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HIV and co-infections

Section edited by Carlo Torti 

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of HIV and HIV-associated infections in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section also aims to publish studies on the adverse events of HAART and non HIV-related comorbidities in the HAART era.

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  1. Opportunistic infections and malignancies such as malignant lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma are significant complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, following the introduction of ant...

    Authors: Harutaka Katano, Tsunekazu Hishima, Makoto Mochizuki, Yoshinori Kodama, Naoki Oyaizu, Yasunori Ota, Sohtaro Mine, Toru Igari, Atsushi Ajisawa, Katsuji Teruya, Junko Tanuma, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Tomoko Uehira, Takuma Shirasaka, Tomohiko Koibuchi, Aikichi Iwamoto…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:229

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The prevalence of HIV and syphilis among middle and high-fee female sex workers (FSWs) has been widely reported but little is known among low-fee FSWs. This study aims to determine the prevalence and associate...

    Authors: Chu Zhou, Keming Rou, Willa M Dong, Yu Wang, Wei Dong, Yuejiao Zhou, Xi Chen, Manhong Jia, Wei Liu, Jun Zheng, Yanling Ma, Youfang Li and Zunyou Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:225

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Few studies have explored how utilization of outpatient services differ for HIV/HCV coinfected patients compared to HIV or HCV monoinfected patients. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare annual out...

    Authors: Terence L Johnson, Joshua C Toliver, Lu Mao and Christine U Oramasionwu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:217

    Content type: Research article

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  4. In Tanzania, routine individual-level testing for HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) using laboratory genotyping and phenotyping is not feasible due to resource constraints. To monitor the prevention or emergence of ...

    Authors: James M Juma, Jenny K Tiberio, Mathias I Abuya, Bonita K Kilama, Geoffrey R Somi, Veryeh Sambu, Richard Banda, Boniphace S Jullu and Angela A Ramadhani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:196

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The ongoing scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa has prompted the interest in surveillance of transmitted and acquired HIV drug resistance. Resistance data on virological failure and ...

    Authors: Alemseged Abdissa, Daniel Yilma, Jannik Fonager, Anne M Audelin, Lone H Christensen, Mette F Olsen, Markos Tesfaye, Pernille Kaestel, Tsinuel Girma, Abraham Aseffa, Henrik Friis, Court Pedersen and Aase B Andersen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:181

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Coinfection with the hepatitis viruses is common in the HIV population in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to assess, in a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women receiving antiretroviral drugs (ARV...

    Authors: Mauro Andreotti, Maria Franca Pirillo, Giuseppe Liotta, Haswell Jere, Martin Maulidi, Jean-Baptiste Sagno, Richard Luhanga, Roberta Amici, Maria Grazia Mancini, Elisabetta Gennaro, Maria Cristina Marazzi, Stefano Vella, Marina Giuliano, Leonardo Palombi and Sandro Mancinelli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:180

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Data on the renal safety of Tenofovir (TDF) in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) is scarce. We compared development of various forms of renal impairment with use of TDF-containing antiretroviral therapy ...

    Authors: Sanjay N Pujari, Colette Smith, Abhimanyu Makane, Mike Youle, Margaret Johnson, Vivek Bele, Kedar Joshi, Digamber Dabhade and Sanjay Bhagani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:173

    Content type: Research article

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  8. It is widely assumed that voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) services contribute to HIV prevention by motivating clients to reduce sexual risk-taking. However, findings from sub-Saharan Africa have been m...

    Authors: Caoimhe Cawley, Alison Wringe, Emma Slaymaker, Jim Todd, Denna Michael, Yusufu Kumugola, Mark Urassa and Basia Zaba

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:159

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Despite the increasing use of antiretroviral treatment (ART) recent data on frequency and pattern of drug resistance mutations in Ethiopia is not available. Furthermore with increasing mobility of people HIV-1...

    Authors: Andargachew Mulu, Thomas Lange, Uwe Gerd Liebert and Melanie Maier

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:158

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Aim of our study is to investigate the clinical and immunological outcomes according to first-line HAART adherence in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients in Burkina Faso.

