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HIV and co-infections

Section edited by Carlo Torti 

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of HIV and HIV-associated infections in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section also aims to publish studies on the adverse events of HAART and non HIV-related comorbidities in the HAART era.

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  1. HIV resistance affects virological response to therapy and efficacy of prophylaxis in mother-to-child-transmission. The study aims to assess the prevalence of HIV primary resistance in pregnant women naïve to ...

    Authors: Francesco Vairo, Emanuele Nicastri, Giuseppina Liuzzi, Zainab Chaula, Boniface Nguhuni, Nazario Bevilacqua, Federica Forbici, Alessandra Amendola, Lavinia Fabeni, Pasquale De Nardo, Carlo Federico Perno, Angela Cannas, Calistus Sakhoo, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi and Giuseppe Ippolito

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:439

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Recent studies have found high prevalences of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Chlamydia could increase the infectivity of HIV and the susceptibility to HIV inf...

    Authors: Maria Xiridou, Henrike J Vriend, Anna K Lugner, Jacco Wallinga, Johannes S Fennema, Jan M Prins, Suzanne E Geerlings, Bart JA Rijnders, Maria Prins, Henry JC de Vries, Maarten J Postma, Maaike G van Veen, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff and Marianne AB van der Sande

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:436

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The immunologic status of a newly diagnosed HIV positive population in the era of antiretroviral therapy in China has not been extensively evaluated. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to evaluate the CD4 c...

    Authors: Yinzhong Shen, Hongzhou Lu, Zhenyan Wang, Tangkai Qi and Jiangrong Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:429

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, but its role as a predictive marker in HIV-positive patients remains unclear. ...

    Authors: Andrea De Luca, Katleen de Gaetano Donati, Manuela Colafigli, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Amalia De Curtis, Andrea Gori, Laura Sighinolfi, Andrea Giacometti, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Alessandro D’Avino, Licia Iacoviello, Roberto Cauda and Antonella D’Arminio Monforte

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:414

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Natural killer (NK) cells have emerged as pivotal players in innate immunity, especially in the defense against viral infections and tumors. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) – an important recogniti...

    Authors: Yongjun Jiang, Ou Chen, Chen Cui, Bin Zhao, Xiaoxu Han, Zining Zhang, Jing Liu, Junjie Xu, Qinghai Hu, Christina Liao and Hong Shang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:405

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Adherence to Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a major predictor of the success of HIV/AIDS treatment. Good adherence to HAART is necessary to achieve the best virologic response, lower the risk ...

    Authors: Afiong O Oku, Eme T Owoaje, Olusimbo K Ige and Angela Oyo-ita

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:401

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Assessing whether hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with increased inflammation is complex. The liver, integral to inflammatory biomarker synthesis, is compro...

    Authors: Kaku A Armah, Emily K Quinn, Debbie M Cheng, Russell P Tracy, Jason V Baker, Jeffrey H Samet and Matthew S Freiberg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:399

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an uncommon pathology characterized by the acute onset of headache, vomiting, altered consciousness, seizures and focal neurological deficits. It was init...

    Authors: Sarah C Sasson, Aileen Oon, Joga Chagantri, Bruce J Brew and Andrew Carr

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:396

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Adherence is one of the most important determinants of viral suppression and drug resistance in HIV-infected people receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART).

    Authors: Sylvia Kiwuwa-Muyingo, Hannu Oja, Ann Sarah Walker, Pauliina Ilmonen, Jonathan Levin, Ivan Mambule, Andrew Reid, Peter Mugyenyi and Jim Todd

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:395

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Despite increases in HIV testing, only a fraction of people newly diagnosed with HIV infection enter the care system and initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa. We report on the design and initi...

    Authors: Ingrid V Bassett, Janet Giddy, Christine E Chaisson, Douglas Ross, Laura M Bogart, Sharon M Coleman, Tessa Govender, Marion Robine, Alison Erlwanger, Kenneth A Freedberg, Jeffrey N Katz, Rochelle P Walensky and Elena Losina

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:390

    Content type: Study protocol

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  11. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has produced significant changes in mortality of HIV-infected persons. Our objective was to estimate mortality rates, standardized mortality ratios and excess mortalit...

