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HIV and co-infections

Section edited by Carlo Torti and Andrea De Luca

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of HIV and HIV-associated infections in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section also aims to publish studies on the adverse events of HAART and non HIV-related comorbidities in the HAART era.

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  1. Content type: Study protocol

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is key component of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV, but existing tools to monitor drug adherence are often inaccurate. Detection of...

    Authors: Tim R. Cressey, Oraphan Siriprakaisil, Virat Klinbuayaem, Justice Quame-Amaglo, Rachel W. Kubiak, Pra-ornsuda Sukrakanchana, Kanchana Than-in-at, Jared Baeten, Wasna Sirirungsi, Ratchada Cressey and Paul K. Drain

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:496

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Observed adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the lipid profile could be of significance in pregnancy. This systematic review aims to summarize studies that investigated the association between H...

    Authors: Marissa J. Harmsen, Joyce L. Browne, Francois Venter, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch and Marcus J. Rijken

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:489

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  3. Content type: Research article

    The HIV surveillance system in Germany is based on mandatory, anonymous notification of newly diagnosed HIV cases by laboratories. Because the time between HIV infection and the diagnosis of HIV varies widely ...

    Authors: Alexandra Hofmann, Andrea Hauser, Ruth Zimmermann, Claudia Santos-Hövener, Jörg Bätzing-Feigenbaum, Stephan Wildner, Claudia Kücherer, Norbert Bannert, Osamah Hamouda, Viviane Bremer and Barbara Bartmeyer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:484

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Rilpivirine is safe and effective in HIV-naïve patients with low baseline HIV-RNA or in switch strategy. It offers the advantages of few drug-drug interactions and a favourable toxicity profile. We aimed to de...

    Authors: Delphine Sculier, Angèle Gayet-Ageron, Manuel Battegay, Matthias Cavassini, Jan Fehr, Cedric Hirzel, Patrick Schmid, Enos Bernasconi and Alexandra Calmy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:476

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  5. Content type: Research article

    In 2014, there were 170,000 new HIV-infected children globally. The rate of HIV transmission from mother to child in Ethiopia was 18%. Though there are a number of HIV-related studies conducted in Ethiopia, th...

    Authors: Nurilign Abebe Moges, Getachew Mullu Kassa and Dube Jara Boneya

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:475

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  6. Content type: Research article

    In Brazil, due to the rapid increase in programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), routine programme data are widely available. The objective of this study was to assess the utility...

    Authors: Gerson Fernando Mendes Pereira, Meritxell Sabidó, Alessandro Caruso and Adele Schwartz Benzaken

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:469

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  7. Content type: Research article

    In West Africa where HIV-1 and HIV-2 co-circulate, the co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) is not well described. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of HBV and ...

    Authors: Patrick A. Coffie, Boris K. Tchounga, Guillaume Bado, Mathieu Kabran, Daouda K. Minta, Gilles Wandeler, Geoffrey S. Gottlieb, François Dabis, Serge P. Eholie and Didier K. Ekouevi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:466

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Malawi’s national antiretroviral therapy program provides atazanavir/ritonavir–based second line regimens which cause concentration-dependent rise in indirect bilirubin. We sought to determine if elevated bili...

    Authors: Dennis Miyoge Ongubo, Robertino Lim, Hannock Tweya, Christopher Chikhosi Stanley, Petros Tembo, Richard Broadhurst, Salem Gugsa, McNeil Ngongondo, Colin Speight, Tom Heller, Sam Phiri and Mina C. Hosseinipour

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:461

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  9. Content type: Study protocol

    Though home-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling and testing (HBHCT) is implemented in many sub-Saharan African countries as part of their HIV programs, linkage to HIV care remains a challenge. ...

    Authors: Susan M. Kiene, Seth C. Kalichman, Katelyn M. Sileo, Nicolas A. Menzies, Rose Naigino, Chii-Dean Lin, Moses H. Bateganya, Haruna Lule and Rhoda K. Wanyenze

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:460

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  10. Content type: Research article

    HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease beyond that explained by traditional risk factors. Altered gut microbiota, microbial translocation, and immune activation have been pro...