    Authors: Emanuele Focà, Silvia Odolini, Giorgia Sulis, Stefano Calza, Virginio Pietra, Paola Rodari, Pier Francesco Giorgetti, Alice Noris, Paul Ouedraogo, Jacques Simpore, Salvatore Pignatelli and Francesco Castelli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:153

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Most HIV infected patients will develop some sort of neurologic involvement of the disease throughout their lives, usually in advanced stages. Neurologic symptoms may occur in acute HIV infection but myelopath...

    Authors: Paulo Andrade, Cristóvão Figueiredo, Cláudia Carvalho, Lurdes Santos and António Sarmento

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:149

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Tuberculosis (TB) still presents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), including those on antiretroviral therapy. In this study, we aimed to determine the long-t...

    Authors: Basel Karo, Walter Haas, Christian Kollan, Barbara Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Osamah Hamouda and Lena Fiebig

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:148

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Chronic HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis. Oxidized forms of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are present in atherosclerotic lesions and constitut...

    Authors: Aylin Yilmaz, Karin Jennbacken and Linda Fogelstrand

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:143

    Content type: Research article

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  14. HIV-, HCV- and HIV/HCV co-infections among drug users have become a rapidly emerging global public health problem. In order to constrain the dual epidemics of HIV/AIDS and drug use, China has adopted a methado...

    Authors: Yi-Biao Zhou, Song Liang, Qi-Xing Wang, Yu-Han Gong, Shi-Jiao Nie, Lei Nan, Ai-Hui Yang, Qiang Liao, Xiu-Xia Song and Qing-Wu Jiang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:134

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Tenofovir is a widely used antiviral drug for the treatment of HIV and HBV infection. Although its side effects on renal function and bone metabolism are well known, there are no reports on focal bone lesions ...

    Authors: Davide Mangioni, Alessandra Bandera, Antonio Muscatello, Nicola Squillace, Cinzia Crivellaro, Luca Guerra, Cristina Messa and Andrea Gori

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:131

    Content type: Case report

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  16. Short-term zidovudine monotherapy (ZDVm) remains an option for some pregnant HIV-positive women not requiring treatment for their own health but may affect treatment responses once antiretroviral therapy (ART)...

    Authors: Susie Huntington, Claire Thorne, Jane Anderson, Marie-Louise Newell, Graham P Taylor, Deenan Pillay, Teresa Hill, Pat Tookey and Caroline Sabin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:127

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The immunologic environment during HIV/M. tuberculosis co-infection is characterized by cytokine and chemokine irregularities that have been shown to increase immune activation, viral replication, and T cell dysf...

    Authors: Adane Mihret, Markos Abebe, Yonas Bekele, Abraham Aseffa, Gerhard Walzl and Rawleigh Howe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:125

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Few studies have compared the impact of different antiretroviral regimens on residual immune activation and inflammation with discordant results. Aim of the study was to investigate the impact of various antir...

    Authors: Suhaib Hattab, Amelie Guihot, Marguerite Guiguet, Slim Fourati, Guislaine Carcelain, Fabienne Caby, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Brigitte Autran, Dominique Costagliola and Christine Katlama

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:122

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Cryptosporidium spp and I. belli are intestinal opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS. A decline in the incidence of these opportunistic infections due to HAART was reported. We aim to investigate th...

    Authors: Mekonnen Girma, Wondu Teshome, Beyene Petros and Tekola Endeshaw

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:100

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Since 2010, World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines discourage using stavudine in first-line regimens due to frequent and severe side effects. This study describes the implementation of this recommendation ...

    Authors: Fabian Christoph Franzeck, Emilio Letang, Geoffrey Mwaigomole, Boniphace Jullu, Tracy R Glass, Daniel Nyogea, Christoph Hatz, Marcel Tanner and Manuel Battegay

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:90

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Treatment-naïve patients newly diagnosed with HIV occasionally present with low viral RNA of ≤1’000 copies/ml, raising concerns about viral load underestimation. Because falsely low or undetectable viral loads...