    Authors: Victoria Hernando, Belen Alejos, Susana Monge, Juan Berenguer, Lourdes Anta, David Vinuesa, Rosario Palacios, Roberto Muga, Santiago Moreno and Inma Jarrin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:382

    Content type: Research article

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  12. HIV infection is a risk factor for the development of Herpes zoster (HZ) and its complications. Prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HZ incidence in HIV-infected individuals ranged from 2.9–5.1/100 person-ye...

    Authors: Klaus Jansen, Burkhard Haastert, Claudia Michalik, Adrienne Guignard, Stefan Esser, Stephan Dupke, Andreas Plettenberg, Adriane Skaletz-Rorowski and Norbert H Brockmeyer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:372

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Understanding about who acquires new HIV infection and the determinants of why some persons get infected and others do not is fundamental to controlling HIV in the population. We assess HIV incidence and its a...

    Authors: Lalit Dandona, G Anil Kumar, Vemu Lakshmi, G Md Mushtaq Ahmed, Mohammed Akbar, Sri P Ramgopal, Talasila Sudha, Michel Alary and Rakhi Dandona

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:327

    Content type: Research article

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  14. To determine if tropism for CXCR4 or CCR5 correlates with cellular HIV DNA load, residual viraemia and CD4 count in 219 successfully treated naive subjects with HIV infection enrolled in five infectious diseas...

    Authors: Saverio Giuseppe Parisi, Samantha Andreis, Carlo Mengoli, Renzo Scaggiante, Mario Cruciani, Roberto Ferretto, Vinicio Manfrin, Sandro Panese, Monica Basso, Caterina Boldrin, Stefania Bressan, Loredana Sarmati, Massimo Andreoni and Giorgio Palù

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:314

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) plus ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) regimen on renal function in Chinese HIV-infected patients.

    Authors: Ying Cao, Yang Han, Jing Xie, Qu Cui, Lixia Zhang, Yijia Li, Yanling Li, Xiaojing Song, Ting Zhu and Taisheng Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:301

    Content type: Research article

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  16. HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) experience deep and early disorders in fat and bone metabolism, leading to concomitant changes in fat mass and bone mineral density.

    Authors: Eric Bonnet, Jean-Bernard Ruidavets, Anne Genoux, Laurence Mabile, Florian Busato, Martine Obadia, François Prévoteau, Bruno Marchou, Patrice Massip, Fabrice Marion-Latard, Cyrille Delpierre, Jacques Bernard and Bertrand Perret

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:293

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading killer of people living with HIV (PLHIV). Many of these deaths occur in developing countries. This study aimed at determining the incidence and predictors of tuberculosis among...

    Authors: Kefyalew Addis Alene, Ansha Nega and Belaynew Wasie Taye

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:292

    Content type: Research article

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  18. This study assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) testing and counseling services and the predictor characteristics of these outcomes among individuals who pres...

    Authors: Gabriella Di Giuseppe, Alessandra Sessa, Silvana Mollo, Natascia Corbisiero and Italo F Angelillo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:277

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major cause of death in people with AIDS. Factors contributing to atherosclerosis include traditional risk factors, antiretrovirals and inflammatory factors related to HIV i...

    Authors: Valéria Maria Gonçalves Albuquerque, Josefina Claudia Zírpoli, Demócrito de Barros Miranda-Filho, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão Albuquerque, Ulisses Ramos Montarroyos, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes and Heloísa Ramos Lacerda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:274

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Rates of cardiovascular disease are higher among HIV-infected patients as a result of the complex interplay between traditional risk factors, HIV-related inflammatory and immunologic changes, and effects of an...