    Authors: Judith M. Haissman, Anna K. Haugaard, Sisse R. Ostrowski, Rolf K. Berge, Johannes R. Hov, Marius Trøseid and Susanne D. Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:445

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Viral suppression is a critical indicator of HIV treatment success. In the era of test-and-start, little is known about treatment outcomes and time to undetectable viral loads. This study compares treatment ou...

    Authors: Rogers Ssebunya, Rhoda K. Wanyenze, Heather Lukolyo, Milton Mutto, Grace Kisitu, Pauline Amuge, Albert Maganda and Adeodata Kekitiinwa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:439

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Scaling up HIV testing is the first step in the HIV treatment continuum which is important for controlling the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Following an online HIV testing intervention a...

    Authors: Ngai Sze Wong, Weiming Tang, Larry Han, John Best, Ye Zhang, Shujie Huang, Heping Zheng, Bin Yang, Chongyi Wei, Stephen W. Pan and Joseph D. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:437

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The Xpert® MTB/RIF (XP) has a higher sensitivity than sputum smear microscopy (70% versus 35%) for TB diagnosis and has been endorsed by the WHO for TB high burden countries to increase case finding among HIV ...

    Authors: Sabine M. Hermans, Juliet A. Babirye, Olive Mbabazi, Francis Kakooza, Robert Colebunders, Barbara Castelnuovo, Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi and Yukari C. Manabe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:433

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Early treatment of acute HIV-1 infection (AHI) is beneficial for patients and could reduce onward transmission. However, guidelines on whom to test for AHI with HIV-1 RNA testing are lacking.

    Authors: Maartje Dijkstra, Godelieve J. de Bree, Ineke G. Stolte, Udi Davidovich, Eduard J. Sanders, Maria Prins and Maarten F. Schim van der Loeff

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:425

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:691

  15. Content type: Research article

    The aim of the study was to assess the applicability of an algorithm predicting 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) generated in the setting of the Framingham Heart Study to a real-life, contemporary Italian ...

    Authors: Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio, Giacomo Pucci, Franco Baldelli and Giuseppe Schillaci

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:414

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Tenofovir (TDF) is one of the most widely used antiretroviral drug. Despite the high degree of tolerability a small percentage of patients experienced alteration in tubular function during TDF use. Intracellul...

    Authors: S. E. Salvaggio, A. Giacomelli, F. S. Falvella, M. L. Oreni, P. Meraviglia, C. Atzori, E. G. I. Clementi, M. Galli and S. Rusconi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:396

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Routine laboratory monitoring is part of the basic care package offered to people living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV). This paper aims to identify the proportion of PLHIVs with clinical and im...

    Authors: Sunguti Luke Joram, Gathii Paul, Kitheka Moses, Bii Stanley, Malonza Isaac, Gohole Allan, Marwa Tom, Karimi Lilian and Mudany Mildred

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:383

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  18. Content type: Case report

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection caused by L1, L2, L3 serovars of C. trachomatis (CT). Since 2003, LGV cases have been increasing in Europe. Aim of this report is to describe the...

    Authors: Alessandra Latini, Mauro Zaccarelli, Maria Grazia Paglia, Maria Gabriella Donà, Amalia Giglio, Domenico Moretto, Antonella Vulcano, Massimo Giuliani, Manuela Colafigli, Marina Ambrifi, Fulvia Pimpinelli and Antonio Cristaudo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:386

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  19. Content type: Research article

    A rare phenotype of clinical non-progressors to AIDS is not well understood and the new protocol for universal treatment, may block the understanding of viral control thus it is crucial to define this controve...

    Authors: Samara Tatielle M. Gomes, Érica R. Gomes, Mike B. dos Santos, Sandra S. Lima, Maria Alice F. Queiroz, Luiz Fernando A. Machado, Izaura M. V. Cayres-Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos R. Vallinoto, Marluísa de O. Guimarães Ishak and Ricardo Ishak

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:381

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been found to be associated with HIV acquisition and transmission.

