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HIV and co-infections

Section edited by Carlo Torti 

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of HIV and HIV-associated infections in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section also aims to publish studies on the adverse events of HAART and non HIV-related comorbidities in the HAART era.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    High plasma viremia in HIV-1 infection is associated with rapid CD4 cell decline and faster disease progression. Children with HIV infection have high viral loads, particularly in early childhood. In this stud...

    Authors: Ujjwal Neogi, Pravat Nalini Sahoo, Ayesha De Costa and Anita Shet

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:317

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  2. Content type: Study protocol

    Use of multivitamin supplements during the pre-HAART era has been found to reduce viral load, enhance immune response, and generally improve clinical outcomes among HIV-infected adults. However, immune reconst...

    Authors: David Guwatudde, Amara E Ezeamama, Danstan Bagenda, Rachel Kyeyune, Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Henry Wamani, Ferdinand Mugusi, Donna Spiegelman, Molin Wang, Yukari C Manabe and Wafaie W Fawzi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:304

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Drug-related toxicity has been one of the main causes of antiretroviral treatment discontinuation. However, its determinants are not fully understood. Aim of this study was to investigate predictors of first-l...

    Authors: Mattia CF Prosperi, Massimiliano Fabbiani, Iuri Fanti, Mauro Zaccarelli, Manuela Colafigli, Annalisa Mondi, Alessandro D’Avino, Alberto Borghetti, Roberto Cauda and Simona Di Giambenedetto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:296

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Impact of gender on time to initiation, response to and risk of modification of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1 infected individuals is still controversial.

    Authors: Kristina Thorsteinsson, Steen Ladelund, Søren Jensen-Fangel, Isik Somuncu Johansen, Terese L Katzenstein, Gitte Pedersen, Merete Storgaard, Niels Obel and Anne-Mette Lebech

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:293

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Each year more than two million people are newly infected with HIV worldwide, a majority of them through unprotected vaginal sex. More than half of new infections in adults occur in women. Male condoms and mal...

    Authors: Jael Obiero, Peter G Mwethera, Gregory D Hussey and Charles S Wiysonge

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:289

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  6. Content type: Study protocol

    Patients with HIV/AIDS on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) suffer from physical, psychological and spiritual problems. Despite international policy explicitly stating that a multidimensional approach such as palli...

    Authors: Keira Lowther, Victoria Simms, Lucy Selman, Lorraine Sherr, Liz Gwyther, Hellen Kariuki, Aabid Ahmed, Zipporah Ali, Rachel Jenkins, Irene J Higginson and Richard Harding

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:288

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  7. Content type: Research article

    India has among the highest rates of infant malnutrition. Few studies investigating the growth patterns of HIV-exposed infants in India or the impact of timing of HIV infection on growth in settings such as In...

    Authors: Malathi Ram, Nikhil Gupte, Uma Nayak, Aarti A Kinikar, Mangesh Khandave, Anita V Shankar, Jayagowri Sastry, Robert C Bollinger and Amita Gupta

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:282

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  8. Content type: Research article

    The risk of HIV-1 related mortality is strongly related to CD4 count. Guidance on optimal timing for initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is still evolving, but the contribution of HIV-1 infection to exc...

    Authors: Guy de Bruyn, Amalia Magaret, Jared M Baeten, Jairam R Lingappa, Patrick Ndase, Connie Celum and Anna Wald

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:277

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Persistent residual immune activation and lipid dysmetabolism are characteristics of HIV positive patients receiving an highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Nuclear Receptors are transcription factors...

    Authors: Barbara Renga, Daniela Francisci, Claudio D’Amore, Elisabetta Schiaroli, Adriana Carino, Franco Baldelli and Stefano Fiorucci

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:274

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  10. Content type: Research article

    State-of-the-art care involving the utilisation of multiple health care interventions is the basis for an optimal long-term clinical prognosis for HIV-patients. We evaluated health care for HIV patients based ...

    Authors: Daria N Podlekareva, Joanne Reekie, Amanda Mocroft, Marcelo Losso, Aza G Rakhmanova, Elzbieta Bakowska, Igor A Karpov, Jeffrey V Lazarus, Jose Gatell, Jens D Lundgren and Ole Kirk

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:229

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  11. Content type: Research article

    The emergence of resistance to first line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen leads to the need for more expensive and less tolerable second line drugs. Hence, it is essential to identify and address factors ...

    Authors: Tigist Bacha, Birkneh Tilahun and Alemayehu Worku

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:197

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Despite the reported high prevalence of osteoporosis in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-population, there have been no previous studies examining dairy calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in H...

