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Parasitological diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of parasitological diseases in humans, as well as related studies on molecular and cellular biology, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.

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  1. Both capillary and venous blood samples have been interchangeably used for the diagnosis of malaria in Ethiopia. However, Plasmodium parasites are thought to be more concentrated in capillary than in venous blood...

    Authors: Getu Abeje, Woyneshet Gelaye and Getaneh Alemu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:576

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Hematological abnormalities are common features in falciparum malaria but vary among different populations across countries. Therefore, we compared hematological indices and abnormalities between Plasmodium falci...

    Authors: Ahmed M. E. Elkhalifa, Rashad Abdul-Ghani, Abdelhakam G. Tamomh, Nur Eldin Eltaher, Nada Y. Ali, Moataz M. Ali, Elsharif A. Bazie, Aboagla KhirAlla, Fatin A. DfaAlla and Omnia A. M. Alhasan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:507

    Content type: Research article

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  3. African tick bite fever (ATBF) caused by Rickettsia africae and transmitted by Amblyomma spp. ticks is one of the zoonotic tick-borne fevers from the spotted fever group (SFG) of rickettsiae, which is an emerging...

    Authors: Tandiwe Katswara and Samson Mukaratirwa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:497

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Vector control plays a critical role in the prevention, control and elimination of vector-borne diseases, and interventions of vector control continue to depend largely on the action of chemical insecticides. ...

    Authors: Henk van den Berg, Haroldo Sergio da Silva Bezerra, Emmanuel Chanda, Samira Al-Eryani, Bhupender N. Nagpal, Elkhan Gasimov, Raman Velayudhan and Rajpal S. Yadav

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:468

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected tropical diseases in the world and remains endemic in some underdeveloped regions, including western China. The phylogeny and classification of Chinese Leishmania has no...

    Authors: Dongmei Yuan, Hanxiao Qin, Dali Chen and Jianping Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:464

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Leishmaniasis is one of the ten most important neglected tropical diseases worldwide. Understanding the distribution of vectors of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis (VL/CL) is one of the significant strateg...

    Authors: Ali Bordbar and Parviz Parvizi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:455

    Content type: Research article

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  7. While the use of sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) is effective in preventing malaria infection during pregnancy, there are challenges limiting its uptake in Nigeria. This study aimed at exploring the barriers t...

    Authors: Fatima Mahmud Muhammad, Saharnaz Nedjat, Haniye Sadat Sajadi, Mahboubeh Parsaeian, Abraham Assan and Reza Majdzadeh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:438

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Schistosomiasis is very common in the southern part of the Yangtze River Basin in China. It is mainly manifested as appendicitis, ulcers, hematomas, and thickening of the intestinal tract. Schistosomiasis of t...

    Authors: Xiu Li Zhu, Ji Zhong Song, Wen Yong Yu, Li Qun Hua and Ming Li Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:434

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease and has a great general and economic health importance in both developed and developing countries. Therefore, this systematic and meta-analytic study was conducted to determin...

    Authors: Aliakbar Vaisi-Raygani, Masoud Mohammadi, Rostam Jalali, Nader Salari and Melika Hosseinian-Far

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:429

    Content type: Research article

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  10. In the Brazilian Amazon, a new epidemiological profile of Chagas disease transmission, the oral route, has been detected and cited as being responsible for the increase in acute cases in Brazil. The clinical e...

    Authors: Katia do Nascimento Couceiro, Jessica Vanina Ortiz, Michael do Nascimento Correia, Mônica Regina Hosannah da Silva e Silva, Alba Regina Brandão, Paula Rita Leite da Silva, Susan Smith Doria, Reinaldo Bulgarelli Bestetti, Débora Raysa Teixeira de Sousa, Rubens Celso Andrade da Silva Junior, Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa Guerra, João Marcos Bemfica Barbosa Ferreira and Jorge Augusto de Oliveira Guerra

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:396

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The epidemiology of human cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is not well known in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Within a multicenter eti...

