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HIV and co-infections

Section edited by Carlo Torti 

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of HIV and HIV-associated infections in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section also aims to publish studies on the adverse events of HAART and non HIV-related comorbidities in the HAART era.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Schistosoma sp. infection has been shown to interact with HIV-1 by modifying susceptibility to the virus and impacting AIDS outcome, but very little is known about the potential impact of Schistosoma sp. infectio...

    Authors: Peter Masikini, Soledad Colombe, Amon Marti, Bernard Desderius, Claudia J. de Dood, Paul L. A. M. Corstjens, Govert J. van Dam, Mwanaisha Seugendo, Samuel Kalluvya and Jennifer A. Downs

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:249

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  2. Content type: Research article

    With the phase-out of stavudine (d4T), change to first-line regimens with zidovudine (AZT) or tenofovir (TDF) in resource-limited settings (RLS) might increase risks of cross-resistance to nucleos(t) ide rever...

    Authors: Desire Takou, Joseph Fokam, Georges Teto, Maria-Mercedes Santoro, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Aubin Joseph Nanfack, Samuel Martin Sosso, Béatrice Dambaya, Romina Salpini, Serge Clotaire Billong, Caterina Gori, Charles Ntungwen Fokunang, Giulia Cappelli, Vittorio Colizzi, Carlo-Federico Perno and Alexis Ndjolo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:246

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  3. Content type: Research article

    With a growing access to free ART, switching of ART to second line regimen has also become common following failure of first line ART regimens. Patients failing on first line ART regimens have been shown to st...

    Authors: Daniel W. Gunda, Semvua B. Kilonzo, Tarcisius Mtaki, Desderius M. Bernard, Samwel E. Kalluvya and Elichilia R. Shao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:235

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  4. Content type: Research article

    The study of stool microbiota has taken great relevance in the last years, given its role in the maintenance of the intestinal metabolic, physiological, and immunological homeostasis, as well as, its effect ov...

    Authors: Luz A. González-Hernández, Mariana del Rocio Ruiz-Briseño, Karina Sánchez-Reyes, Monserrat Alvarez-Zavala, Natali Vega-Magaña, Alvaro López-Iñiguez, Julio A. Díaz-Ramos, Pedro Martínez-Ayala, RA Soria-Rodriguez, Moises Ramos-Solano and Jaime F. Andrade-Villanueva

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:234

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Access to HIV services among men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSWs) remains suboptimal globally. While the reasons for this dismal performance have been documented, limited evidence exis...

    Authors: Joseph K. B. Matovu, Geofrey Musinguzi, Juliet Kiguli, Fred Nuwaha, Geoffrey Mujisha, Joshua Musinguzi, Jim Arinaitwe and Rhoda K. Wanyenze

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:214

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Latent class analyses (LCA) are increasingly being used to target specialized HIV interventions, but generalizability of emergent population structures across settings has yet to be considered. We compare LCA ...

    Authors: M. Kumi Smith, Gabriella Stein, Weibin Cheng, William C. Miller and Joseph D. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:213

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:284

  7. Content type: Research article

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women in Sub-Saharan Africa are subjected to high levels of sexual behavior-related stigma, which may affect mental health and sexual risk behaviors. MSM and tra...

    Authors: Carrie Lyons, Shauna Stahlman, Claire Holland, Sosthenes Ketende, Lynn Van Lith, Duncan Kochelani, Mpumelelo Mavimbela, Bhekie Sithole, Libet Maloney, Sibusiso Maziya and Stefan Baral

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:211

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  8. Content type: Debate

    Internalized HIV stigma is a public health concern as it can compromise HIV prevention, care and treatment. This paper has two aims. First, it highlights the urgent need for research evidence on internalized H...

    Authors: Marija Pantelic, Laurel Sprague and Anne L. Stangl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:210

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a key enzyme in the degradation of tryptophan (Trp) to kynurenine (Kyn). We measured IDO activity as the Kyn to Trp ratio, and investigated whether IDO could be used to as...