    Authors: Valentina Li Vecchi, Maurizio Soresi, Lydia Giannitrapani, Giovanni Mazzola, Sara La Sala, Fabio Tramuto, Giuseppe Caruso, Claudia Colomba, Pasquale Mansueto, Simona Madonia, Giuseppe Montalto and Paola Di Carlo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:192

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Zambia’s national HIV testing algorithm specifies use of two rapid blood based antibody assays, Determine®HIV-1/2 (Inverness Medical) and if positive then Uni-GoldTM Recombigen HIV-1/2 (Trinity Biotech). Little i...

    Authors: Dalila Zachary, Lawrence Mwenge, Monde Muyoyeta, Kwame Shanaube, Albertus Schaap, Virginia Bond, Barry Kosloff, Petra de Haas and Helen Ayles

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:183

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Although dual-boosted protease inhibitors regimen is not recommended in children with HIV infection, such a strategy could be useful in subjects with a complex resistance profile. This study was aimed at asses...

    Authors: Stefano Rusconi, Vania Giacomet, Chiara Mameli, Alessandra Viganò, Ottavia Viganò, Fulvio Adorni, Massimo Galli and Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:179

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Our aim was to investigate the aortic distensibility (AD) of the ascending aorta and carotid artery intima-media thickness (c-IMT) in HIV-infected patients compared to healthy controls.

    Authors: Alexandra Zormpala, Nikolaos V Sipsas, Ioannis Moyssakis, Sarah P Georgiadou, Maria N Gamaletsou, Athanasios N Kontos, Panayiotis D Ziakas and Theodore Kordossis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:167

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Infection with HIV may result in significant neuropsychological impairment, especially in late stage disease. To date, there have been no cohort studies of the impact of highly active anti-retroviral treatment...

    Authors: John A Joska, Jennifer Westgarth-Taylor, Jacqueline Hoare, Kevin GF Thomas, Robert Paul, Landon Myer and Dan J Stein

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:39

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Increased risk of fractures and osteoporosis have been associated with the use of antiretroviral drugs. There is a paucity of prospective evaluations of bone markers after the initiation of drugs currently rec...

    Authors: Emanuele Focà, Davide Motta, Marco Borderi, Daria Gotti, Laura Albini, Alessandra Calabresi, Ilaria Izzo, Rita Bellagamba, Pasquale Narciso, Laura Sighinolfi, Alberto Clò, Davide Gibellini, Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Nigritella Brianese, Bruno Mario Cesana, Maria Carla Re…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:38

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  18. Content type: Case report

    Disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection is one of the most common HIV-related opportunistic infections in Southeast Asia. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a complication related to antir...

    Authors: Tavitiya Sudjaritruk, Thira Sirisanthana and Virat Sirisanthana

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:28

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Despite the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), suboptimal treatment outcomes have been observed among HIV-seropositive illicit drug users. As there is an urgent need to improve responses to antiretr...

    Authors: Sassan Sangsari, M-J Milloy, Amir Ibrahim, Thomas Kerr, Ruth Zhang, Julio Montaner and Evan Wood

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:22

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Very few data are available on treatment outcomes of adolescents living with HIV infection (whether perinatally acquired or sexually acquired) in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study therefore compared the tr...

    Authors: Mweete D Nglazi, Katharina Kranzer, Pearl Holele, Richard Kaplan, Daniella Mark, Heather Jaspan, Stephen D Lawn, Robin Wood and Linda-Gail Bekker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:21

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Kidney disease is an important complication in HIV infected people, and this may be related to infection or antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our aim is to assess renal function in HIV infected paediatric patients...

    Authors: Giuseppe Pontrelli, Nicola Cotugno, Donato Amodio, Paola Zangari, Hyppolite K Tchidjou, Stefania Baldassari, Paolo Palma and Stefania Bernardi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:18

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  22. Content type: Research article

    HIV-associated general immune activation is a strong predictor for HIV disease progression, suggesting that chronic immune activation may drive HIV pathogenesis. Consequently, immunomodulating agents may decel...

    Authors: Christa Kasang, Albrecht Ulmer, Norbert Donhauser, Barbara Schmidt, August Stich, Hartwig Klinker, Samuel Kalluvya, Eleni Koutsilieri, Axel Rethwilm and Carsten Scheller

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:14

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 8 are important in single-stranded viral RNA recognition and may play a role in HIV infection and disease progression. We analyzed TLR7/8 expression and signaling in monocytes f...

    Authors: Hua Nian, Wen-Qing Geng, Hua-Lu Cui, Ming-jia Bao, Zi-ning Zhang, Min Zhang, Ying Pan, Qing-Hai Hu and Hong Shang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:5

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  24. Content type: Debate

    A substantial prevalence of mild neurocognitive disorders has been reported in HIV, also in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This includes a new disorder that has been termed asymp...

