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Parasitological diseases

Section edited by Honorine Ward & Laith Yakob 

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of parasitological diseases in humans, as well as related studies on molecular and cellular biology, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.

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  1. Current available treatments (benznidazole and nifurtimox) for Chagas disease (CD) show limited efficacy in chronic phase and frequent undesirable effects. Ergosterol synthesis inhibitors (ESI) had been consid...

    Authors: Pau Bosch-Nicolau, Fernando Salvador, Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá, Elena Sulleiro, Joaquín Burgos and Israel Molina

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:956

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  2. Malaria is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide. Pakistan is considered as a moderate malaria-endemic country but still, 177 million individuals are at risk of malaria. Roughly 60% of Pakistan’s populati...

    Authors: Naveeda Akhtar Qureshi, Huma Fatima, Muhammad Afzal, Aamir Ali Khattak and Muhammad Ali Nawaz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:935

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval stages of taeniid cestodes of the genus Echinococcus. The two major types of infection in humans are cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatidosis and alveola...

    Authors: Shima Mahmoudi, Setareh Mamishi, Maryam Banar, Babak Pourakbari and Hossein Keshavarz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:929

    Content type: Research article

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  4. In southern Papua, Indonesia, malaria is highly prevalent in young children and is a significant cause of morbidity and early mortality. The association between malaria and delayed mortality is unknown.

    Authors: Dewi Patriani, Eggi Arguni, Enny Kenangalem, Saber Dini, Paulus Sugiarto, Afdhal Hasanuddin, Daniel Adrian Lampah, Nicholas M. Douglas, Nicholas M. Anstey, Julie Anne Simpson, Ric N. Price and Jeanne Rini Poespoprodjo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:922

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The only licensed malaria vaccine, RTS,S/AS01, has been developed for morbidity-control in young children. The potential impact on transmission of deploying such anti-infective vaccines to wider age ranges, po...

    Authors: Flavia Camponovo, Chris F. Ockenhouse, Cynthia Lee and Melissa A. Penny

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:920

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis, is a neglected zoonosis that requires validation and standardization of satisfactory diagnostic methodologies. Thus, the aim of the present st...

    Authors: Ryan Emiliano da Silva, Bruna Matarucco Sampaio, Renata Tonhosolo, Andrea Perei ra da Costa, Luiz Eduardo da Silva Costa, Fernanda Ap. Nieri-Bastos, Márcia Aparecida Sperança and Arlei Marcili

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:895

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Blastocystis is one of the most common intestinal protozoa in human faecal samples with uncertain impact on public health. Studies on the prevalence of Blastocystis in HIV-positive patients are limited and dated.

    Authors: Lucia Fontanelli Sulekova, Simona Gabrielli, Federica Furzi, Giovanni Luigi Milardi, Elisa Biliotti, Maurizio De Angelis, Giancarlo Iaiani, Caterina Fimiani, Myriam Maiorano, Simonetta Mattiucci and Gloria Taliani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:876

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Leishmaniasis is an emerging infectious disease. Due to human migration and tourism, visceral leishmaniasis may become more common in non-endemic areas. In the Mediterranean basin, visceral leishmaniasis typic...

    Authors: Iratxe Martinez de Narvajas, Alba Díaz, Octavio Bassegoda, Adriá Carpio, Carla Fuster, María Eugenia Valls, Miriam J. Alvarez-Martínez, Carolina García-Vidal, Alejandro Soriano, José Antonio Martínez and Juan Ambrosioni

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:874

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Drug resistant malaria is a growing concern in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), where previous studies indicate that parasites resistant to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine or chloroquine are spatially clu...

    Authors: Molly Deutsch-Feldman, Ozkan Aydemir, Margaret Carrel, Nicholas F. Brazeau, Samir Bhatt, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Melchior Kashamuka, Antoinette K. Tshefu, Steve M. Taylor, Jonathan J. Juliano, Steven R. Meshnick and Robert Verity

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:872

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases in the Ethiopian highlands and studies on assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of the community in endemic areas are scanty. The stud...

    Authors: Helina Fikre Tamiru, Yohana James Mashalla, Rezika Mohammed and Gloria Thupayagale Tshweneagae

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:855

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Taenia hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. pisiformis, and Dipylidium caninum are four common large and medium-sized tapeworms parasitizing the small intestine of dogs and other canids. These parasites cause serious imp...

    Authors: Guo-Qiang Zhu, Li Li, John Asekhaen Ohiolei, Yan-Tao Wu, Wen-Hui Li, Nian-Zhang Zhang, Bao-Quan Fu, Hong-Bin Yan and Wan-Zhong Jia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:854

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Leishmaniasis and malaria are tropical diseases with more than half of the world population at risk of infection resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Co-infection of Leishmaniasis and malaria pose...

