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HIV and co-infections

Section edited by Carlo Torti 

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of HIV and HIV-associated infections in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section also aims to publish studies on the adverse events of HAART and non HIV-related comorbidities in the HAART era.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    France is the European country with the lowest level of confidence in vaccines. Measurement of patients’ acceptability towards a future therapeutic HIV vaccine is critically important. Thus, the aim of this st...

    Authors: Svetlane Dimi, David Zucman, Olivier Chassany, Christophe Lalanne, Thierry Prazuck, Emmanuel Mortier, Catherine Majerholc, Isabelle Aubin-Auger, Pierre Verger and Martin Duracinsky

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:401

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Most studies assessing drug resistant tuberculosis (DRTB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected patients in India have used conventional culture- based systems to diagnose DRTB that have a longer t...

    Authors: Neil Saldanha, Kiran Runwal, Charulata Ghanekar, Sunil Gaikwad, Shrivallabh Sane and Sanjay Pujari

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:391

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Blood transfusion is one of the routine therapeutic interventions in hospitals that can be lifesaving. However, this intervention is related to several transfusion-related infections. The human immunodeficienc...

    Authors: Henok Mulugeta, Getenet Dessie, Fasil Wagnew, Dube Jara, Cheru Tesema Leshargie and Ayenew Negesse

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:383

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly decreased HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and mortality. However, globally, many people living with HIV die from non-AIDS related illnesses including liver diseases wh...

    Authors: Faustina Pappoe, Charles Kofi Oheneba Hagan, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah and Paul Nsiah

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:380

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Treatments for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have vastly improved over the past few decades with current regimens now offering pangenotypic activity with excellent cure rates reported in clinical trials, i...

    Authors: A. Maughan, K. Sadigh, V. Angulo-Diaz, C. Mandimika, M. Villanueva, J. K. Lim and O. Ogbuagu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:378

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Body mass index (BMI) may contribute somewhat to drug metabolism, and thus affecting the efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This study aimed to determine the frequencies of underweight, ...

    Authors: Xiaolin Li, Haibo Ding, Wenqing Geng, Jing Liu, Yongjun Jiang, Junjie Xu, Zining Zhang and Hong Shang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:373

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  7. Content type: Study protocol

    The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 90–90-90 goal envisions 90% of all people receiving antiretroviral therapy to be virally suppressed by 2020. Implied in that goal is that viral load be quantified...

    Authors: Seema T. Meloni, Oche Agbaji, Charlotte A. Chang, Patricia Agaba, Godwin Imade, Stephen Oguche, Ahmed Mukhtar, Kiren Mitruka, Mackenzie Hurlston Cox, Aaron Zee and Phyllis Kanki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:368

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines expressed in human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection, may induce oxidative stress likely to compromise the patency of the airways or damage the lung tissues/cardiac function. H...

    Authors: S. C. Ibeneme, C. Omeje, H. Myezwa, Salome Nwaelom Ezeofor, E. M. Anieto, F. Irem, Amaka Obiageli Nnamani, Fortune Elochukwu Ezenwankwo and G. C. Ibeneme

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:359

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  9. Content type: Research article

    The geographical distribution of intestinal parasites with conditions of poverty in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa coincides with that of HIV/AIDS. However, there is paucity of studies investigating the ...

    Authors: Tuom Gebrewahid, Gebretsadkan Gebrekirstos, Mebrahtu Teweldemedhin, Hailay Gebreyesus, Abrham Awala and Kiros Tadla

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:350

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Past studies have found a relationship between detectable HIV viral load and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy in high-income settings, however there is lit...

    Authors: S. George, N. McGrath and T. Oni

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:348

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Compromised immune function, associated with human immune deficiency virus(HIV) infection, is improved by antiretroviral therapy(ART) which also decreases bone mineral density(BMD), and possibly the quality of...

