Ward & Laith Yakob 

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of parasitological diseases in humans, as well as related studies on molecular and cellular biology, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    The gastropod mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata is well known as a vector for the tropical disease schistosomiasis, which affects nearly 200 million people worldwide. Despite intensive study, our understanding of the...

    Authors: Nathan J Kenny, Marta Truchado-García and Cristina Grande

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:618

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a protozoan disease that is invariably fatal if left untreated. The disease is found in 70 countries with incidence of 0.2 – 0.4 million cases. The mainstay of treatment in resou...

    Authors: Aschalew Tamiru, Bethlehem Tigabu, Sisay Yifru, Ermias Diro and Asrat Hailu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:548

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  3. Content type: Research article

    New methods for controlling sand fly are highly desired by the Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination program of Bangladesh, India and Nepal for its consolidation and maintenance phases. To support the progra...

    Authors: M. Mamun Huda, Vijay Kumar, Murari Lal Das, Debashis Ghosh, Jyoti Priyanka, Pradeep Das, Abdul Alim, Greg Matlashewski, Axel Kroeger, Eduardo Alfonso-Sierra and Dinesh Mondal

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:539

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Parasitic infections affect tens of millions of pregnant women worldwide, and directly or indirectly lead to a spectrum of adverse maternal and fetal/placental effects. The objective of this study was to asses...

    Authors: Adane Derso, Endalkachew Nibret and Abaineh Munshea

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:530

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Botswana is one of eight SADC countries targeting malaria elimination by 2018. Through spirited upscaling of control activities and passive surveillance, significant reductions in case incidence of Plasmodium fal...

    Authors: Thato Motshoge, Grace K. Ababio, Larysa Aleksenko, John Read, Elias Peloewetse, Mazhani Loeto, Tjantilili Mosweunyane, Kentse Moakofhi, Davies S. Ntebele, Simon Chihanga, Mpho Motlaleng, Anderson Chinorumba, Moses Vurayai, Jeffrey M. Pernica, Giacomo M. Paganotti and Isaac K. Quaye

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:520

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  6. Content type: Research article

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar infection in school children in the community of Tlaltizapan, in order to understand the dynamics of infection within the ...

    Authors: Liliana Rojas, Patricia Morán, Alicia Valadez, Alejandro Gómez, Enrique González, Eric Hernández, Oswaldo Partida, Miriam Nieves, Marco Gudiño, Ulises Magaña, Javier Torres and Cecilia Ximénez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:485

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  7. Content type: Research article

    This study responds to a rural community’s concern that, despite national initiatives, malaria management in young children falls short of national guidelines in their district. This study aimed to: (1) descri...

    Authors: Rosemin Kassam, Richard Sekiwunga, John B. Collins, Juliet Tembe and Eric Liow

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:478

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  8. Content type: Research article

    The intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii) is found worldwide. Infection with T. gondii during pregnancy can result in fetal and neonatal death or various congenital defects. A serological survey du...

    Authors: Fira Abamecha and Hasen Awel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:460

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  9. Content type: Case report

    Patients with thymoma with immunodeficiency (TWI)/Good’s syndrome characteristically have evidence of combined immunodeficiency including low or absent B-cells, hypogammaglobulinemia and defects in T-cell medi...

    Authors: Sarah C. Sasson, Sarah Davies, Raymond Chan, Leo Davies and Roger Garsia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:457

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Blastocystis sp. is the most common intestinal parasite of humans. Despite its potential public health impact, epidemiological data regarding the prevalence and molecular subtype distribution of Blastocystis sp. ...

    Authors: Dima El Safadi, Amandine Cian, Céline Nourrisson, Bruno Pereira, Christelle Morelle, Patrick Bastien, Anne-Pauline Bellanger, Françoise Botterel, Ermanno Candolfi, Guillaume Desoubeaux, Laurence Lachaud, Florent Morio, Christelle Pomares, Meja Rabodonirina, Ivan Wawrzyniak, Frédéric Delbac…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:451

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Malaria is still a major health problem in some parts of the world. Plasmodium falciparum is the common pathogenic parasite and is responsible for majority of malaria associated deaths. Recently the other benign ...

    Authors: Yohannes Demissie and Tsige Ketema

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:436

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  12. Content type: Research article

    In the absence of an effective vaccine, malaria treatment and eradication is still a challenge in most endemic areas globally. This is especially the case with the current reported emergence of resistance to a...