    Authors: Pragya Gautam Ghimire, Prasanna Ghimire, Jyoti Adhikari and Anurag Chapagain

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:849

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Helminthic and protozoan infections are common, particularly in low- or middle-income countries. Although an association between parasite carriage and markers of poor growth have been shown in some studies, sy...

    Authors: Timothy P. W. Jones, John D. Hart, Khumbo Kalua and Robin L. Bailey

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:838

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Intestinal schistosomiasis is highly endemic in Tanzania and mass drug administration (MDA) using praziquantel is the mainstay of the control program. However, the MDA program covers only school aged children ...

    Authors: Andreas Mueller, Antje Fuss, Uwe Ziegler, Godfrey M. Kaatano and Humphrey D. Mazigo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:832

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and thyroid disease has been poorly studied. Therefore, we sought to determine the association between T. gondii seropositivity and thyroid dysfunction.

    Authors: Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Agar Ramos-Nevarez, Carlos Alberto Guido-Arreola, Sandra Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Alma Rosa Pérez-Álamos, Sergio Estrada-Martínez, Verónica Dayali Gutierrez-Martinez, Antonio Sifuentes-Alvarez, Eda Guadalupe Ramírez-Valles and Edith Contreras-Cisneros

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:826

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Current guidelines and targets for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control focus on school-based deworming for school-age children, given the high risk of associated morbidity in this age group. However, expan...

    Authors: Naomi E. Clarke, Dinh Ng-Nguyen, Rebecca J. Traub, Archie C. A. Clements, Kate Halton, Roy M. Anderson, Darren J. Gray, Luc E. Coffeng, John M. Kaldor and Susana Vaz Nery

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:822

    Content type: Study protocol

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  17. Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. are prevalent zoonotic parasites associated with a high burden among children. To date only limited molecular epidemiological data on E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidi...

    Authors: Rapeepun Prasertbun, Hirotake Mori, Yaowalark Sukthana, Supaluk Popruk, Teera Kusolsuk, Katsuro Hagiwara and Aongart Mahittikorn

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:808

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Scabies, a parasitic disease of the skin, is a major public health problem, largely affecting children. Scabies is often complicated by impetigo which can result in serious complications including invasive inf...

    Authors: Millicent H. Osti, Oliver Sokana, Sophie Phelan, Michael Marks, Margot J. Whitfeld, Christina Gorae, John M. Kaldor, Andrew C. Steer and Daniel Engelman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:803

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Larviciding is an effective supplementary tool for malaria vector control, but the identification and accessibility of aquatic habitats impedes application. Dissemination of the insect growth regulator, pyripr...

    Authors: Oscar Mbare, Steven W. Lindsay and Ulrike Fillinger

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:800

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis (E. multilocularis), and considered as public health issue. Parasite-host immune interaction is pivotal during infection. ...

    Authors: Abuduaini Abulizi, Yingmei Shao, Tuerganaili Aji, Zhide Li, Chuanshan Zhang, Abudusalamu Aini, Hui Wang, Tuerhongjiang Tuxun, Liang Li, Ning Zhang, Renyong Lin and Hao Wen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:792

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Due to the similarity of Strongyloides stercoralis with free-living nematodes of Rhabditis species they might be miss-diagnosed with each other in microscopical examination of stool samples. The aim of this study...

    Authors: Mandana Fadaei Tehrani, Meysam Sharifdini, Farzaneh Zahabiun, Robabeh Latifi and Eshrat Beigom Kia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:776

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Sparganosis, a rare and severe parasitic infection caused by the larvae of Spirometra species or simply sparganum, generally involves subcutaneous tissue or muscle. But occasionally, sparganum can also invade the...

    Authors: Yueli Zhu, Lingqi Ye, Xiansan Ding, Jimin Wu and Yanxing Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:748

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Leishmaniasis caused by different species of Leishmania affect 98 countries worldwide. Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is the mortal clinical presentation of the disease that causes the dead to more than 90% of the p...

    Authors: Giovanny Herrera, Adriana Castillo, Martha S. Ayala, Carolina Flórez, Omar Cantillo-Barraza and Juan David Ramirez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:747

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections are among the most chronic infections worldwide. Based on their demonstrable impact on human health, the WHO recently recommended the implementation of ...

    Authors: Hlengiwe Sacolo-Gwebu, Muhubiri Kabuyaya and Moses Chimbari

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:734

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Cryptosporidium is among the most common causes of severe diarrhea in African children 0–23 months old. It is associated with excess mortality, stunting and malnutrition. The most common manifestation of crypt...