    Authors: Sam Chidi Ibeneme, Franklin Onyedinma Irem, Nneka Ifeyinwa Iloanusi, Amarachi Destiny Ezuma, Fortune Elochukwu Ezenwankwo, Philip Chinedu Okere, Amaka Obiageli Nnamani, Salome Nwaelom Ezeofor, Ngozi Regina Dim and Gerhard Fortwengel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:340

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  12. Content type: Research article

    The identification and management of cardiovascular risk factors became a major clinical issue among HIV-infected individuals in the post-cART era. As in the past decades the link between acute infections and ...

    Authors: Emersom Cicilini Mesquita, Lara Esteves Coelho, Rodrigo Teixeira Amancio, Valdilea Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Paula Luz and Fernando Augusto Bozza

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:319

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Genetic variability and liability to develop drug-resistant mutations are the main characteristics of HIV-1, which can not only increase the risk of antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure, but also can lead to...

    Authors: Zhenyan Wang, Min Zhang, Renfang Zhang, Li Liu, Yinzhong Shen, Jiangrong Wang and Hongzhou Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:313

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Currently, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. To address this challenge, outcomes of second-line protease inhibitor (PI) based ART...

    Authors: Sabin Nsanzimana, Muhammed Semakula, Vedaste Ndahindwa, Eric Remera, Dieudonne Sebuhoro, Jean Paul Uwizihiwe, Nathan Ford, Marcel Tanner, Steve Kanters, Edward J. Mills and Heiner C. Bucher

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:312

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  15. Content type: Research article

    African, Caribbean, and Black (Black) men account for 16.5% of new HIV diagnoses among men in Ontario. There is substantial evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are associated with increased li...

    Authors: LaRon E. Nelson, Wangari Tharao, Winston Husbands, Ting Sa, Nanhua Zhang, Sameer Kushwaha, David Absalom and Rupert Kaul

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:294

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  16. Content type: Research article

    The World Health Organisation approved boosted atazanavir as a preferred second line protease inhibitor in 2010. This is as an alternative to the current boosted lopinavir. Atazanavir has a lower genetic barri...

    Authors: Eva Agnes Odongpiny Laker, Maria Sarah Nabaggala, Arvind Kaimal, Damalie Nalwanga, Barbara Castelnuovo, Abdu Musubire, Agnes Kiragga, Mohammed Lamorde and Rosalind Parkes- Ratanshi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:280

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  17. Content type: Research article

    HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was implemented in France in November 2015 based on individual-level risk factors for HIV infection. We evaluated the proportion of missed opportunities for PrEP among newly...

    Authors: C. Lions, O. Cabras, L. Cotte, T. Huleux, A. Gagneux-Brugnon, A. Makinson, A. Cabié, B. Bonnet, C. Duvivier, L. Hocqueloux, E. Cua, A. Cheret, L. Hustache-Mathieu, V. Obry-Roguet, C. Jacomet and I. Poizot-Martin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:278

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of death in HIV patients worldwide. Here we describe the epidemiology and outcome of HIV-TB co-infections in a high-income country with low TB incidence and integrated HIV an...

    Authors: Ville Holmberg, Hanna Soini, Pia Kivelä, Jukka Ollgren and Matti Ristola

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:264

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  19. Content type: Research article

    The WHO guidelines for the management of advanced HIV disease recommend a package of care consisting of rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), enhanced screening and diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) a...

    Authors: Noelle A. Benzekri, Jacques F. Sambou, Sanou Ndong, Ibrahima Tito Tamba, Dominique Faye, Mouhamadou Baïla Diallo, Jean Phillippe Diatta, Khadim Faye, Ibrahima Sall, Fatima Sall, Noël Magloire Manga, Jean Jacques Malomar, Cheikh T. Ndour, Stephen E. Hawes, Moussa Seydi and Geoffrey S. Gottlieb

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:261

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  20. Content type: Research article

    The effect of ART initiation time on HIV-1 DNA reservoir in chronically infected individuals is not well understood. Determining the potential influencing factors associated with a low HIV-1 DNA level in chron...