    Authors: Princy Kumar, Edwin DeJesus, Gregory Huhn, Louis Sloan, Catherine Butkus Small, Howard Edelstein, Franco Felizarta, Ritche Hao, Lisa Ross, Britt Stancil, Keith Pappa and Belinda Ha

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:269

    Content type: Research article

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  21. HIV-1-related inflammation is associated with increased levels of biomarkers of vascular adhesion and endothelial activation, and may increase production of the inflammatory protein angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2), an ...

    Authors: Susan M Graham, Nimerta Rajwans, Kenneth A Tapia, Walter Jaoko, Benson BA Estambale, R Scott McClelland, Julie Overbaugh and W Conrad Liles

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:263

    Content type: Research article

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  22. High prevalence of risky sexual behaviors and lack of information, skills and preventive support mean that, adolescents face high risks of HIV/AIDS. This study applied the information-motivation-behavioral ski...

    Authors: Yong Cai, Xiuxia Ye, Rong Shi, Gang Xu, Lixiao Shen, Jia Ren and Hong Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:262

    Content type: Research article

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  23. HIV infection, anti-tuberculosis and efavirenz therapy are associated with neuropsychological effects. We evaluated the influence of rifampicin cotreatment, efavirenz pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics on n...

    Authors: Jackson K Mukonzo, Alphonse Okwera, Neoline Nakasujja, Henry Luzze, Deogratious Sebuwufu, Jasper Ogwal-Okeng, Paul Waako, Lars L Gustafsson and Eleni Aklillu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:261

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Although some studies show higher antiretroviral concentrations in women compared to men, data are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-positive women to determine if protease inhibitor (PI) an...

    Authors: Mona Rafik Loutfy, Sharon Lynn Walmsley, Marina Barbara Klein, Janet Raboud, Alice Lin-in Tseng, Sandra Lauren Blitz, Neora Pick, Brian Conway, Jonathan Benjamin Angel, Anita Rochelle Rachlis, Kevin Gough, Jeff Cohen, David Haase, David Burdge, Fiona Mary Smaill, Alexandra de Pokomandy…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:256

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Disease progression in the absence of therapy varies significantly in HIV-1 infected individuals. Both viral and host cellular molecules are implicated; however, the exact role of these factors and/or the mech...

    Authors: Karolina Duskova, Pruthvi Nagilla, Hai-Son Le, Priyadarshini Iyer, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Jeremy Martinson, Ziv Bar-Joseph, William Buchanan, Charles Rinaldo and Velpandi Ayyavoo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:250

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Adherence to antiretroviral treatment is critical for suppression of viral replication, reduced destruction of CD4 cells, prevention of viral resistance, promotion of immune reconstitution and slowed disease prog...

    Authors: Negassie Berhe, Desalegn Tegabu and Mekuriaw Alemayehu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:233

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Soluble CD163 (sCD163) has been associated with arterial inflammation and non-calcified plaques in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and has therefore been suggested as a predictive bioma...

    Authors: Andreas Knudsen, Holger Jon Møller, Terese L Katzenstein, Jan Gerstoft, Niels Obel, Gitte Kronborg, Thomas Benfield, Andreas Kjaer and Anne-Mette Lebech

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:230

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Co-receptor tropism (CRT) in patients with a long history of HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral treatment has been rarely investigated to date. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of X4 and R...

    Authors: Annalisa Saracino, Laura Monno, Luigia Scudeller, Giuseppe Bruno, Nicoletta Ladisa, Grazia Punzi, Anna Volpe, Antonella Lagioia and Gioacchino Angarano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:220

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Metabolic abnormalities are common in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART), but the biochemical details and underlying mechanisms of these disorders have not been defined.

    Authors: Edana Cassol, Vikas Misra, Alexander Holman, Anupa Kamat, Susan Morgello and Dana Gabuzda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:203

    Content type: Research article

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  30. In France, 1/3 HIV-infected patients is diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease. We describe missed opportunities for earlier HIV testing in newly-HIV-diagnosed patients.