    Authors: Mengyan Wang, Xiaotian Dong, Ying Huang, Junwei Su, Xiahong Dai, Yongzheng Guo, Caiqin Hu, Qihui Zhou and Biao Zhu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:223

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  10. Content type: Research article

    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections remain a burden on men who have sex with men in the era of effective combination antiretroviral therapy. New prevention efforts are therefore needed. One of these ...

    Authors: Reinier J. M. Bom, Kalja van der Linden, Amy Matser, Nicolas Poulin, Maarten F. Schim van der Loeff, Bouko H. W. Bakker and Theodoor F. van Boven

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:222

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  11. Content type: Case report

    Cryptococcosis is a common opportunistic infection in patients infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and is the second leading cause of mortality in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients ...

    Authors: Hareton Teixeira Vechi, Raquel Cordeiro Theodoro, Andrea Lima de Oliveira, Ronald Muryellison Oliveira da Silva Gomes, Rodolfo Daniel de Almeida Soares, Munya Gandour Freire and Mônica Baumgardt Bay

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:220

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  12. Content type: Research article

    The objective was to analyze the effectiveness and safety of dual therapy with rilpivirine plus boosted-darunavir (RPV + bDRV) in real-life patients.

    Authors: Juan Pasquau, Samantha E. de Jesus, Piedad Arazo, María J. Crusells, María J. Ríos, Fernando Lozano, Javier de la Torre, María J. Galindo, Jorge Carmena, Jesús Santos, Carlos Tornero, Guillermo Verdejo, Gloria Samperiz, Zaira Palacios and Carmen Hidalgo-Tenorio

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:207

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  13. Content type: Research article

    We compared AIDS-related mortality rates in people living with HIV (PLHIV) starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Brazil during 2006–2015 and examined associated risk factors .

    Authors: Tara D. Mangal, Mariana Veloso Meireles, Ana Roberta Pati Pascom, Ronaldo de Almeida Coelho, Adele Schwartz Benzaken and Timothy B. Hallett

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:206

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  14. Content type: Research article

    HIV-load decrease and suppression over time is associated with consistent adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our study aimed to evaluate the difference in viral load and adherence of patients treated w...

    Authors: Bih Hycenta Chendi, Marie Claire Okomo Assoumou, Graeme Brendon Jacobs, Elsie Laban Yekwa, Emilia Lyonga, Martha Mesembe, Agnes Eyoh and George Mondinde Ikomey

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:194

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Guangdong Province is one of the most developed and populous provinces in southern China, with frequent foreign exchanges and large transient population. The annual number of cases of HIV/AIDS reported in Guan...

    Authors: Ping-Ping Zhou, Guolong Yu, Yi-Qun Kuang, Xu-He Huang, Yan Li, Xiaobing Fu, Peng Lin, Jin Yan and Xiang He

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:185

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  16. Content type: Research article

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains prevalent in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The prevalence of HAND in Hong Kong is not known.

    Authors: Fiona C.C. Chan, Phillip Chan, Iris Chan, Andrew Chan, Tommy H. C. Tang, Wilson Lam, W. C. Fong, M. P. Lee, Patrick Li and Germaine H. F. Chan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:156

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Access to qualitative HIV PCRs for early infant diagnosis (EID) is restricted in resource-limited settings due to cost. We hypothesised that pooling of dried blood spots (DBS), defined as combining multiple pa...

    Authors: Cari van Schalkwyk, Jean Maritz, Gert U. van Zyl, Wolfgang Preiser and Alex Welte

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:136

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  18. Content type: Research article

    HIV-2 infection is characterised by a longer asymptomatic phase and slower AIDS progression than HIV-1 infection. Identifying unique immune signatures associated with HIV-2 pathogenesis may thus provide therap...

    Authors: Sukeshani Salwe, Amitkumar Singh, Varsha Padwal, Shilpa Velhal, Vidya Nagar, Priya Patil, Alaka Deshpande and Vainav Patel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:135

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Lost to follow-up (LTFU) negatively affects the treatment success of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) and thus, increases Tuberculosis-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (TB/HIV) related morbidity, mortality and hospit...