    Authors: Ling Luo, Nidan Wang, Yongsong Yue, Yang Han, Wei Lv, Zhengyin Liu, Zhifeng Qiu, Hongzhou Lu, Xiaoping Tang, Tong Zhang, Min Zhao, Yun He, He Shenghua, Min Wang, Yongzhen Li, Shaobiao Huang…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:257

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus are significant global public health challenges. In Sub-Saharan Africa, study findings regarding prevalence of diabetes mellitus amongst tuberculosis patients have been incon...

    Authors: Animut Alebel, Amsalu Taye Wondemagegn, Cheru Tesema, Getiye Dejenu Kibret, Fasil Wagnew, Pammla Petrucka, Amit Arora, Amare Demsie Ayele, Mulunesh Alemayehu and Setegn Eshetie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:254

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Schistosoma sp. infection has been shown to interact with HIV-1 by modifying susceptibility to the virus and impacting AIDS outcome, but very little is known about the potential impact of Schistosoma sp. infectio...

    Authors: Peter Masikini, Soledad Colombe, Amon Marti, Bernard Desderius, Claudia J. de Dood, Paul L. A. M. Corstjens, Govert J. van Dam, Mwanaisha Seugendo, Samuel Kalluvya and Jennifer A. Downs

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:249

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Evidence on patient-reported outcomes of newly diagnosed HIV patients is scarce, and largely cross-sectional. This prospective cohort study describes the prevalence of, and changes in, patient-reported outcome...

    Authors: Victoria Simms, Julia Downing, Eve Namisango, R. Anthony Powell, Faith Mwangi-Powell, Irene J. Higginson and Richard Harding

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:248

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  24. Content type: Research article

    With the phase-out of stavudine (d4T), change to first-line regimens with zidovudine (AZT) or tenofovir (TDF) in resource-limited settings (RLS) might increase risks of cross-resistance to nucleos(t) ide rever...

    Authors: Desire Takou, Joseph Fokam, Georges Teto, Maria-Mercedes Santoro, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Aubin Joseph Nanfack, Samuel Martin Sosso, Béatrice Dambaya, Romina Salpini, Serge Clotaire Billong, Caterina Gori, Charles Ntungwen Fokunang, Giulia Cappelli, Vittorio Colizzi, Carlo-Federico Perno and Alexis Ndjolo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:246

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  25. Content type: Research article

    With a growing access to free ART, switching of ART to second line regimen has also become common following failure of first line ART regimens. Patients failing on first line ART regimens have been shown to st...

    Authors: Daniel W. Gunda, Semvua B. Kilonzo, Tarcisius Mtaki, Desderius M. Bernard, Samwel E. Kalluvya and Elichilia R. Shao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:235

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  26. Content type: Research article

    The study of stool microbiota has taken great relevance in the last years, given its role in the maintenance of the intestinal metabolic, physiological, and immunological homeostasis, as well as, its effect ov...

    Authors: Luz A. González-Hernández, Mariana del Rocio Ruiz-Briseño, Karina Sánchez-Reyes, Monserrat Alvarez-Zavala, Natali Vega-Magaña, Alvaro López-Iñiguez, Julio A. Díaz-Ramos, Pedro Martínez-Ayala, RA Soria-Rodriguez, Moises Ramos-Solano and Jaime F. Andrade-Villanueva

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:234

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Access to HIV services among men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSWs) remains suboptimal globally. While the reasons for this dismal performance have been documented, limited evidence exis...

    Authors: Joseph K. B. Matovu, Geofrey Musinguzi, Juliet Kiguli, Fred Nuwaha, Geoffrey Mujisha, Joshua Musinguzi, Jim Arinaitwe and Rhoda K. Wanyenze

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:214

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Latent class analyses (LCA) are increasingly being used to target specialized HIV interventions, but generalizability of emergent population structures across settings has yet to be considered. We compare LCA ...

    Authors: M. Kumi Smith, Gabriella Stein, Weibin Cheng, William C. Miller and Joseph D. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:213

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:284

  29. Content type: Research article

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women in Sub-Saharan Africa are subjected to high levels of sexual behavior-related stigma, which may affect mental health and sexual risk behaviors. MSM and tra...