    Authors: Magnus Gisslén, Richard W Price and Staffan Nilsson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:356

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  25. Content type: Case report

    Rhodococcus equi (R.equi) is an acid fast, GRAM + coccobacillus, which is widespread in the soil and causes pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections in immunocompromised people. In the context of HIV infection, R...

    Authors: Francesca Ferretti, Antonio Boschini, Cristiana Iabichino, Simonetta Gerevini, Paola De Nardi, Monica Guffanti, Giuseppe Balconi, Adriano Lazzarin and Paola Cinque

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:343

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  26. Content type: Research article

    The optimal therapeutic strategies for patients presenting with advanced disease at HIV-1 diagnosis are as yet incompletely defined.

    Authors: Antonella Esposito, Marco Floridia, Gabriella d'Ettorre, Daniele Pastori, Alessandra Fantauzzi, Paola Massetti, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Camilla Ajassa, Vincenzo Vullo and Ivano Mezzaroma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:341

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Men having sex with men (MSM) accounts for 33.6% of all reported cases of HIV-1 infection in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection among MSM in gay saunas in Taiwan.

    Authors: Yen-Ju Chen, Yu-Ting Lin, Marcelo Chen, Szu-Wei Huang, Su-Fen Lai, Wing-Wai Wong, Hung-Chin Tsai, Yu-Huei Lin, Hsin-Fu Liu, Shu-Yu Lyu and Yi-Ming A Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:334

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  28. Content type: Research article

    The prevalence, incidence and persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in sub-Saharan Africa are not well established. The objectives of the current study are to describe (predictors of) the epidemiolog...

    Authors: Nienke J Veldhuijzen, Sarah L Braunstein, Joseph Vyankandondera, Chantal Ingabire, Justin Ntirushwa, Evelyne Kestelyn, Coosje Tuijn, Ferdinand W Wit, Aline Umutoni, Mireille Uwineza, Tania Crucitti and Janneke HHM van de Wijgert

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:333

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  29. Content type: Research article

    The increasing use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and pneumococcal immunization along with shifting community exposures may have altered the burden of Streptococcus pneumoniae disease in HIV-infe...

    Authors: Reed AC Siemieniuk, Dan B Gregson and M John Gill

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:314

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  30. Content type: Case report

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is characterized by HBV DNA persistence even though the pattern of serological markers indicates an otherwise resolved HBV infection. Although OBI is usually clin...

    Authors: Andrea Costantini, Katia Marinelli, Giulia Biagioni, Alessia Monachetti, Monica L Ferreri, Luca Butini, Maria Montroni, Aldo Manzin and Patrizia Bagnarelli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:310

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  31. Content type: Research article

    A paradoxical immunologic response (PIR) to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), defined as viral suppression without CD4 cell-count improvement, has been reported in the literature as 8 to 42%, aroun...

    Authors: Janaina AS Casotti, Luciana N Passos, Fabiano JP Oliveira and Crispim Cerutti Jr

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:306

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  32. Content type: Research article

    HIV patients are at increased risk of development of infections and infection-associated poor health outcomes. We aimed to 1) assess the prevalence of USA300 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococ...

    Authors: Jon P Furuno, Jennifer K Johnson, Marin L Schweizer, Anayochukwu Uche, Oscar C Stine, Simone M Shurland and Graeme N Forrest

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:298

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Evaluating experiences of volunteers in an HIV vaccine trial will be useful for the conduct of future trials. The purpose of this study among volunteers who participated in a phase I/II HIV vaccine trial in Da...

    Authors: Edith AM Tarimo, Anna Thorson, Thecla W Kohi, Muhammad Bakari, Eric Sandstrom, Fred Mhalu and Asli Kulane

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:283

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  34. Content type: Research article

    The convergent distribution of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and helminth infections has led to the suggestion that infection with helminths exacerbates the HIV epidemic in developing countries. In So...

    Authors: Zilungile L Mkhize-Kwitshana, Myra Taylor, Pieter Jooste, Musawenkosi LH Mabaso and Gerhard Walzl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:273

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Relationship of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-infected patients remains controversial. We evaluated endothelial function and subclinical athero...

    Authors: Mar Masiá, Sergio Padilla, Catalina Robledano, José M Ramos and Félix Gutiérrez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:265

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk for HIV infection due to unknown biological causes. Given the strong effect of sex-hormones on the expression of immunomuodulatory factors, the central role of mucosal i...