    Authors: Beatrice N Vetter, Cyril Shah, Jon B Huder, Jürg Böni and Jörg Schüpbach

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:84

    Content type: Research article

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  22. We evaluated whether immune activation (IA) and microbial translocation (MT) might play a role in accelerating liver disease progression in HIV-HBV/HCV co-infected patients.

    Authors: Giulia Marchetti, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Camilla Tincati, Andrea Calcagno, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Andrea De Luca, Andrea Antinori, Antonella Castagna, Massimo Puoti and Antonella d’Arminio Monforte

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:79

    Content type: Research article

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  23. In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) neuropathic symptoms may develop within weeks of starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This timing coincides with the occurrence o...

    Authors: Johan J Van der Watt, Katalin A Wilkinson, Robert J Wilkinson and Jeannine M Heckmann

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:71

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Persistent high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and increased HR-HPV viral load are associated with the development of cancer. This study investigated the effect of human immunodeficiency virus ...

    Authors: Zizipho ZA Mbulawa, Leigh F Johnson, Dianne J Marais, Inger Gustavsson, Jennifer R Moodley, David Coetzee, Ulf Gyllensten and Anna-Lise Williamson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:51

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa was a hot debate due to many concerns about adherence, logistics and resistance. Currently, it has been significantly scaled up. However as th...

    Authors: Andargachew Mulu, Uwe Gerd Liebert and Melanie Maier

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:28

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Efavirenz (EFV) administration is still controversial for its high rates of interruption mainly related to central nervous system side effects (CNS-SE). Aim of the study was to define if single tablet regimen ...

    Authors: Massimiliano Fabbiani, Mauro Zaccarelli, Pierfrancesco Grima, Mattia Prosperi, Iuri Fanti, Manuela Colafigli, Alessandro D’Avino, Annalisa Mondi, Alberto Borghetti, Massimo Fantoni, Roberto Cauda and Simona Di Giambenedetto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:26

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular diarrhoea, are common in non-treated HIV-1 infected individuals. Although various enteric pathogens have been implicated, the aetiology of diarrhoea remains unexplained...

    Authors: Bas B Oude Munnink, Marta Canuti, Martin Deijs, Michel de Vries, Maarten F Jebbink, Sjoerd Rebers, Richard Molenkamp, Formijn J van Hemert, Kevin Chung, Matthew Cotten, Fransje Snijders, Cees JA Sol and Lia van der Hoek

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:22

    Content type: Research article

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  28. There is urgent need for effective HIV prevention methods that women can initiate. The CAPRISA 004 trial showed that a tenofovir-based vaginal microbicide had significant impact on HIV incidence among women. T...

    Authors: Fern Terris-Prestholt, Anna M Foss, Andrew P Cox, Lori Heise, Gesine Meyer-Rath, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Thomas Mertenskoetter, Helen Rees, Peter Vickerman and Charlotte H Watts

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:14

    Content type: Research article

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  29. In resource-limited settings, scaling-up antiretroviral treatment (ART) has required the involvement of decentralized health facilities with limited equipment. We estimated the incidence of serious morbidity a...

    Authors: Yao Abo, Albert Minga, Hervé Menan, Christine Danel, Timothée Ouassa, Lambert Dohoun, Germain Bomisso, Anthony Tanoh, Eugène Messou, Serge Eholié, Charlotte Lewden and Xavier Anglaret

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:607

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Though financial and policy level efforts are made to expand antiretroviral treatment (ART) service free of cost, survival outcome of ART program has not been systematically evaluated in Nepal. This study asse...

    Authors: Laxmi Bhatta, Elise Klouman, Keshab Deuba, Rachana Shrestha, Deepak Kumar Karki, Anna Mia Ekstrom and Luai Awad Ahmed

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:604

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Central nervous system is a very rare site of Kaposi’s sarcoma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Kaposi’s sarcoma, a neoplasm of endothelial origin, occurs mainly in the skin, but can involve many tissues...

    Authors: Francesco Baldini, Andrea Baiocchini, Vincenzo Schininà, Chiara Agrati, Maria Letizia Giancola, Lucia Alba, Susanna Grisetti, Franca Del Nonno, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi and Andrea Antinori

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:600

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Osteoporosis and bone fractures seem to be higher in HIV-infected Patients compared to the general populations. Moreover, bone turnover markers are increased in patients on antiretroviral therapy and vitamin D...