    Authors: Moses Ocan, Freddie Bwanga, Alfred Okeng, Fred Katabazi, Edgar Kigozi, Samuel Kyobe, Jasper Ogwal-Okeng and Celestino Obua

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:428

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Onchocerciasis, caused by the parasitic nematode, Onchocerca volvulus afflicts some 37 million people worldwide, and is the second leading infectious cause of blindness globally. The only currently recommended dr...

    Authors: Glory Enjong Mbah, Rene Bilingwe Ayiseh and Fidelis Cho-Ngwa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:404

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  14. Content type: Research article

    The World Health Organization estimates that about 3.5 billion people worldwide are affected by intestinal parasitic infections. Reports have already emphasized the role of immigrants in outbreaks of parasitic...

    Authors: Marawan A. Abu-Madi, Jerzy M. Behnke, Sonia Boughattas, Asma Al-Thani and Sanjay H. Doiphode

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:370

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  15. Content type: Case report

    Cryptosporidium spp. is a ubiquitous parasite affecting humans as well as domestic and wild vertebrates, causing diarrhea in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts worldwide....

    Authors: J. Brunet, J. P. Lemoine, B. Pesson, S. Valot, M. Sautour, F. Dalle, C. Muller, C. Borni-Duval, S. Caillard, B. Moulin, A. W. Pfaff, R. Razakandrainibe, A. Abou-Bacar, L. Favennec and E. Candolfi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:363

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Cryotherapy is a local treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis with variable efficacy and greater safety than conventional treatment. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cryothe...

    Authors: Liliana López-Carvajal, Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias, María Isabel Zapata-Cardona, Vanesa Sánchez-Giraldo and Iván Darío Vélez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:360

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  17. Content type: Research article

    The importance of fevers not due to malaria [non–malaria fevers, NMFs] in children in sub-Saharan Africa is increasingly being recognised. We have investigated the influence of exposure-related factors and pla...

    Authors: Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Matthew Cairns, Ellen Boamah, Grace Manu, Mieks Twumasi, Richard Gyasi, George Adjei, Kingsley Kayan, Emmanuel Mahama, David Kwame Dosoo, Kwadwo Koram, Brian Greenwood and Daniel Chandramohan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:327

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  18. Content type: Research article

    The outcome of leishmaniasis is an interplay between Leishamania and the host. Identifying contributory host genetic factors is complicated by the variability in phenotype, ethnicity and parasite species. Leishma...

    Authors: Nilakshi Samaranayake, Sumadhya D. Fernando, Nilaksha F. Neththikumara, Chaturaka Rodrigo, Nadira D. Karunaweera and Vajira H. W. Dissanayake

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:292

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan causing trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted human infection, with around 276.4 million new cases estimated by World Health Organizat...

    Authors: Adriana Calderaro, Maddalena Piergianni, Sara Montecchini, Mirko Buttrini, Giovanna Piccolo, Sabina Rossi, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina Medici, Carlo Chezzi and Flora De Conto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:261

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  20. Content type: Case report

    Human dirofilariosis is still a little known infection even in endemic areas. Dirofilariosis is zoonotic infection usually abortive in humans; instead, we report a very rare case (the 4th in the world), the fi...

    Authors: Lucia Fontanelli Sulekova, Simona Gabrielli, Maurizio De Angelis, Giovanni L. Milardi, Carlo Magnani, Biancamaria Di Marco, Gloria Taliani and Gabriella Cancrini

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:248

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Late-appearing anaemia (LAA) following treatment with artemisinins for severe malaria has been reported and well described, but there are limited clinical and parasitological data on LAA in African children wi...

    Authors: Akintunde Sowunmi, Kazeem Akano, Adejumoke I. Ayede, Godwin Ntadom, Temitope Aderoyeje, Elsie O. Adewoye and Bayo Fatunmbi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:240

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  22. Content type: Research article

    The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) was established in 2008 to answer strategic questions about schistosomiasis control. For programme managers, a high-priority quest...

    Authors: Amara E. Ezeamama, Chun-La He, Ye Shen, Xiao-Ping Yin, Sue C. Binder, Carl H. Campbell Jr., Stephen Rathbun, Christopher C. Whalen, Eliézer K. N’Goran, Jürg Utzinger, Annette Olsen, Pascal Magnussen, Safari Kinung’hi, Alan Fenwick, Anna Phillips, Josefo Ferro…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:229

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  23. Content type: Case report

    Cystoisosporiasis is an opportunistic infection seen more commonly in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Although uncommon, Cystoisospora infection can occur in immunocompetent individuals but tend...

    Authors: Sze-Ann Woon, Rongchang Yang, Una Ryan, Peter Boan and David Prentice

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:221

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  24. Content type: Research article

    The effectiveness of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying in malaria vector control is threatened by vector resistance to insecticides. Knowledge of mosquito habitats and patterns of ins...