    Authors: Maria Wessman, Kristina Thorsteinsson, Jørgen S. Jensen, Merete Storgaard, Frederikke F. Rönsholt, Isik S. Johansen, Gitte Pedersen, Lars Nørregård Nielsen, Jesper Bonde, Terese L. Katzenstein, Nina Weis and Anne-Mette Lebech

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:376

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis is the most frequent opportunistic infection and the leading cause of death among persons living with HIV in several low and middle-income countries. Mortality rates during tuberculosis treatment ...

    Authors: Rodrigo Otavio da Silva Escada, Luciane Velasque, Sayonara Rocha Ribeiro, Sandra Wagner Cardoso, Luana Monteiro Spindola Marins, Eduarda Grinsztejn, Maria Cristina da Silva Lourenço, Beatriz Grinsztejn and Valdiléa Gonçalves Veloso

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:373

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  22. Content type: Research article

    In Zambia, 14.2% of adults have HIV/AIDS. There has been a substantial and significant increase in patients hospitalized for ischaemic stroke with co-existing HIV infection. However, little is known about the ...

    Authors: Stanley Zimba, Patrice Mukomena Ntanda, Shabir Lakhi and Masharip Atadzhanov

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:354

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  23. Content type: Research article

    High proportion of TB in people living with HIV (PLHIV) is undiagnosed. Due to this active TB case finding is recommended for HIV clinics in high TB burden countries. Presently sputum examination and chest rad...

    Authors: Sonam Spalgais, Upasna Agarwal, Rohit Sarin, Devesh Chauhan, Anita Yadav and Anand Jaiswal

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:351

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Kynurenine/Tryptophan ratio (KTR) is increased in HIV infection, and linked to immune activation. We hypothesized that early cART initiation results in lower KTR compared to late initiation. Furthermore, we hy...

    Authors: Marco Gelpi, Hans J. Hartling, Per M. Ueland, Henrik Ullum, Marius Trøseid and Susanne D. Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:349

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Intravaginal practices (IVP) (cleansing or introducing products inside the vagina for hygiene, health or to please sexual partners) are common among women with HIV. IVP increase the risk of developing bacteria...

    Authors: Maria L. Alcaide, Maureen Chisembele, Emeria Malupande, Violeta J. Rodriguez, Margaret A. Fischl, Kristopher Arheart and Deborah L. Jones

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:338

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  26. Content type: Research article

    With ambitious new UNAIDS targets to end AIDS by 2030, and new WHO treatment guidelines, there is increased interest in the best way to scale-up ART coverage. We investigate the cost-effectiveness of various A...

    Authors: Nicky McCreesh, Ioannis Andrianakis, Rebecca N. Nsubuga, Mark Strong, Ian Vernon, Trevelyan J. McKinley, Jeremy E. Oakley, Michael Goldstein, Richard Hayes and Richard G. White

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:322

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Despite the growing number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART), there is limited information about virological non-suppression and its determinants among HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals enrolled in HIV c...

    Authors: Lilian Bulage, Isaac Ssewanyana, Victoria Nankabirwa, Fred Nsubuga, Christine Kihembo, Gerald Pande, Alex R. Ario, Joseph KB Matovu, Rhoda K. Wanyenze and Charles Kiyaga

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:326

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The burden of these co-infections in sub-Saharan Africa is still unclear....

    Authors: Justine Umutesi, Bryony Simmons, Jean D. Makuza, Donatha Dushimiyimana, Aimable Mbituyumuremyi, Jean Marie Uwimana, Nathan Ford, Edward J. Mills and Sabin Nsanzimana

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:315

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of mortality among HIV-infected patients, however little is known about the burden of CVD among this population in Asia. We sought to quantify prevalence of C...

    Authors: Fuping Guo, Evelyn Hsieh, Wei Lv, Yang Han, Jing Xie, Yanling Li, Xiaojing Song and Taisheng Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:287

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  30. Content type: Research article

    There are few studies focus on the factors underlying the late initiation of ART in China. We analyzed the trends in the median CD4 cell counts among different patient groups over time and the risk factors for...