    Authors: Karen Champenois, Anthony Cousien, Lise Cuzin, Stéphane Le Vu, Sylvie Deuffic-Burban, Emilie Lanoy, Karine Lacombe, Olivier Patey, Pascal Béchu, Marcel Calvez, Caroline Semaille and Yazdan Yazdanpanah

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:200

    Content type: Research article

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  31. This study aimed to investigate the level of awareness of and factors associated with major infectious diseases in rural China and to provide the most recent baseline data for the prevention and control of the...

    Authors: He Liu, Mei Li, Mingjuan Jin, Fangyuan Jing, Hui Wang and Kun Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:192

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Deep neck infections (DNIs) in HIV-infected patients often produce severe complications, even death. Data on the incidence rates and risks of DNI among HIV-infected patients are scarce, particularly with the w...

    Authors: Ching-Feng Liu, Shih-Feng Weng, Yung-Song Lin, Chih-Sheng Lin, Ching-Feng Lien and Jhi-Joung Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:183

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The human APOBEC3G (A3G) protein activity is associated with innate immunity against HIV-1 by inducing high rates of guanosines to adenosines (G-to-A) mutations (viz., hypermutation) in the viral DNA. If hypermut...

    Authors: Maria Clara Bizinoto, Shiori Yabe, Élcio Leal, Hirohisa Kishino, Leonardo de Oliveira Martins, Mariana Leão de Lima, Edsel Renata Morais, Ricardo Sobhie Diaz and Luiz Mário Janini

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:173

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is necessary for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). There have been relatively few systematic analyses of factors that promote or inhibit adherence to antire...

    Authors: Hoa M Do, Michael P Dunne, Masaya Kato, Cuong V Pham and Kinh V Nguyen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:154

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The aim of our study was to estimate the candidiasis rate and evaluate its trend in HIV-i...

    Authors: Alejandro Álvaro-Meca, Julia Jensen, Dariela Micheloud, Asunción Díaz, Dolores Gurbindo and Salvador Resino

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:115

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Predictors of immuno-virologic outcomes and discordance and their associations with clinical, demographic, socio-economic and behavioral risk factors are not well described in Nigeria since HIV viral load test...

    Authors: Chuka J Anude, Emeka Eze, Henry C Onyegbutulem, Man Charurat, Mary-Ann Etiebet, Samuel Ajayi, Patrick Dakum, Oluyemisi Akinwande, Chris Beyrer, Alash’le Abimiku and William Blattner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:113

    Content type: Research article

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  37. HIV infection induces chronic immune activation which is associated with accelerated disease progression; the causes of this activation, however, are incompletely understood. We investigated the activation sta...

    Authors: Miranda Z Smith, Sonia Bastidas, Urs Karrer and Annette Oxenius

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:100

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Opt-out HIV testing is offered at 70% of antenatal care (ANC) clinics in Mozambique through the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program. If routine data from this program were of sufficient ...

    Authors: Peter W Young, Mussagy Mahomed, Roberta Z Horth, Ray W Shiraishi and Ilesh V Jani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:96

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Many HIV patients receiving antiretroviral treatment develop lipodystrophy. NEW-FILL® is a polylactic acid injected to treat facial lipoatrophy. The objectives of this study were to describe (1) change in quality...

    Authors: Martin Duracinsky, Pascale Leclercq, Andrew Richard Armstrong, Marc Dolivo, Frédéric Mouly and Olivier Chassany

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:92

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Recent studies suggest HIV-1 inter-subtype differences in co-receptor usage. We examined the correlation between HIV-1 subtype and co-receptor usage among treatment-naïve HIV-1 subjects in Singapore. Additiona...

    Authors: Kah Ying Ng, Kuan Kiat Chew, Palvinder Kaur, Joe Yap Kwan, Wei Xin Khong, Li Lin, Arlene Chua, Mei Ting Tan, Thomas C Quinn, Oliver Laeyendecker, Yee Sin Leo and Oon Tek Ng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:90

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The prevalence of hyperglycemia among HIV-infected persons who are not receiving antiretroviral therapy is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to estimate the prevalence of hyperglycemia among Chine...