    Authors: Kebede Embaye Gezae, Haftom Temesgen Abebe and Letekirstos Gebreegziabher Gebretsadik

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:107

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  20. Content type: Research article

    The correlation among high levels of total homocysteine, low levels of B12vitamin, and neurocognitive impairment in HIV negative patients has been the main research topic in some of the latest reviews. The aim of...

    Authors: Katia Falasca, Marta Di Nicola, Giuseppe Di Martino, Claudio Ucciferri, Francesca Vignale, Alessandro Occhionero and Jacopo Vecchiet

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:105

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  21. Content type: Research article

    The roll out of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Sub-Saharan Africa led to a decrease in mortality. Few studies have documented the causes of deaths among patients on long term antiretroviral therapy in Sub-Sah...

    Authors: Agnes N. Kiragga, Frank Mubiru, Andrew D. Kambugu, Moses R. Kamya and Barbara Castelnuovo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:77

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programmes have substantially reduced HIV infections among infants in Yunnan Province, China. We conducted a macro-level economic evaluation of Yunnan’...

    Authors: Xiaowen Wang, Guangping Guo, Jiarui Zheng and Lin Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:64

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in Sub Saharan Africa including Tanzania. Provision of isoniazid pre...

    Authors: Amon Sabasaba, Henry Mwambi, Geoffrey Somi, Angella Ramadhani and Michael J. Mahande

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:62

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Direct comparisons between lamivudine plus bPIs and lamivudine plus dolutegravir as maintenance strategies in virologically-suppressed HIV positive patients are lacking.

    Authors: Alberto Borghetti, Francesca Lombardi, Roberta Gagliardini, Gianmaria Baldin, Arturo Ciccullo, Davide Moschese, Arianna Emiliozzi, Simone Belmonti, Silvia Lamonica, Francesca Montagnani, Elena Visconti, Andrea De Luca and Simona Di Giambenedetto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:59

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  25. Content type: Research article

    The mechanism behind HIV mediated immune activation remains debated, although the role of virus replication in this process is increasingly evident. Toll like Receptor 9 (TLR9) has been implicated in HIV media...

    Authors: Anjali Joshi, Erin B. Punke, Tugba Mehmetoglu-Gurbuz, Diego P. Peralta and Himanshu Garg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:56

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  26. Content type: Research article

    HIV transmission remains a major concern in Eastern Europe, and too many people are diagnosed late. Expanded testing strategies and early and appropriate access to care are required. Infectious disease departm...

    Authors: Raimonda Matulionytė, Kęstutis Žagminas, Eglė Balčiūnaitė, Elžbieta Matulytė, Rasutė Paulauskienė, Almina Bajoriūnienė and Arvydas Ambrozaitis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:21

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Circulating interferon-γ (IFN-γ) concentration may be sustained at a high level regardless of the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in some patients with HIV-1 infection. In the present study, we exam...

    Authors: Dai Watanabe, Tomoko Uehira, Sachiko Suzuki, Erina Matsumoto, Takashi Ueji, Kazuyuki Hirota, Rumi Minami, Soichiro Takahama, Kimikazu Hayashi, Morio Sawamura, Masahiro Yamamoto and Takuma Shirasaka

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:11

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  28. Content type: Research article

    To achieve the ambitious 90–90-90 UNAIDS targets, access to routine viral load (VL) is critical. To measure VL, Rwanda has relied on a national reference laboratory for years. In 2014, a VL testing platform wa...

    Authors: Jean de Dieu Ndagijimana Ntwali, Tom Decroo, Muhayimpundu Ribakare, Athanase Kiromera, Placidie Mugwaneza, Sabin Nsanzimana and Lutgarde Lynen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:8

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Sexually transmitted infections, such as HIV and syphilis, are one of the major health care problems worldwide, especially in low- and middle income countries. HIV screening programmes have been widely used fo...