    Authors: Deby Mukendi, Jean-Roger Lilo Kalo, Pascal Lutumba, Barbara Barbé, Jan Jacobs, Cedric P. Yansouni, Sarah Gabriël, Pierre Dorny, François Chappuis, Marleen Boelaert, Andrea S. Winkler, Kristien Verdonck and Emmanuel Bottieau

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:359

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatrics in malaria endemic areas. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the drugs of choice for malaria management particularly across mal...

    Authors: Workineh Shibeshi, Getachew Alemkere, Assefa Mulu and Ephrem Engidawork

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:326

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a neglected tropical disease, represents a significant public health problem in many endemic countries including Yemen. The ongoing armed conflict that started in March 2015 has h...

    Authors: Talal H. Alharazi, Najoua Haouas and Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:269

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Plasmodium cynomolgi is a simian malaria parasite that has been reported as a naturally acquired human infection. The present study aims to systematically review reports on naturally acquired P. cynomolgi in huma...

    Authors: Manas Kotepui, Frederick Ramirez Masangkay, Kwuntida Uthaisar Kotepui and Giovanni De Jesus Milanez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:259

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by parasitic infection by Echinococcus multilocularis. Its diagnosis is usually based on clinical symptoms, ultrasound, and other imaging methods. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play im...

    Authors: Cao Deping, Jiang Bofan, Zhang Yaogang and Pang Mingquan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:246

    Content type: Research article

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  16. In Mozambique, infection by intestinal parasites is reported all over the country. However, infection in children with diarrhoea is mostly focused in the southern region of Mozambique. This work aims to determ...

    Authors: Adilson Fernando Loforte Bauhofer, Idalécia Laurinda Carlos Cossa-Moiane, Selma Domingos Amadeu Marques, Esperança Lourenço Alberto Mabandane Guimarães, Benilde António Munlela, Elda Muianga Anapakala, Jorfélia José Chiláule, Marta Cassocera, Jerónimo Souzinho Langa, Assucênio Chissaque, Júlia Assiat Monteiro Sambo, Lena Vânia Manhique-Coutinho, Diocreciano Matias Bero, Timothy Allen Kellogg, Luzia Augusta Pires Gonçalves and Nilsa de Deus

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:201

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are currently the primary method of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa and have contributed to a significant reduction in malaria burden over the past 15 years. Howeve...

    Authors: Manfred Accrombessi, Jackie Cook, Corine Ngufor, Arthur Sovi, Edouard Dangbenon, Boulais Yovogan, Hilaire Akpovi, Aurore Hounto, Charles Thickstun, Gil G. Padonou, Filemon Tokponnon, Louisa A. Messenger, Immo Kleinschmidt, Mark Rowland, Martin C. Akogbeto and Natacha Protopopoff

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:194

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects cats as definitive hosts and other warm-blooded animals including humans as intermediate hosts. It forms infectious cysts in the brain, muscle and other tiss...

    Authors: Andrey I. Egorov, Reagan R. Converse, Shannon M. Griffin, Jennifer N. Styles, Elizabeth Sams, Edward Hudgens and Timothy J. Wade

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:188

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis is an underreported, often misdiagnosed and mistreated parasitic disease mainly due to its low incidence. The aim of this study was to desc...

    Authors: Balázs Dezsényi, Zsolt Dubóczki, Tamás Strausz, Eszter Csulak, Veronika Czoma, Zsolt Káposztás, Mária Fehérvári, Áron Somorácz, András Csilek, Attila Oláh, Kálmán Almási, Attila Patonai, Dénes Görög, Zoltán Széll, Zoltán Tolnai, Tamás Sréter…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:168

    Content type: Research article

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  20. More than hundreds and thousands of migrants and seasonal farm workers move from the highlands (relatively low malaria endemicity areas) to the lowlands (higher malaria endemicity areas) for the development of...

    Authors: Getu Debalkie Demissie, Tadesse Awoke Ayele, Sintayehu Daba Wami, Malede Mequanent Sisay, Destaw Fetene, Haileab Fekadu Wolde, Temesgen Yihunie Akalu and Kassahun Alemu Gelaye

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:145

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Kidney involvement of visceral Leishmaniasis is previously reported, but knowledge is limited. Hypergammaglobulinemia is common in visceral leishmaniasis patients. Whether hypergammaglobulinemia after leishman...