    Authors: Josiane Etang, Arthur Mbida Mbida, Patrick Ntonga Akono, Jerome Binyang, Carole Else Eboumbou Moukoko, Leopold Gustave Lehman, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Abdou Talipouo, Wolfgang Ekoko Eyisab, Darus Tagne, Romeo Tchoffo, Lucien Manga and Remy Mimpfoundi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:217

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Chronic Chagas disease presents different clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic (namely indeterminate) to severe cardiac and/or digestive. Previous results have shown that the immune response plays...

    Authors: Ana Thereza Chaves, Juliana de Assis Silva Gomes Estanislau, Jacqueline Araújo Fiuza, Andréa Teixeira Carvalho, Karine Silvestre Ferreira, Rafaelle Christine Gomes Fares, Pedro Henrique Gazzinelli Guimarães, Elaine Maria de Souza Fagundes, Maria José Morato, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara, Manoel Otávio da Costa Rocha and Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:191

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  26. Content type: Case report

    Human dirofilariasis is a zoonotic infection that continues to spread to previously unaffected areas of Europe. In the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic (CR), imported as well as autochthonous canine...

    Authors: Jana Matějů, Marta Chanová, David Modrý, Barbora Mitková, Kristýna Hrazdilová, Víta Žampachová and Libuše Kolářová

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:171

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Recent emergence of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum has posed a serious hindrance to the elimination of malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Parasite clearance time, a measure of change in peripheral para...

    Authors: Eugenia Lo, Jennifer Nguyen, Winny Oo, Elizabeth Hemming-Schroeder, Guofa Zhou, Zhaoqing Yang, Liwang Cui and Guiyun Yan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:154

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in humans and animals throughout Libya. Current diagnosis is based on detection of Toxoplasma-specific IgM and IgG. In this study, we establi...

    Authors: Aisha Gashout, Ahmad Amro, Mabruk Erhuma, Hamida Al-Dwibe, Eanas Elmaihub, Hamouda Babba, Nabil Nattah and Abdalhafid Abudher

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:157

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  29. Content type: Research article

    A successful host immune response to infection is dependent upon both innate and adaptive immune effector mechanisms. Cutaneous leishmaniasis results in an adaptive Th1 CD4+ T cell response that efficiently clear...

    Authors: Wafa Kammoun-Rebai, Ikbel Naouar, Valentina Libri, Matthew Albert, Hechmi Louzir, Amel Meddeb-Garnaoui and Darragh Duffy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:138

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Giardia duodenalis is an important intestinal protozoan in humans worldwide with high infection rates occurring in densely populated and low resource settings. The parasite has been re...

    Authors: C. Mbae, E. Mulinge, F. Guleid, J. Wainaina, A. Waruru, Z. K. Njiru and S. Kariuki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:135

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Leishmaniasis caused by two new species of Leishmania; L. siamensis and L. martiniquensis have been recently described in Thailand. The disease has mainly been documented in AIDS patients from southern Thailand. ...

    Authors: Padet Siriyasatien, Sarunyou Chusri, Kanyarat Kraivichian, Narissara Jariyapan, Thanaporn Hortiwakul, Khachornsakdi Silpapojakul, Adam M. Pym and Atchara Phumee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:89

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Parasitic infection(s) during pregnancy have been associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications and adverse outcomes in low resource settings. However, little is known about their influence on preg...

    Authors: Aneth Mkunde Mahande and Michael Johnson Mahande

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:78

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Document seasonality occurrence and epidemiologic characteristics of Cyclospora cayetanensis infections during a 10-year period from patients consulting at the University Hospital, Honduras.

    Authors: Rina Girard Kaminsky, Javier Lagos, Gabriela Raudales Santos and Samuel Urrutia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:66

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) (hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides) are widely distributed in developing countries where they infect over 230 million and 1.5 billion people,...

    Authors: Kariuki H. Njaanake, Birgitte J. Vennervald, Paul E. Simonsen, Henry Madsen, Dunstan A. Mukoko, Gachuhi Kimani, Walter G. Jaoko and Benson B. Estambale

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:57

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Survey of patients exiting health facilities is a common way to assess consultation practices. It is, however, unclear to what extent health professionals may change their practices when they are aware of such...

    Authors: Baptiste Leurent, Hugh Reyburn, Florida Muro, Hilda Mbakilwa and David Schellenberg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:59

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  36. Content type: Case report

    This is the first report of anisakiasis in a Croatian patient, evidenced from an archival paraffin-embedded and hematoxylin-eosin stained tissue section. Anisakiasis has been only suspected in the country base...