    Authors: Yinzhong Shen, Zhenyan Wang, Li Liu, Renfang Zhang, Yufang Zheng and Hongzhou Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:79

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The role of HIV-1 RNA in the emergence of resistance to antiretroviral therapies (ARTs) is well documented while less is known about the role of historical viruses stored in the proviral DNA. The primary focus...

    Authors: Vijay Bansode, Grace P McCormack, Amelia C Crampin, Bagrey Ngwira, Ram K Shrestha, Neil French, Judith R Glynn and Simon A Travers

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:52

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Oral Candida colonization and its relation with predisposing factors in HIV-infected patients have received wide concerns during recent decades. In this study, we investigated asymptomatic oral Candida carriage r...

    Authors: Yu-Ye Li, Wen-Ying Chen, Xia Li, Hong-Bin Li, Hui-Qin Li, Li Wang, Li He, Xin-Ping Yang, Xi-Cheng Wang, Yun-Li Huang and Yong-Gang Yao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:46

    Content type: Research article

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  44. In April 2003, Médecins Sans Frontières launched an HIV/AIDS programme to provide free HAART to HIV-infected patients in Laos. Although HIV prevalence is estimated as low in this country, it has been increasin...

    Authors: Mathieu Bastard, Khamphang Soulinphumy, Prasith Phimmasone, Ahmed Hassani Saadani, Laura Ciaffi, Arlette Communier, Chansy Phimphachanh, René Ecochard and Jean-François Etard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:27

    Content type: Research article

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  45. HIV positive patients are at risk of infectious and non-infectious complications that may necessitate intensive care unit (ICU) admission. While the characteristics of patients requiring ICU admission have bee...

    Authors: Julia Shrosbree, Lucy J Campbell, Fowzia Ibrahim, Phillip Hopkins, Marcela Vizcaychipi, Stephanie Strachan and Frank A Post

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:23

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Even though it has been suggested that antiretroviral therapy has an impact on severe hypovitaminosis D (SHD) in HIV infected patients, it could be speculated that the different levels of residual inflammation...

    Authors: Thiphaine Ansemant, Sophie Mahy, Christine Piroth, Paul Ornetti, Stephanie Ewing, Jean-Claude Guilland, Delphine Croisier, Laurence Duvillard, Pascal Chavanet, Jean-Francis Maillefert and Lionel Piroth

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:7

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Yunnan has the largest number of reported HIV/AIDS cases among all Chinese provinces, the reported prevalence of HIV among Yunnan men who have sex with men (MSM) passed 10%, while HIV incidence epidemic and mo...

    Authors: Junjie Xu, Minghui An, Xiaoxu Han, Manhong Jia, Yanling Ma, Min Zhang, Qinghai Hu, Zhenxing Chu, Jing Zhang, Yongjun Jiang, Wenqing Geng, Lin Lu and Hong Shang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:3

    Content type: Research article

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  48. There are approximately from 1,100 to 1,200 HIV-infected children in a follow-up in Spain. In 2008 an open, multicentral, retrospective and prospective Cohort of the Spanish Paediatric HIV Network (CoRISpe) wa...

    Authors: Ma Isabel de Jose, Santiago Jiménez de Ory, Maria Espiau, Claudia Fortuny, Ma Luisa Navarro, Pere Soler-Palacín and Ma Angeles Muñoz-Fernandez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:2

    Content type: Correspondence

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  49. The impact of extended use of ART in developing countries has been enormous. A thorough understanding of all factors contributing to the success of antiretroviral therapy is required. The current study aims to...

    Authors: Barbara A Rath, Max von Kleist, Maria E Castillo, Lenka Kolevic, Patricia Caballero, Giselle Soto-Castellares, Angela M Amedee, James E Robinson, David K Katzenstein, Russell B Van Dyke and Richard A Oberhelman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:1

    Content type: Research article

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