    Authors: Jianjun Sun, Li Liu, Jiayin Shen, Panpan Chen and Hongzhou Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:285

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  31. Content type: Research article

    HIV is increasingly considered a chronic illness. More individuals are living longer and aging with the health-related consequences associated with HIV and multi-morbidity. Exercise is a self-management approa...

    Authors: Kelly K. O’Brien, Anne-Marie Tynan, Stephanie A. Nixon and Richard H. Glazier

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:268

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Heterosexual intercourse accounted for 93% of reported HIV cases in Guangxi, and Guangxi had 10% of China’s total number of reported HIV cases. Older men are particularly vulnerable to STIs, for example, 46% o...

    Authors: Li Chen, Jenny H. His, Xinghua Wu, Zhiyong Shen, Huaxiang Lu, Huanhuan Chen, Hui Huang, Heng Zhang, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao and Zhenzhu Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:269

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  33. Content type: Research article

    The present study aimed to describe the genetic diversity of HIV-1, as well as the resistance profile of the viruses identified in HIV-1 infected pregnant women under antiretroviral therapy in the state of Par...

    Authors: Luiz Fernando Almeida Machado, Iran Barros Costa, Maria Nazaré Folha, Anderson Levy Bessa da Luz, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Ricardo Ishak and Marluisa Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:270

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Alcohol abuse is an important public health problem, frequently unrecognized among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), and requires investigation and intervention. It is usually associated with lower adherenc...

    Authors: Cláudio Moss da Silva, Raúl Andrés Mendoza-Sassi, Luisa Dias da Mota, Maíba Mikhael Nader and Ana Maria Barral de Martinez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:263

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Whether the non-inferior efficacy and safety results of switching virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients from nevirapine immediate-release (NVP-IR) to NVP extended-release (NVP-XR) demonstrated in th...

    Authors: Chun-Yuan Lee, Hui-Min Chang, Calvin M Kunin, Susan Shin-Jung Lee, Yao-Shen Chen and Hung-Chin Tsai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:261

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Atazanavir/ritonavir and darunavir/ritonavir are common protease inhibitor-based regimens for treating patients with HIV. Studies comparing these drugs in clinical practice are lacking.

    Authors: Tony Antoniou, Leah Szadkowski, Sharon Walmsley, Curtis Cooper, Ann N. Burchell, Ahmed M. Bayoumi, Julio S. G. Montaner, Mona Loutfy, Marina B. Klein, Nima Machouf, Christos Tsoukas, Alexander Wong, Robert S. Hogg and Janet Raboud

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:266

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  37. Content type: Research article

    By assessing the changes in concentration of soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor κ B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegrin (OPG) after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in treatment-...

    Authors: Inger Hee Mathiesen, Mohammad Salem, Jan Gerstoft, Julie Christine Gaardbo, Niels Obel, Court Pedersen, Henrik Ullum, Susanne Dam Nielsen and Ann-Brit Eg Hansen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:262

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  38. Content type: Research article

    The presence of the HLA-B*57:01 allele in HIV-infected subjects is associated with a higher risk of abacavir-associated hypersensitivity reaction (ABC HSR). HLA-B*57:01 allele prevalence varies in different po...

    Authors: Catherine Butkus Small, David A. Margolis, Mark S. Shaefer and Lisa L. Ross

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:256

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has reduced mortality from AIDS-related illnesses and chronic comorbidities have become prevalent among HIV-infected patients. We examined the association between hepa...

    Authors: Carmine Rossi, Janet Raboud, Sharon Walmsley, Curtis Cooper, Tony Antoniou, Ann N. Burchell, Mark Hull, Jason Chia, Robert S. Hogg, Erica E.M. Moodie and Marina B. Klein

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:246

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in both HIV infection and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population has been described. Little is known about the combined effect of HIV infe...

    Authors: Malene Hove-Skovsgaard, Julie Christine Gaardbo, Lilian Kolte, Kamilla Winding, Ingebjørg Seljeflot, Asbjørn Svardal, Rolf Kristian Berge, Jan Gerstoft, Henrik Ullum, Marius Trøseid and Susanne Dam Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:234

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Levels of non-neutralising antibodies (AB) to the C5 domain of HIV Env gp120 are inversely related to progression of HIV infection. In this phase I/II clinical study we investigated safety of Vacc-C5, a peptid...