    Authors: Annelies Van Den Heuvel, Hilde Smet, Irena Prat, Anita Sands, Willy Urassa, Katrien Fransen and Tania Crucitti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Effective combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved life expectancy among people living with HIV-1 infection. Treated HIV-1infection increases the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS). Despite sub-S...

    Authors: Titus F. Msoka, Gary P. Van Guilder, Yvo M. Smulders, Marceline van Furth, John A. Bartlett and Michiel A. van Agtmael

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:708

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:187

  31. Content type: Case report

    Those infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a higher risk of opportunistic infections. The risk is related to the level of immunosuppression. We report a case of a young male with the unusual sce...

    Authors: Deving Arias Ramos, John Alexander Alzate, Jhon Alejandro Rico Gallego and Natalia Acevedo Escalante

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:704

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  32. Content type: Research article

    China has made substantial progress in tackling its HIV and AIDS epidemic. But the changing patterns of HIV and AIDS incidence based on the longitudinal observation data were rarely studied.

    Authors: Zhenqiu Liu, Oumin Shi, Qiong Yan, Qiwen Fang, Jialu Zuo, Yue Chen, Xingdong Chen and Tiejun Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:700

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  33. Content type: Case report

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy has significantly changed the natural history of HIV infection, leading to a dramatic reduction of HIV-related morbidity and mortality. Late Presenters, Very Late Presenter...

    Authors: Andrea Marino, Eleonora Caltabiano, Aldo Zagami, Anna Onorante, Carmela Zappalà, Maria Elena Locatelli, Alessio Pampaloni, Daniele Scuderi, Roberto Bruno and Bruno Cacopardo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:693

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  34. Content type: Research article

    This longitudinal study described Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA, Epstein-Barr (EBV) DNA and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA asymptomatic salivary shedding in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). We aimed ...

    Authors: Monica Basso, Samantha Andreis, Renzo Scaggiante, Elisa Franchin, Daniela Zago, Maria Angela Biasolo, Claudia Del Vecchio, Carlo Mengoli, Loredana Sarmati, Massimo Andreoni, Giorgio Palù and Saverio Giuseppe Parisi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:683

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  35. Content type: Research article

    The widespread use of an effective and safe vaccine to measles has substantially decreased morbidity and mortality from this epidemic. Nevertheless, HIV-infected children vaccinated against measles may develop...

    Authors: Houda Haban, Soumia Benchekroun, Mina Sadeq, Latifa Tajounte, Hinda Jama Ahmed, Abdelaziz Benjouad, Said Amzazi, Hicham Oumzil and Elmir Elharti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:680

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Tuberculosis (TB) are the double burden diseases of the world. The African continent takes a great share of TB-HIV cases worldwide. This study was aimed to determine the ...

    Authors: Mebrahtu Teweldemedhin, Negasi Asres, Hailay Gebreyesus and Solomon Weldegebreal Asgedom

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:676

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  37. Content type: Research article

    In Southeast Asia, though fishermen are known to be a key population at high risk of HIV, little is known about their co-infection rates with Hepatitis C virus (HCV), or how illness and risk behaviors vary by ...

    Authors: Janet Ousley, Robin Nesbitt, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Elkin Bermudez, Kyi Pyar Soe, Rey Anicete, Phyu Ei Mon, Win Le Shwe Sin Ei, Susannah Christofani, Marcelo Fernandez and Iza Ciglenecki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:657

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Geographic differences in HIV, syphilis and condomless sex among men who have sex with men in China remained unknown. We aimed to elucidate these spatiotemporal changing patterns in China.

    Authors: Rong Fu, Jinkou Zhao, Dan Wu, Xiayan Zhang, Joseph D. Tucker, Meiwen Zhang and Weiming Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:652

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV infection. However, there are only few data on HIV prevalence in MSM in Japan. The objective of this study was to explore the HIV prevalence in MSM at Sh...