    Authors: Linfeng Zou, Gang Chen, Yangzhong Zhou, Wei Ye, Yubin Wen, Limeng Chen and Xuemei Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:124

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Echinococcosis is considered a neglected zoonotic disease and has been a major worldwide public health problem. Although it is known that health literacy is closely related to health behaviours and health outc...

    Authors: Jie Zhao, Yangzong Dawa, Kezhong A, Dejicuo, Lengbao, Zengyue Li, Wanli Chen, Jingya Wang, Yuxin Zhang, Dengbentai, Jiwei Wang, Lizheng Shi and Qingwu Jiang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:101

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Informed decision making is underlined by all tiers in the health system. Poor data record system coupled with under- (over)-reporting of malaria cases affects the country’s malaria elimination activities. Thu...

    Authors: Eshetu Molla, Sinknesh Wolde Behaksra, Fitsum G. Tadesse, Sisay Dugassa, Endalamaw Gadisa and Hassen Mamo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:91

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Transmission stemming from asymptomatic infections is increasingly being recognized as a threat to malaria elimination. In many regions, malaria transmission is seasonal. It is not well understood whether Plasmod...

    Authors: Colins O. Oduma, Sidney Ogolla, Harrysone Atieli, Bartholomew N. Ondigo, Ming-Chieh Lee, Andrew K. Githeko, Arlene E. Dent, James W. Kazura, Guiyun Yan and Cristian Koepfli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:44

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Globally, urogenital and intestinal parasitosis remain significant health challenges. They are associated with rising morbidity, death, and many harmful outcomes. A little is known concerning parasitosis and t...

    Authors: Babiker Saad Almugadam, Mihad Khaleil Ibrahim, Yinhui Liu, Shen-min Chen, Chun-hao Wang, Chen-yi Shao, Bao-wei Ren and Li Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:20

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Direct agglutination test (DAT) as a simple, accurate and reliable method, has been widely used for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) during the last three decades. The present study is a systematic...

    Authors: Mehdi Mohebali, Hossein Keshavarz, Sedigheh Shirmohammad, Behnaz Akhoundi, Alireza Borjian, Gholamreza Hassanpour, Setareh Mamishi and Shima Mahmoudi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:946

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Leishmaniasis is one of the most important infectious diseases affecting the Colombian National Army due to the high number of reported cases and exposure throughout military operations in endemic areas. The m...

    Authors: Camilo A. Correa-Cárdenas, Julie Pérez, Luz H. Patino, Juan David Ramírez, Maria Clara Duque, Yanira Romero, Omar Cantillo-Barraza, Omaira Rodríguez, Maria Teresa Alvarado, Claudia Cruz and Claudia Méndez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:938

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The highly complex and largely neglected Chagas disease (CD) has become a global health problem due to population movements between Latin America and non-endemic countries, as well as non-vectorial transmissio...

    Authors: Jessica Michelle Guggenbühl Noller, Guenter Froeschl, Philip Eisermann, Johannes Jochum, Stefanie Theuring, Ingrid Reiter-Owona, Alfred Lennart Bissinger, Michael Hoelscher, Abhishek Bakuli, Franz-Josef Falkner von Sonnenburg, Camilla Rothe, Gisela Bretzel, Pedro Albajar-Viñas, Lise Grout and Michael Pritsch

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:919

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Primary infection with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can pose serious health problems for the fetus. However, the epidemiological status of toxoplasmosis among reproductive-aged population in Myanmar is larg...

    Authors: Khin Myo Aye, Eiji Nagayasu, Myat Htut Nyunt, Ni Ni Zaw, Kyaw Zin Thant, Myat Phone Kyaw and Haruhiko Maruyama

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:906

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a monogenic disorder due to point mutation in the β-globin gene resulting in substitution of Valine for Glutamic acid. The SCD is prevalent in P. falciparum endemic regions such as we...

    Authors: Paul Kosiyo, Walter Otieno, Jesse Gitaka, Elly O. Munde and Collins Ouma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:887

    Content type: Research article

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  31. World Health Organization estimated that 779 million people are at risk of getting schistosomiasis (SCH) and 240 million people were infected worldwide. SCH due to Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) is a wide publi...