    Authors: Carrie Lyons, Shauna Stahlman, Claire Holland, Sosthenes Ketende, Lynn Van Lith, Duncan Kochelani, Mpumelelo Mavimbela, Bhekie Sithole, Libet Maloney, Sibusiso Maziya and Stefan Baral

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:211

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  30. Content type: Debate

    Internalized HIV stigma is a public health concern as it can compromise HIV prevention, care and treatment. This paper has two aims. First, it highlights the urgent need for research evidence on internalized H...

    Authors: Marija Pantelic, Laurel Sprague and Anne L. Stangl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:210

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a key enzyme in the degradation of tryptophan (Trp) to kynurenine (Kyn). We measured IDO activity as the Kyn to Trp ratio, and investigated whether IDO could be used to as...

    Authors: Mengyan Wang, Xiaotian Dong, Ying Huang, Junwei Su, Xiahong Dai, Yongzheng Guo, Caiqin Hu, Qihui Zhou and Biao Zhu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:223

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  32. Content type: Research article

    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections remain a burden on men who have sex with men in the era of effective combination antiretroviral therapy. New prevention efforts are therefore needed. One of these ...

    Authors: Reinier J. M. Bom, Kalja van der Linden, Amy Matser, Nicolas Poulin, Maarten F. Schim van der Loeff, Bouko H. W. Bakker and Theodoor F. van Boven

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:222

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  33. Content type: Case report

    Cryptococcosis is a common opportunistic infection in patients infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and is the second leading cause of mortality in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients ...

    Authors: Hareton Teixeira Vechi, Raquel Cordeiro Theodoro, Andrea Lima de Oliveira, Ronald Muryellison Oliveira da Silva Gomes, Rodolfo Daniel de Almeida Soares, Munya Gandour Freire and Mônica Baumgardt Bay

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:220

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  34. Content type: Research article

    The objective was to analyze the effectiveness and safety of dual therapy with rilpivirine plus boosted-darunavir (RPV + bDRV) in real-life patients.

    Authors: Juan Pasquau, Samantha E. de Jesus, Piedad Arazo, María J. Crusells, María J. Ríos, Fernando Lozano, Javier de la Torre, María J. Galindo, Jorge Carmena, Jesús Santos, Carlos Tornero, Guillermo Verdejo, Gloria Samperiz, Zaira Palacios and Carmen Hidalgo-Tenorio

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:207

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  35. Content type: Research article

    We compared AIDS-related mortality rates in people living with HIV (PLHIV) starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Brazil during 2006–2015 and examined associated risk factors .

    Authors: Tara D. Mangal, Mariana Veloso Meireles, Ana Roberta Pati Pascom, Ronaldo de Almeida Coelho, Adele Schwartz Benzaken and Timothy B. Hallett

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:206

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  36. Content type: Research article

    HIV-load decrease and suppression over time is associated with consistent adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our study aimed to evaluate the difference in viral load and adherence of patients treated w...

    Authors: Bih Hycenta Chendi, Marie Claire Okomo Assoumou, Graeme Brendon Jacobs, Elsie Laban Yekwa, Emilia Lyonga, Martha Mesembe, Agnes Eyoh and George Mondinde Ikomey

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:194

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Guangdong Province is one of the most developed and populous provinces in southern China, with frequent foreign exchanges and large transient population. The annual number of cases of HIV/AIDS reported in Guan...

    Authors: Ping-Ping Zhou, Guolong Yu, Yi-Qun Kuang, Xu-He Huang, Yan Li, Xiaobing Fu, Peng Lin, Jin Yan and Xiang He

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:185

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  38. Content type: Research article

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains prevalent in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The prevalence of HAND in Hong Kong is not known.

    Authors: Fiona C.C. Chan, Phillip Chan, Iris Chan, Andrew Chan, Tommy H. C. Tang, Wilson Lam, W. C. Fong, M. P. Lee, Patrick Li and Germaine H. F. Chan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:156

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Access to qualitative HIV PCRs for early infant diagnosis (EID) is restricted in resource-limited settings due to cost. We hypothesised that pooling of dried blood spots (DBS), defined as combining multiple pa...