    Authors: Kristin Brekke, Maja Sommerfelt, Mats Ökvist, Anne Margarita Dyrhol-Riise and Dag Kvale

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:228

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  42. Content type: Research article

    The outcome of CMV/HIV co-infection in infants treated early with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in resource-limited settings has not been described.

    Authors: Anfumbom K. W. Kfutwah, Paul Alain T. Ngoupo, Casimir Ledoux Sofeu, Francis Ateba Ndongo, Georgette Guemkam, Suzie Tetang Ndiang, Félicité Owona, Ida Calixte Penda, Patrice Tchendjou, Christine Rouzioux, Josiane Warszawski, Albert Faye and Mathurin Cyrille Tejiokem

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:224

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) constitutes a significant source of mortality in resource-limited regions. Cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) can be detected in the blood before onset of meningitis. We sought to determi...

    Authors: Anu Ramachandran, Yukari Manabe, Radha Rajasingham and Maunank Shah

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:225

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Little is known about the applicability of dual treatments based on integrase inhibitors. We explored the combination of lamivudine + dolutegravir as an option when switching from standard cART in virologicall...

    Authors: Franco Maggiolo, Roberto Gulminetti, Layla Pagnucco, Margherita Digaetano, Simone Benatti, Daniela Valenti, Annapaola Callegaro, Diego Ripamonti and Cristina Mussini

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:215

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Atazanavir (ATV) not boosted by ritonavir (uATV) has been frequently used in the past for switching combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, the clinical outcomes and predictors of such strategy are...

    Authors: Maria Concetta Postorino, Mattia Prosperi, Emanuele Focà, Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Elisa Di Filippo, Franco Maggiolo, Alberto Borghetti, Nicoletta Ladisa, Massimo Di Pietro, Andrea Gori, Laura Sighinolfi, Angelo Pan, Nicola Mazzini and Carlo Torti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:212

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Routes of transmission of multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms (MDRGN) are not completely understood. Since sexual transmission of MDRGN might represent a potential mode that has not been noticed so far...

    Authors: Claudia Reinheimer, Oliver T. Keppler, Christoph Stephan, Thomas A. Wichelhaus, Imke Friedrichs and Volkhard A. J. Kempf

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:206

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Two biomarkers, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), have been shown to be indicative of systemic inflammation and predictive of mortality in general population. We ...

    Authors: Elena Raffetti, Francesco Donato, Salvatore Casari, Filippo Castelnuovo, Laura Sighinolfi, Alessandra Bandera, Franco Maggiolo, Nicoletta Ladisa, Massimo di Pietro, Chiara Fornabaio, Simona Digiambenedetto and Eugenia Quiros-Roldan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:193

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Understanding why some recently with HIV diagnosed men who have sex with men (MSM) choose for safer sex and regular STI testing, whereas others do not, is important for the development of interventions that ai...

    Authors: Titia Heijman, Freke Zuure, Ineke Stolte and Udi Davidovich

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:194

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  49. Content type: Research article

    In rural India, mobile medical clinics are useful models for delivering health promotion, education, and care. Mobile medical clinics use fewer providers for larger catchment areas compared to traditional clin...

    Authors: Noah Kojima, Karl Krupp, Kavitha Ravi, Savitha Gowda, Poornima Jaykrishna, Caitlyn Leonardson-Placek, Anand Siddhaiah, Claire C. Bristow, Anjali Arun, Jeffrey D. Klausner and Purnima Madhivanan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:189

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  50. Content type: Research article

    Sexual transmission of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in men who have sex with men (MSM) and its interaction with HIV status, sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviour is poorly understood. We assessed the...

    Authors: Nicholas A. Medland, Eric P. F. Chow, Catriona S. Bradshaw, Timothy H. R. Read, Joseph J. Sasadeusz and Christopher K. Fairley

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:185

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