    Authors: Yilma Chisha, Zerihun Zerdo, Mekuria Asnakew, Chuchu Churko, Manaye Yihune, Abinet Teshome, Nebiyu Nigussu, Fikire Seife, Birhanu Getachew and Markos Sileshi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:872

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Studies have shown that liver fluke infections may be associated with kidney injury and that Helicobacter pylori (Hp) may be involved in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. However, no studies have reported the ...

    Authors: Weining Xie, Yuanjun Deng, Shengxin Chen, Yifeng Wu, Ye Li and Qinhe Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:868

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Micronutrients are minerals and vitamins and they are essential for normal physiological activities. The objectives of the study were to describe the progress and determinants of micronutrient levels and to as...

    Authors: Berhanu Elfu Feleke and Teferi Elfu Feleke

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:867

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Light microscopy is often used for malaria diagnosis in the field. However, it is time-consuming and quality of the results depends heavily on the skill of microscopists. Automating malaria light microscopy is...

    Authors: Hang Yu, Feng Yang, Sivaramakrishnan Rajaraman, Ilker Ersoy, Golnaz Moallem, Mahdieh Poostchi, Kannappan Palaniappan, Sameer Antani, Richard J. Maude and Stefan Jaeger

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:825

    Content type: Software

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  35. Soil-transmitted helminths are more prevalent in tropics and sub-tropics including Ethiopia. Despite their high prevalence, direct saline microscopy with its low sensitivity has been used as a diagnostic metho...

    Authors: Abebe Fenta, Tadesse Hailu, Megbaru Alemu, Endalkachew Nibret, Arancha Amor and Abaineh Munshea

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:803

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Malaria infection during pregnancy has negative health consequences for both mothers and offspring. Sub-microscopic malaria infection during pregnancy is common in most African countries. We sought to identify...

    Authors: Aneth Vedastus Kalinjuma, Anne Marie Darling, Ferdinand M. Mugusi, Ajibola Ibraheem Abioye, Fredros O. Okumu, Said Aboud, Honorati Masanja, Davidson H. Hamer, Ellen Hertzmark and Wafaie W. Fawzi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:796

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Pulmonary hemorrhage is an important complication of leptospirosis. Once acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) occurs as a secondary condition, treatment is extremely difficult and the mortality rate is v...

    Authors: H. J. Wang, G. Z. Chen, C. J. Zhou, Y. FU and L. N. YAO

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:794

    Content type: Case report

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  38. Individuals that work and sleep in remote forest and farm locations in the Greater Mekong Subregion continue to remain at high risk of both acquiring and transmitting malaria. These difficult-to-access populat...

    Authors: Sara E. Canavati, Gerard C. Kelly, Cesia E. Quintero, Thuan Huu Vo, Long Khanh Tran, Thang Duc Ngo, Duong Thanh Tran, Kimberly A. Edgel and Nicholas J. Martin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:757

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Chagas disease is a zoonotic infection caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which affects an estimated 8–11 million people globally. Chagas disease is almost always associated with poverty in rural areas and...

    Authors: Paula Stigler Granados, Gerardo J. Pacheco, Evangelina Núñez Patlán, Jose Betancourt and Lawrence Fulton

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:743

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Ivermectin is an excellent microfilaricide against Onchocerca volvulus. However, in some regions, long term use of ivermectin has resulted in sub-optimal responses to the treatment. More data to properly document...

    Authors: Raphael Awah Abong, Glory N. Amambo, Patrick W. Chounna Ndongmo, Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Manuel Ritter, Amuam Andrew Beng, Mathias Eyong Esum, Kebede Deribe, Jerome Fru-Cho, Fanny F. Fombad, Theobald Mue Nji, Peter Ivo Enyong, Catherine B. Poole, Kenneth Pfarr, Achim Hoerauf, Clotilde K. S. Carlow…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:726

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:81

  41. Spinal neuroschistosomiasis (SN) is one of the most severe clinical presentations of schistosomiasis infection and an ectopic form of the disease caused by any species of Schistosoma. In Brazil, all cases of this...