    Authors: Ivona Mladineo, Marijana Popović, Irena Drmić-Hofman and Vedran Poljak

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:42

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Scabies impairs the health of humans and animals and causes heavy economic losses. Traditional diagnostic methods for scabies are inefficient and ineffective, and so far there is no commercial immunodiagnostic...

    Authors: Yu Zheng, Ran He, Manli He, Xiaobin Gu, Tao Wang, Weimin Lai, Xuerong Peng and Guangyou Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:21

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Diagnostic tools for lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination programs are useful in mapping the distribution of the disease, delineating areas where mass drug administrations (MDA) are required, and determining ...

    Authors: Raceline Gounoue-Kamkumo, Hugues C. Nana-Djeunga, Jean Bopda, Julie Akame, Ann Tarini and Joseph Kamgno

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:579

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  39. Content type: Study protocol

    Plasmodium vivax malaria is a major cause of morbidity and recognised as an important contributor to mortality in some endemic areas. The current recommended treatment regimen for the ...


    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:558

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  40. Content type: Case report

    Severe falciparum malaria may be complicated by prolonged haemolysis and recurrent fever after parasite clearance. However, their respective etiologies are unclear and challenging to diagnose. We report the fi...

    Authors: Katherine Plewes, Richard J. Maude, Aniruddha Ghose and Arjen M. Dondorp

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:555

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular protozoan parasite able to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans. Congenital infection can cause severe damage to the fetus. Thus...

    Authors: Ana Carolina de Morais Oliveira, Hellen Dayane Silva Borges, Fernando Reis Carvalho, Arlindo Gomes de Macêdo Jr., Caroline Martins Mota, Angela Maria de Morais Oliveira, Fernanda Maria Santiago, Cristina Guimarães Arantes Araújo, Deise Aparecida de Oliveira Silva, Tiago Wilson Patriarca Mineo, Vânia Olivetti Steffen Abdallah and José Roberto Mineo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:519

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Lymphoedema and hydrocoele are the two most common clinical manifestations of lymphatic filariasis (LF). In order to effectively target morbidity management strategies, more information is rapidly needed on mo...

    Authors: Michelle C. Stanton, Square Z. Mkwanda, Alexander Y. Debrah, Linda Batsa, Nana-Kwadwo Biritwum, Achim Hoerauf, Matthew Cliffe, Abigail Best, Andrew Molineux and Louise A. Kelly-Hope

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:214

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Although malaria is preventable and treatable, it still claims 660,000 lives every year globally with children under five years of age having the highest burden. In Zambia, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs...

    Authors: Lungowe Sitali, James Chipeta, John M Miller, Hawela B Moonga, Nirbhay Kumar, William J Moss and Charles Michelo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:204

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  44. Content type: Research article

    The 29 kDa Schistosoma haematobium species-specific antigen (ShSSA) is of remarkable interest in the diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis although it had not been fully characterized.

    Authors: Uri S Markakpo, George E Armah, Julius N Fobil, Richard H Asmah, Isaac Anim-Baidoo, Alfred K Dodoo, Parnor Madjitey, Edward E Essuman, Somei Kojima and Kwabena M Bosompem

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:198

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a potentially fatal disease, is most prevalent in the Indian subcontinent, East Africa and South America. Since the conventional antileishmanial drugs have many limitations we eval...

    Authors: Mohammad Asad, Pradyot Bhattacharya, Antara Banerjee and Nahid Ali

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:188

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Toxoplasma gondii infection has been associated with psychiatric diseases. However, there is no information about the link between this infection and patients with mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoact...

    Authors: Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, David Carrillo-Oropeza, Sandy Janet Pacheco-Vega, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, Misael Salcedo-Jaquez, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, María Nalleli Ortiz-Jurado, Yesenia Alarcón-Alvarado, Oliver Liesenfeld and Isabel Beristain-García

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:172

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  47. Content type: Research article

    The objective of this study was to explore effects of khat (Catha edulis) on outcome of rodent malaria infection and its anti-plasmodial activities on Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA).

    Authors: Tsige Ketema, Moti Yohannes, Esayas Alemayehu and Argaw Ambelu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:170

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Schistosoma mansoni infection represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in many areas of the developing world. Effective vaccines against schistosomiasis are not available and disease management relies ...

    Authors: Shereen F Mossallam, Eglal I Amer, Radwa E Ewaisha, Amal M Khalil, Hamida M Aboushleib and Mohammed Bahey-El-Din

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:147

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