    Authors: Rein Jan Piso, Madeleine Rothen, Jean Pierre Rothen, Matthias Stahl and Christoph Fux

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:577

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Informed by recent studies demonstrating the central role of plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) on HIV transmission, interventions to employ HIV antiretroviral treatment as prevention (TasP) are underway. To opt...

    Authors: M-J Milloy, Thomas Kerr, Kate Salters, Hasina Samji, Silvia Guillemi, Julio Montaner and Evan Wood

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:565

    Content type: Research article

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  34. HPV persistence is a key determinant of cervical carcinogenesis. The influence of postpartum on HPV clearance has been debated. This study aimed to assess HPV clearance in later pregnancy and postpartum among ...

    Authors: Emilia Moreira Jalil, Francisco Inacio Bastos, Patricia Pereira dos Santos Melli, Geraldo Duarte, Renata Toscano Simoes, Aparecida Yulie Yamamoto, Rodrigo Augustus Amaral de Morais and Silvana Maria Quintana

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:564

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a hidden but emerging population susceptible to HIV infection against a background of rapidly increasing HIV prevalence in China. Low HIV testing levels and multiple partner...

    Authors: Eric P F Chow, Jun Jing, Yuji Feng, Dai Min, Jun Zhang, David P Wilson, Xiaohu Zhang and Lei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:549

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Superinfection with drug resistant HIV strains could potentially contribute to compromised therapy in patients initially infected with drug-sensitive virus and receiving antiretroviral therapy. To investigate ...

    Authors: István Bartha, Matthias Assel, Peter MA Sloot, Maurizio Zazzi, Carlo Torti, Eugen Schülter, Andrea De Luca, Anders Sönnerborg, Ana B Abecasis, Kristel Van Laethem, Andrea Rosi, Jenny Svärd, Roger Paredes, David AMC van de Vijver, Anne-Mieke Vandamme and Viktor Müller

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:537

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The role of copy number variation of the CCL3L1 gene, encoding MIP1α, in contributing to the host variation in susceptibility and response to HIV infection is controversial. Here we analyse a sub-Saharan African ...

    Authors: Eleni Aklillu, Linda Odenthal-Hesse, Jennifer Bowdrey, Abiy Habtewold, Eliford Ngaimisi, Getnet Yimer, Wondwossen Amogne, Sabina Mugusi, Omary Minzi, Eyasu Makonnen, Mohammed Janabi, Ferdinand Mugusi, Getachew Aderaye, Robert Hardwick, Beiyuan Fu, Maria Viskaduraki…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:536

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Although substantiated by little evidence, concerns about zidovudine-related anaemia in pregnancy have influenced antiretroviral (ARV) regimen choice for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, espec...

    Authors: Benn KD Sartorius, Matthew F Chersich, Mary Mwaura, Nicolas Meda, Marleen Temmerman, Marie Louise Newell, Timothy MM Farley and Stanley Luchters

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:522

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased dramatically in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, 560,000 people had access to ART by the end of 2011. This scaling up of ART has raised challenges to the Kenya...

    Authors: Michael Kiptoo, James Brooks, Raphael W Lihana, Paul Sandstrom, Zipporah Ng’ang’a, Joyceline Kinyua, Nancy Lagat, Fredrick Okoth and Elijah M Songok

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:517

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Improved tests to diagnose latent TB infection (LTBI) are needed. We sought to evaluate the performance of two commercially available interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) compared to the tuberculin skin tes...

    Authors: Nikoloz Chkhartishvili, Russell R Kempker, Natia Dvali, Lela Abashidze, Lali Sharavdze, Pati Gabunia, Henry M Blumberg, Carlos del Rio and Tengiz Tsertsvadze

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:513

    Content type: Research article

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  41. HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR) surveillance is usually conducted by sampling from a large population. However, overall TDR prevalence results may be inaccurate for many individual clinical setting. We a...