    Authors: Cari van Schalkwyk, Jean Maritz, Gert U. van Zyl, Wolfgang Preiser and Alex Welte

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:136

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  40. Content type: Research article

    HIV-2 infection is characterised by a longer asymptomatic phase and slower AIDS progression than HIV-1 infection. Identifying unique immune signatures associated with HIV-2 pathogenesis may thus provide therap...

    Authors: Sukeshani Salwe, Amitkumar Singh, Varsha Padwal, Shilpa Velhal, Vidya Nagar, Priya Patil, Alaka Deshpande and Vainav Patel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:135

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Lost to follow-up (LTFU) negatively affects the treatment success of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) and thus, increases Tuberculosis-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (TB/HIV) related morbidity, mortality and hospit...

    Authors: Kebede Embaye Gezae, Haftom Temesgen Abebe and Letekirstos Gebreegziabher Gebretsadik

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:107

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  42. Content type: Research article

    The correlation among high levels of total homocysteine, low levels of B12vitamin, and neurocognitive impairment in HIV negative patients has been the main research topic in some of the latest reviews. The aim of...

    Authors: Katia Falasca, Marta Di Nicola, Giuseppe Di Martino, Claudio Ucciferri, Francesca Vignale, Alessandro Occhionero and Jacopo Vecchiet

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:105

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  43. Content type: Research article

    The roll out of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Sub-Saharan Africa led to a decrease in mortality. Few studies have documented the causes of deaths among patients on long term antiretroviral therapy in Sub-Sah...

    Authors: Agnes N. Kiragga, Frank Mubiru, Andrew D. Kambugu, Moses R. Kamya and Barbara Castelnuovo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:77

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programmes have substantially reduced HIV infections among infants in Yunnan Province, China. We conducted a macro-level economic evaluation of Yunnan’...

    Authors: Xiaowen Wang, Guangping Guo, Jiarui Zheng and Lin Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:64

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in Sub Saharan Africa including Tanzania. Provision of isoniazid pre...

    Authors: Amon Sabasaba, Henry Mwambi, Geoffrey Somi, Angella Ramadhani and Michael J. Mahande

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:62

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Direct comparisons between lamivudine plus bPIs and lamivudine plus dolutegravir as maintenance strategies in virologically-suppressed HIV positive patients are lacking.

    Authors: Alberto Borghetti, Francesca Lombardi, Roberta Gagliardini, Gianmaria Baldin, Arturo Ciccullo, Davide Moschese, Arianna Emiliozzi, Simone Belmonti, Silvia Lamonica, Francesca Montagnani, Elena Visconti, Andrea De Luca and Simona Di Giambenedetto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:59

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  47. Content type: Research article

    The mechanism behind HIV mediated immune activation remains debated, although the role of virus replication in this process is increasingly evident. Toll like Receptor 9 (TLR9) has been implicated in HIV media...

    Authors: Anjali Joshi, Erin B. Punke, Tugba Mehmetoglu-Gurbuz, Diego P. Peralta and Himanshu Garg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:56

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  48. Content type: Research article

    HIV transmission remains a major concern in Eastern Europe, and too many people are diagnosed late. Expanded testing strategies and early and appropriate access to care are required. Infectious disease departm...

    Authors: Raimonda Matulionytė, Kęstutis Žagminas, Eglė Balčiūnaitė, Elžbieta Matulytė, Rasutė Paulauskienė, Almina Bajoriūnienė and Arvydas Ambrozaitis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:21

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  49. Content type: Research article

    Circulating interferon-γ (IFN-γ) concentration may be sustained at a high level regardless of the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in some patients with HIV-1 infection. In the present study, we exam...

    Authors: Dai Watanabe, Tomoko Uehira, Sachiko Suzuki, Erina Matsumoto, Takashi Ueji, Kazuyuki Hirota, Rumi Minami, Soichiro Takahama, Kimikazu Hayashi, Morio Sawamura, Masahiro Yamamoto and Takuma Shirasaka

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:11

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