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HIV and co-infections

Section edited by Carlo Torti 

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of HIV and HIV-associated infections in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section also aims to publish studies on the adverse events of HAART and non HIV-related comorbidities in the HAART era.

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  1. Guidelines for antiretroviral treatment (cART) are published regularly, but there is little information regarding the effect of adherence to guidelines on patient outcomes. We assessed the effect of following ...

    Authors: Laurent Cotte, Thomas Bénet, Philippe Vanhems, Corinne Brochier, Thomas Perpoint, Tristan Ferry and Christian Chidiac

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:596

    Content type: Research article

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  2. In Tanzania, HIV-1 RNA testing is rarely available and not standard of care. Determining virologic failure is challenging and resistance mutations accumulate, thereby compromising second-line therapy. We evalu...

    Authors: Dorothy E Dow, Aisa M Shayo, Coleen K Cunningham and Elizabeth A Reddy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:567

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Antiretroviral therapy markedly reduced mortality in HIV-infected individuals. However, in the previous studies, up to 50% of patients are compelled to modify their regimen in middle and low-income countries w...

    Authors: Naho Tsuchiya, Panita Pathipvanich, Nuanjun Wichukchinda, Archawin Rojanawiwat, Wattana Auwanit, Koya Ariyoshi and Pathom Sawanpanyalert

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:565

    Content type: Research article

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  4. We describe histological, clinical findings and outcomes of renal involvement during Leishmania infantum infection in four HIV-infected patients in South France and North Italy hospital settings.

    Authors: Matteo Vassallo, Olivier Moranne, Damien Ambrosetti, Pierre-Yves Jeandel, Christelle Pomares, Elisabeth Cassuto, Annick Boscagli, Guillaume Giraud, Nathalie Montagne, Chiara Dentone, Ilaria Demacina, Barbara Villaggio, Giovanni Secondo, Giuseppe Ferrea, Corinne Passeron, Laurence Saudes…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:561

    Content type: Case report

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  5. CD4+ T-cell testing of blood specimens collected in standard EDTA Vacutainer tubes and transported at ambient temperature, must be completed within 48 hours with the BD FACSCount™ flow cytometer, restricting s...

    Authors: Emmanuel Fajardo, Carol Metcalf, Elton Mbofana, Charlotte van Vyve, Dhodho Munyaradzi, Sandra Simons, Misheck Kuhudzayi and Helen Bygrave

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:553

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Despite the extraordinary scale up of HIV prevention, care and treatment services in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) over the past decade, the overall effectiveness of HIV programs has been significantly hindered by ...

    Authors: Batya Elul, Maria Lahuerta, Fatima Abacassamo, Matthew R Lamb, Laurence Ahoua, Margaret L McNairy, Maria Tomo, Deborah Horowitz, Roberta Sutton, Antonio Mussa, Danielle Gurr and Ilesh Jani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:549

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. The comparative impact of chronic viral monoinfection versus coinfection on inpatient outcomes and health care utilization is relatively unknown. This study examined trends, inpatient utilization, and hospital...

    Authors: Christine U Oramasionwu, Joshua C Toliver, Terence L Johnson, Heather N Moore and Christopher R Frei

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:536

    Content type: Research article

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  8. China has the largest number of the elderly in the world. As the proportion of elderly is rapidly increasing among national reported HIV/AIDS cases, it is a concern about HIV epidemic among older MSM in China....

    Authors: Yong-ze Li, Jun-jie Xu, Han-zhu Qian, Bing-xin You, Jing Zhang, Jian-ming Zhang, Qing-hai Hu, Zhen-xing Chu, Shu-yang Liu, Yong-jun Jiang, Wen-qing Geng and Hong Shang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:531

    Content type: Research article

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  9. In most biological experiments, especially infectious disease, the exposure-response relationship is interrelated by a multitude of factors rather than many independent factors. Little is known about the suita...

    Authors: Jinma Ren, Zhen Ning, Carmen S Kirkness, Carl V Asche and Huaping Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:540

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Undernourished, HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa have high levels of systemic inflammation, which is a risk factor for mortality and other adverse health outcomes. We hypothesized that microbial trans...

    Authors: Ashley Canipe, Takondwa Chidumayo, Meridith Blevins, Michael Bestawros, Jay Bala, Paul Kelly, Suzanne Filteau, Bryan E Shepherd, Douglas C Heimburger and John R Koethe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:521

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The antiretroviral therapy (ART) program of Cameroon recommends routine laboratory monitoring of haematological toxicity if a regimen contains zidovudine (AZT) and of hepatotoxicity for NVP-containing regimens...

    Authors: Cavin Epie Bekolo, Cecile Sonkoue, Hortense Djidjou, Patrick Sylvestre Bekoule and Basile Kollo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:519

    Content type: Research article

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  12. HIV infected children are at increased risk of TB disease and require annual TB screening. Data on use of IGRA for TB screening in them are limited. We retrospectively evaluated the usefulness of Quantiferon G...

    Authors: Winsley Rose, Ian Kitai, Fatima Kakkar, Stanley E Read, Marcel A Behr and Ari Bitnun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:516

    Content type: Research article

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  13. There have been inconsistent findings on the association between current drug use and HIV disease progression and virologic suppression. Drug use was often measured using self-report of historical use. Objecti...

    Authors: Han-Zhu Qian, Valerie J Mitchell, Sally Bebawy, Holly Cassell, Gina Perez, Catherine C McGowan, Timothy R Sterling, Sten H Vermund, Richard D’Aquila and Todd Hulgan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:508

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Opioid substitution therapy has improved the survival of heroin users with and without HIV infection. We aimed to analyze sex differences in mortality rates and predictors of death among those admitted to a me...