    Authors: Wongani Nyangulu, Wes Van Voorhis and Pui-Ying Iroh Tam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:728

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. Plasmodium vivax transmission in West Africa, dominant for the Duffy-negative blood group, has been increasingly recognized from both local residents as well as international travelers who contracted P. vivax mal...

    Authors: Xi He, Maohua Pan, Weilin Zeng, Chunyan Zou, Liang Pi, Yucheng Qin, Luyi Zhao, Pien Qin, Yuxin Lu, J. Kevin Baird, Yaming Huang, Liwang Cui and Zhaoqing Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:704

    Content type: Case report

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  27. Echinococcosis multilocularis (Hydatid Disease - HD) is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval form of Echinococcus multilocularis (EM). The main sites for this zoonosis are the Middle East, China, India, Ala...

    Authors: Marek Kowalczyk, Waldemar Kurpiewski, Ewa Zieliński, Dariusz Zadrożny, Łukasz Klepacki, Wit Juśkiewicz, Jacek Lasocki, Łukasz Dyśko, Krzysztof Batia and Wiesław Pesta

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:661

    Content type: Case report

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  28. It is estimated that over a third of the world population is infected by malaria and helminthiases mainly among communities with high poverty indices. The distribution of these parasitic infections overlaps in...

    Authors: Nigatu Tuasha, Elifaged Hailemeskel, Berhanu Erko and Beyene Petros

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:659

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Human leishmaniasis is one of the major parasitic diseases with worldwide distribution. Sri Lanka is a recently established focus of leishmaniasis caused by a variant Leishmania donovani. Early case detection and...

    Authors: Bhagya Deepachandi, Sudath Weerasinghe, Preethi Soysa, Nadira Karunaweera and Yamuna Siriwardana

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:623

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Intestinal helminth infections are a serious public health problem in developing countries. Jiangsu, an eastern coastal province of China, has an environment conducive to the transmission of intestinal parasit...

    Authors: Yang Dai, Xiangzhen Xu, Jianfeng Liu, Xiaolin Jin, Mingxue Shen, Xiaoting Wang, Jun Cao and Haitao Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:604

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Oxidative stress plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of both Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) and Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, there are limited studies on the effect of P. falciparum malaria infection on ...

    Authors: Saad Mahjub Atiku, Nabukeera Louise and Dennis M. Kasozi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:600

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Current drug regimens for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) include toxic systemic therapies such as amphotericin B (AB) and pentavalent antimonials. Fluconazole (FZ) is a well-tolerated potential oral alternative ...

    Authors: Ruwandi Kariyawasam, Priyanka Challa, Rachel Lau and Andrea K. Boggild

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:593

    Content type: Technical advance

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  33. Toxoplasmosis is caused by an obligatory intracellular coccidian protozoan organism, Toxoplasma gondii. It has a worldwide distribution, affecting one-third of the world population. Psychiatric patients have a hi...

    Authors: Barnabas Achaw, Habtie Tesfa, Ayalew Jejaw Zeleke, Ligabaw Worku, Ayenew Addisu, Niguse Yigzaw and Yalewayker Tegegne

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:581

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Pleural parasitic infestation (PPI) is a disease prevalent in certain parts of the world. It is frequently misdiagnosed due to its lack of standardized diagnostic criteria. The purpose of this study was to eva...

    Authors: Jinlin Wang, Weizhan Luo, Panxiao Shen, Jianxing He and Yunxiang Zeng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:576

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Blood smear microscopy remains the gold-standard method to diagnose and quantify malaria parasite density. In addition, parasite genotyping of select loci is the most utilized method for distinguishing recrude...

    Authors: Aine Lehane, Moses Were, Martina Wade, Musleehat Hamadu, Megan Cahill, Sylvia Kiconco, Richard Kajubi, Francesca Aweeka, Norah Mwebaza, Fangyong Li and Sunil Parikh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:559

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Intestinal parasitic infections are still common in low-income countries including Ethiopia, particularly in children due to low-quality drinking water, poor personal and environmental sanitation. Disabled ind...

    Authors: Agumas Ayalew Fentahun, Anemaw Asrat, Abebayehu Bitew and Selamawit Mulat

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:549

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Cysticercosis is an emerging and neglected tropical disease (NTD) that poses a serious public health concern worldwide. Disseminated cysticercosis (DCC) is an uncommon manifestation of cysticercosis, also foun...

    Authors: Yang Zou, Fei Wang, Hong-Bin Wang, Wayne W. Wu, Chia-Kwung Fan, Han-Yu Zhang, Lei Wang, Xiao-Jun Tian, Wei Li and Min-Jun Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:543

    Content type: Case report

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  38. Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is one of the most common human parasitic helminths, and children are the most susceptible group. Some behavioral and environmental factors may facilitate pinworm infection. In t...