    Authors: Ana Lúcia Coutinho Domingues, Constança Simões Barbosa, Thiago Frederico Andrade Agt, Andréia Braga Mota, Clélia Maria Ribeiro Franco, Edmundo Pessoa Lopes, Rodrigo Loyo and Elainne Christine Souza Gomes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:724

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Schistosoma antigen detection in urine is a valuable diagnostic approach for schistosomiasis control programmes because of the higher sensitivity compared to parasitological methods and preferred sampling of urin...

    Authors: Yabo Josiane Honkpehedji, Ayôla Akim Adegnika, Jean Claude Dejon-Agobe, Jeannot Fréjus Zinsou, Romuald Beh Mba, Jacob Gerstenberg, Raphaël Rakotozandrindrainy, Rivo Andry Rakotoarivelo, Tahinamandranto Rasamoelina, Elisa Sicuri, Norbert G. Schwarz, Paul L. A. M. Corstjens, Pytsje T. Hoekstra, Govert J. van Dam and Andrea Kreidenweiss

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:718

    Content type: Study protocol

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  43. Toxoplasma gondii infection endangers human health and affects animal husbandry. Serological detection is the main method used for epidemiological investigations and diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The key to effecti...

    Authors: Zhuan-zhuan Liu, Xue-yan Li, Lin-lin Fu, Fei Yuan, Ren-xian Tang, Yi-sheng Liu and Kui-yang Zheng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:694

    Content type: Research article

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  44. The incidence of angiostrongyliasis is increasing in recent decades due to the expanding endemic areas all over the world. Clinicians face tremendous challenge of diagnosing angiostrongyliasis because of the l...

    Authors: Li Feng, Aiwu Zhang, Jiali Que, Hongyan Zhou, Haiyan Wang, Yuanlin Guan, Cunzhou Shen, Xunsha Sun, Rong Lai, Fuhua Peng, Huiyu Feng and Ling Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:691

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  45. The increasing antimalarial drug resistance is a significant hindrance to malaria control and elimination programs. For the last six decades, chloroquine (CQ) plus pyrimethamine remains the first-line treatmen...

    Authors: Hargobinder Kaur, Rakesh Sehgal, Archit Kumar, Praveen K. Bharti, Devendra Bansal, Pradyumna K. Mohapatra, Jagadish Mahanta and Ali A. Sultan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:671

    Content type: Research article

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  46. The parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the causal agent of amoebiasis, a worldwide emerging disease. Amebic brain abscess is a form of invasive amebiasis that is both rare and frequently lethal. This condition alw...

    Authors: Joaquin Alvaro Victoria-Hernández, Anayansi Ventura-Saucedo, Aurelio López-Morones, Sandra Luz Martínez-Hernández, Marina Nayeli Medina-Rosales, Martín Muñoz-Ortega, Manuel Enrique Ávila-Blanco, Daniel Cervantes-García, Luis Fernando Barba-Gallardo and Javier Ventura-Juárez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:669

    Content type: Case report

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  47. Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by brucella. It has been an increasing trend in recent years (Wang H, Xu WM, Zhu KJ, Zhu SJ, Zhang HF, Wang J, Yang Y, Shao FY, Jiang NM, Tao ZY, Jin HY, Tang Y, Huo LL...

    Authors: Lingling Geng, Yuan Feng, Dan Li, Nan Nan, Kai Ma, Xianyan Tang and Xiaoqing Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:654

    Content type: Case report

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  48. During the outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq that started in 2015, the course of the disease and the treatment were not consistent with the available literature. Physicians, p...

    Authors: Dindar S. Qurtas and Nazar Pauls Shabila

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:645

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  49. Malaria during pregnancy leads to serious adverse effects on mothers and the fetus. Approximately 25 million pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa live at risk of malaria. This study would help to achieve Susta...

    Authors: Girma Bekele Gontie, Haileab Fekadu Wolde and Adhanom Gebreegziabher Baraki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:573

    Content type: Research article

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  50. Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (Pfdhps) mutations compromise the effectiveness of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria, and ...

    Authors: George M. Bwire, Wigilya P. Mikomangwa and Manase Kilonzi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:530

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.