    Authors: Misao Takano, Kohta Iwahashi, Ikuo Satoh, Junko Araki, Takuya Kinami, Yuzuru Ikushima, Toshiya Fukuhara, Hiroo Obinata, Yasuyo Nakayama, Yoshimi Kikuchi and Shinichi Oka

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:627

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  40. Content type: Research article

    The HIV-Brazil Cohort Study (HIV-BCS) is a research primarily based on data collection from medical records of people living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the validating design ...

    Authors: Alex Jones Flores Cassenote, Alexandre Grangeiro, Maria Mercedes Escuder, Jair Minoro Abe and Aluísio Augusto Cotrim Segurado

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:617

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Despite persistent calls for HIV care to adopt a chronic care approach, few HIV treatment services have been able to establish service arrangements that prioritise self-management. To prevent cardiovascular an...

    Authors: Tanya Millard, Sarity Dodson, Karalyn McDonald, Karen M. Klassen, Richard H. Osborne, Malcolm W. Battersby, Christopher K. Fairley and Julian H. Elliott

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:615

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  42. Content type: Research article

    The new HIV treatment guidelines in China recommend antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all people living with HIV, but significant gaps in implementation still exist. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can effectiv...

    Authors: Jinghua Li, Liping Peng, Stuart Gilmour, Jing Gu, Yuhua Ruan, Huachun Zou, Chun Hao, Yuantao Hao and Joseph Tak-fai Lau

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:600

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Despite substantial advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the last decades, non-adherence (NA) continues to be a major challenge in the real-life treatment. To meet...

    Authors: Sabrina Mueller, Thomas Wilke, Vanessa Gorasso, Marc Erhart and Jens M. Kittner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:599

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  44. Content type: Research article

    In most developing economies particularly in Africa, more people are likely to die of HIV/AIDS and malaria compared to other diseases. HIV/AIDS tends to be superimposed on the long standing malaria burden part...

    Authors: Isaiah Gwitira, Amon Murwira, Joseph Mberikunashe and Mhosisi Masocha

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:598

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  45. Content type: Research article

    High retention (follow-up) rates improve the validity and statistical power of outcomes in longitudinal studies and the effectiveness of programs with prolonged administration of interventions. We assessed par...

    Authors: Noah Kiwanuka, Juliet Mpendo, Stephen Asiimwe, Julius Ssempiira, Annet Nalutaaya, Betty Nambuusi, Mathias Wambuzi, Brian Kabuubi, Annemarie Namuniina, Frederick Oporia, Annet Nanvubya and Ali Ssetaala

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:591

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  46. Content type: Research article

    With the expansion of Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) services in Senegal, there is growing interest in using PMTCT program data in lieu of conducting unlinked anonymous testing (UAT)-based ...

    Authors: Ousmane Diouf, Astou Gueye-Gaye, Moussa Sarr, Abdou Salam Mbengue, Christopher S. Murrill, Jacob Dee, Papa Ousmane Diaw, Ndeye Fatou Ngom-Faye, Pape Amadou Niang Diallo, Carlos Suarez, Massaer Gueye, Aminata Mboup, Coumba Toure-Kane and Souleymane Mboup

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:588

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Schistosoma mansoni infection has been associated with increased risk of HIV transmission in African women. This association might be causal or mediated through shared socio-behavioural factors and associated co-...

    Authors: Sergey Yegorov, Ronald M. Galiwango, Sara V. Good, Juliet Mpendo, Egbert Tannich, Andrea K. Boggild, Noah Kiwanuka, Bernard S. Bagaya and Rupert Kaul

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:586

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of HIV transmission in high risk individuals. However, the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis is highly dependent on...

    Authors: David Sidebottom, Anna Mia Ekström and Susanne Strömdahl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:581

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  49. Content type: Research article

    To investigate the associations between the perceived barriers and benefits of using HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis medication, including worries about the side effects, disliking taking drugs, perceived burden ...

    Authors: Ying Hu, Xiao-ni Zhong, Bin Peng, Yan Zhang, Hao Liang, Jiang-hong Dai, Ju-ying Zhang and Ai-long Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:575

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