    Authors: Chia-Kwung Fan, Ting-Wu Chuang, Ying-Chieh Huang, Ai-Wen Yin, Chia-Mei Chou, Yu-Ting Hsu, Ramson Kios, Shao-Lun Hsu, Ying-Ting Wang, Mai-Szu Wu, Jia-Wei Lin, Kennar Briand and Chia-Ying Tu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:536

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Cysticercosis is spreading all over the world and it is a major health problem in most countries of Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Extensive disseminated cysticercosis is relatively rare and fewer than 120 c...

    Authors: Xin-Zhong Zang, Huan-Zhang Li, Men-Bao Qian, Ying-Dan Chen, Chang-Hai Zhou, Hong-Kun Liu, Yu-Hua Liu and Shi-Zhu Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:535

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Food-borne trematodiases are an important group of neglected global diseases. Affected patients in regions with low prevalence usually experience delayed diagnosis, especially when presenting with atypical cli...

    Authors: Lun Li, Xinchao Liu, Baotong Zhou, Shimin Zhang, Geng Wang, Guotao Ma, Ruxuan Chen, Yang Zou, Wei Cao and Taisheng Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:526

    Content type: Case report

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  41. Schistosomiasis remains a public health problem in Central Kenya despite concerted control efforts. Access to improved water and sanitation has been emphasized as important control measures. Few studies have a...

    Authors: Paul M. Gichuki, Stella Kepha, Damaris Mulewa, Janet Masaku, Celestine Kwoba, Gabriel Mbugua, Humphrey D. Mazigo and Charles Mwandawiro

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:503

    Content type: Research article

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  42. An estimated 60% of the world’s population is infected with one form of intestinal parasites. Amoebiasis and giardiasis are among the leading intestinal protozoan infections that affected mankind. However, lit...

    Authors: Behailu Hawulte Ayele, Ayele Geleto, Desalegn Admassu Ayana and Muhedin Redi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:499

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Previous studies reported contradicting findings about the association between intestinal parasitosis and maternal anemia. In this study we aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection a...

    Authors: Amelo Bolka and Samson Gebremedhin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:483

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Some reports are available on the prevalence of opportunistic parasitoses among hemodialysis (HD) patients, yet there is a paucity of data on the association of CD4+ T-cell counts with such infections. Therefo...

    Authors: Amany I. Shehata, Faika Hassanein and Rashad Abdul-Ghani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:480

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Onchocerciasis is caused by a nematode worm Onchocerca volvulus, which is transmitted in Sudan by black fly vectors of the Simulium damnosum sensu lato species complex. In Sudan, the disease is found in four foci...

    Authors: Isam M. A. Zarroug, Arwa Elaagip, Suhaib G. Gumaa, Altayeb K. Ali, Ayman Ahmed, Hanaa A. M. Siam, Deena M. Abdelgadir, Olabanji A. Surakat, Olatunwa J. Olamiju, Daniel A. Boakye, Nabil Aziz and Kamal Hashim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:477

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by a protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani that is transmitted to humans by an infected female sandfly, Phlebotomus argentipes. VL is common in the Indian sub-continent incl...

    Authors: Mitesh Shrestha, Medha Khatri-Chhetri, Ram Chandra Poudel, Jyoti Maharjan, Shyam Prakash Dumre, Krishna Das Manandhar, Basu Dev Pandey, Sher Bahadur Pun and Kishor Pandey

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:444

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease caused by the filarial nematode parasites that can lead to the disfiguring swelling of the limbs (lymphedema or elephantiasis for late sta...

    Authors: Alexander Kwarteng, Yarhands Dissou Arthur, John Kanyiri Yamba, Augustina A. Sylverken, Priscilla Kini, Samuel Terkper Ahuno and Ellis Owusu-Dabo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:442

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease which is still of immense major public health concern in several areas of Africa and the Americas. The disease manifests either as ocular or as dermal onchocercia...

    Authors: Kenneth Bentum Otabil, Samuel Fosu Gyasi, Esi Awuah, Daniels Obeng-Ofori, Robert Junior Atta-Nyarko, Dominic Andoh, Beatrice Conduah, Lawrence Agbenyikey, Philip Aseidu, Comfort Blessing Ankrah, Abdul Razak Nuhu and H. D. F. H. Schallig

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:431

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Consumption of unwashed, raw or unhygienically prepared fruits and vegetables act as potential source for the spread of various parasitic diseases. Moreover, the level of contamination and species of contamina...

    Authors: Getaneh Alemu, Mohammedaman Mama, Direslgne Misker and Desta Haftu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:410

    Content type: Research article

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