    Authors: James I Brooks, Harrison Niznick, Marianna Ofner, Harriet Merks and Jonathan B Angel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:509

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Maraviroc is an HIV-1 coreceptor antagonist that has shown good efficacy and tolerability in treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients harboring CCR5-tropic virus. The use of Maraviroc in treatment si...

    Authors: Genny Meini, Angelo Materazzi, Francesco Saladini, Andrea Rosi, Ilaria Vicenti, Michele Mancini, Antonella Pirazzoli, Cinzia Caudai and Maurizio Zazzi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:508

    Content type: Technical advance

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  43. Administration of rifampicin along with nevirapine reduces the plasma concentration of nevirapine in human immunodeficiency virus positive individuals with concomitant tuberculosis (HIV-TB patients). Nevirapin...

    Authors: Sanjeev Sinha, Puroshottam Raghunandan, Rahul Chandrashekhar, Surendra K Sharma, Sanjiv Kumar, Sahajal Dhooria, Meera Ekka, Thirumurthy Velpandian, Sanjay Ranjan, Hafeez Ahmad, Jyotish Chandra Samantaray, Srinivasaraghavan Venkatesh, Bharat Bhushan Rewari, Nawaid Hussain Khan and Ravindra Mohan Pandey

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:482

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Sexually transmitted diseases and most notably syphilis-infections are rising amongst men who have sex with men. In HIV-co-infected patients, an accelerated clinical course of syphilis neurological involvement...

    Authors: Christoph D Spinner, Sebastian Noe, Christiane Schwerdtfeger, Antonia Todorova, Jochen Gaa, Roland M Schmid, Dirk H Busch and Michael Neuenhahn

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:481

    Content type: Case report

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  45. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up in resource-limited countries, with limited capacity for CD4 and HIV viral load monitoring, presents a unique challenge. We determined the effectiveness of first-line ART ...

    Authors: Oliver Barry, Jonathan Powell, Lorna Renner, Evelyn Y Bonney, Meghan Prin, William Ampofo, Jonas Kusah, Bamenla Goka, Kwamena WC Sagoe, Veronika Shabanova and Elijah Paintsil

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:476

    Content type: Research article

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  46. The aim of our work was to evaluate the potential impact of the European policy of testing for HIV all individuals presenting with an indicator disease, to prevent late diagnosis of HIV. We report on a retrosp...

    Authors: Paola Scognamiglio, Giacomina Chiaradia, Gabriella De Carli, Massimo Giuliani, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Stefano Aviani Barbacci, Anna Rita Buonomini, Susanna Grisetti, Alessandro Sampaolesi, Angela Corpolongo, Nicoletta Orchi, Vincenzo Puro, Giuseppe Ippolito and Enrico Girardi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:473

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Using data from a large international cohort of HIV-positive individuals, we described the incide...

    Authors: Signe W Worm, Mark Bower, Peter Reiss, Fabrice Bonnet, Matthew Law, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Antonella d’Arminio Monforte, Donald I Abrams, Andrew Grulich, Eric Fontas, Ole Kirk, Hansjakob Furrer, Stephane De Wit, Andrew Phillips, Jens D Lundgren and Caroline A Sabin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:471

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Penicilliosis marneffei is increasingly observed in individuals without HIV infection. This study aimed to compare the clinical and laboratory features among HIV infected and uninfected individuals with penici...

    Authors: Rathakarn Kawila, Romanee Chaiwarith and Khuanchai Supparatpinyo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:464

    Content type: Research article

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  49. HIV resistance affects virological response to therapy and efficacy of prophylaxis in mother-to-child-transmission. The study aims to assess the prevalence of HIV primary resistance in pregnant women naïve to ...

    Authors: Francesco Vairo, Emanuele Nicastri, Giuseppina Liuzzi, Zainab Chaula, Boniface Nguhuni, Nazario Bevilacqua, Federica Forbici, Alessandra Amendola, Lavinia Fabeni, Pasquale De Nardo, Carlo Federico Perno, Angela Cannas, Calistus Sakhoo, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi and Giuseppe Ippolito

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:439

    Content type: Research article

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