    Authors: Jan Walter, Linda Fraga, Melanie J Orin, William D Decker, Theresa Gipps, Alice Stek and Grace M Aldrovandi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:263

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  37. Content type: Research article

    In resource-limited settings, such as Kenya, access to CD4 testing is limited. Therefore, evaluation of less expensive laboratory diagnostics is urgently needed to diagnose immuno-suppression in children.

    Authors: Nyawira Githinji, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Moses Nderitu, Dalton C Wamalwa and Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:259

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Serologic testing algorithms for recent HIV seroconversion (STARHS) provide important information for HIV surveillance. We have shown that a patient's antibody reaction in a confirmatory line immunoassay (INNO...

    Authors: Jörg Schüpbach, Leslie R Bisset, Stephan Regenass, Philippe Bürgisser, Meri Gorgievski, Ingrid Steffen, Corinne Andreutti, Gladys Martinetti, Cyril Shah, Sabine Yerly, Thomas Klimkait, Martin Gebhardt, Franziska Schöni-Affolter and Martin Rickenbach

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:254

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  39. Content type: Research article

    To evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about adult male circumcision (AMC), assess the association of AMC with HIV incidence and prevalence, and estimate AMC uptake in a Southern African community.

    Authors: Pascale Lissouba, Dirk Taljaard, Dino Rech, Veerle Dermaux-Msimang, Camille Legeai, David Lewis, Beverley Singh, Adrian Puren and Bertran Auvert

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:253

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Project Accept is a community randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of community mobilization, mobile testing, same-day results, and post-test support for the prevention of HIV infection in Tha...

    Authors: Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Agnes Fiamma, Oliver Laeyendecker, Michal Kulich, Deborah Donnell, Greg Szekeres, Laura Robins-Morris, Caroline E Mullis,, Ana Vallari, John Hackett Jr, Timothy D Mastro, Glenda Gray, Linda Richter, Michel W Alexandre, Suwat Chariyalertsak, Alfred Chingono,…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:251

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  41. Content type: Research article

    HBV-HIV co-infection is associated with an increased liver-related morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the natural history of chronic hepatitis B in HIV-infected individuals under highly ac...

    Authors: Maria Cassia Mendes-Correa, João RR Pinho, Michele S Gomes-Gouvea, Adriana C da Silva, Cristina F Guastini, Luiz G Martins, Andréa G Leite, Mariliza H Silva, Reinaldo J Gianini and David E Uip

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:247

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  42. Content type: Research article

    In HIV-infected patients, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated with clinical lipodystrophy (CL) and metabolic abnormalities (MA). This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of the metabolic...

    Authors: Paula Freitas, Davide Carvalho, Selma Souto, Ana Cristina Santos, Sandra Xerinda, Rui Marques, Esteban Martinez, António Sarmento and José Luís Medina

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:246

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  43. Content type: Research article

    There has been major improvement in the survival of HIV-1 infected individuals since the South African Government introduced highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in the public sector in 2004. This has...

    Authors: Colin N Menezes, Mhairi Maskew, Ian Sanne, Nigel J Crowther and Frederick J Raal

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:244

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  44. Content type: Research article

    HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China has rapidly increased in recent years. It is suggested that MSM could be a potential bridge of HIV transmission to the general female population. W...

    Authors: Eric PF Chow, David P Wilson and Lei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:242

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  45. Content type: Research article

    HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected infants experience a high burden of infectious morbidity and mortality. Hospitalization is an important metric for morbidity and is associated with high mortality, yet,...

    Authors: Harjot K Singh, Nikhil Gupte, Aarti Kinikar, Renu Bharadwaj, Jayagowri Sastry, Nishi Suryavanshi, Uma Nayak, Srikanth Tripathy, Ramesh Paranjape, Arun Jamkar, Robert C Bollinger and Amita Gupta

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:193

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Clinical evolution of HIV-infected children who have not yet initiated antiretroviral treatment (ART) is poorly understood in Africa. We describe severe morbidity and mortality of untreated HIV-infected children.

    Authors: Sophie Desmonde, Patrick Coffie, Edmond Aka, Clarisse Amani-Bosse, Eugène Messou, François Dabis, Ahmadou Alioum, Andrea Ciaranello and Valériane Leroy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:182

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  47. Content type: Research article

    A study including 166 subjects was performed to investigate the frequency and persistence over a 6-month interval of concurrent oral and anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections in Human Immunodeficiency Vir...

    Authors: Saverio G Parisi, Mario Cruciani, Renzo Scaggiante, Caterina Boldrin, Samantha Andreis, Federico Dal Bello, Silvana Pagni, Andrea Barelli, Andrea Sattin, Carlo Mengoli and Giorgio Palù

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:150

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