    Authors: Roberto Muga, Inmaculada Rivas, Eva Faure, Daniel Fuster, Paola Zuluaga, Manuela Rubio, Trinidad Muñoz, Marta Torrens, Jordi Tor and Arantza Sanvisens

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:504

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Little research has examined whether alcohol reduction interventions improve antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and HIV treatment outcomes. This study assesses the efficacy of an intervention for reducing ...

    Authors: Charles DH Parry, Neo K Morojele, Bronwyn J Myers, Connie T Kekwaletswe, Samuel OM Manda, Katherine Sorsdahl, Gita Ramjee, Judith A Hahn, Jürgen Rehm and Paul A Shuper

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:500

    Content type: Study protocol

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  16. It has been suggested that the proliferative capacity of cells from individuals with HIV or both HIV and helminth infections is attenuated and cytokine production is dysregulated. This study describes peripher...

    Authors: Zilungile L Mkhize-Kwitshana, Musawenkosi LH Mabaso and Gerhard Walzl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:499

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The effects of ezetimibe on cholesterol metabolism in HIV-infected patients receiving boosted protease inhibitors have not been thoroughly assessed. The aim of this study was to assess cholesterol homeostasis ...

    Authors: Pere Leyes, Esteban Martínez, María Larrousse, Montserrat Cofán, Joan Trabal, Ana María Pérez-Heras, María T Forga and Emilio Ros

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:497

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Cytopenias are the most common HIV-associated hematological abnormality. Cytopenias have been associated with several factors including sex, race/ethnicity, geographical location and comorbidities such as tube...

    Authors: Rachel Kyeyune, Elmar Saathoff, Amara E Ezeamama, Thomas Löscher, Wafaie Fawzi and David Guwatudde

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:496

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Facial lipoatrophy is a frequently reported condition associated with use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) acid has been used to correct facial lipoatrophy in people with HIV since 2004...

    Authors: Martin Duracinsky, Pascale Leclercq, Susan Herrmann, Marie-Odile Christen, Marc Dolivo, Cécile Goujard and Olivier Chassany

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:474

    Content type: Research article

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  20. In resource limited settings access to laboratory monitoring of HIV treatment is limited and therapeutic drug monitoring is generally unavailable. This study aimed to evaluate nevirapine concentrations in sali...

    Authors: Mohammed Lamorde, Quirine Fillekes, Kim Sigaloff, Cissy Kityo, Allan Buzibye, Joshua Kayiwa, Concepta Merry, Lillian Nakatudde-Katumba, David Burger and Tobias F Rinke de Wit

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:473

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Standardized techniques to detect HIV-neutralizing antibody responses are of great importance in the search for an HIV vaccine.

    Authors: Enas Sheik-Khalil, Mark-Anthony Bray, Gülsen Özkaya Şahin, Gabriella Scarlatti, Marianne Jansson, Anne E Carpenter and Eva Maria Fenyö

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:472

    Content type: Technical advance

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  22. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is usually complicated by high rates of tuberculosis (TB) co-infection. Impaired immune response has been reported during HIV/TB co-infection and may have significa...

    Authors: Abate Assefa, Baye Gelaw, Gebeyaw Getnet and Gashaw Yitayew

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:468

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The China-Myanmar border is a particularly interesting region that has very high prevalence of and considerable diversity of HIV-1 recombinants. Due to the transient nature of their work, long-distance truck d...

    Authors: Yan-Heng Zhou, Yue-Bo Liang, Wei Pang, Wei-Hong Qin, Zhi-Hong Yao, Xin Chen, Chiyu Zhang and Yong-Tang Zheng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:463

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Opportunistic infections are relatively rare in early human immunodeficiency virus infection, especially infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here, we report a patient who presented with acute human immunod...

    Authors: Kyung Mo Yoo, Eun-Jeong Joo, Joon-Sup Yeom, Seoung-Wan Chae, Shin Yeoung Lee and Ki Joong Han

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:462

    Content type: Case report

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  25. Few data are available on antiretroviral therapy (ART) response among HIV-2 infected patients. We conducted a systematic review on treatment outcomes among HIV-2 infected patients on ART, focusing on the immun...

    Authors: Didier K Ekouevi, Boris K Tchounga, Patrick A Coffie, Joseph Tegbe, Alexandra M Anderson, Geoffrey S Gottlieb, Marco Vitoria, François Dabis and Serge P Eholie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:461

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Research on the sexual networks of transwomen is central to explaining higher HIV risk for this population. This study examined HIV risk behaviors and sexual mixing patterns of transwomen by demographic and HI...

    Authors: Erin C Wilson, Glen-Milo Santos and H Fisher Raymond

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:430

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Over the last decade tuberculosis (TB) incidence and mortality in Brazil have been steadily declining. However, this downward trend has not been observed among HIV-infected patients. We describe the epidemiolo...

    Authors: Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Angélica Espinosa Miranda, Fernanda Mattos de Souza, Elias dos Santos Dias, Lorena Kellen Fernandes Sousa, Denise Arakaki-Sanchez, Mauro N Sanchez, Jonathan E Golub and Ethel Leonor Maciel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:415

    Content type: Research article

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  28. One out of ten newly diagnosed patients in Europe was infected with a virus carrying a drug resistant mutation. We analysed the patterns over time for transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) using data fr...

    Authors: Dineke Frentz, David AMC Van de Vijver, Ana B Abecasis, Jan Albert, Osamah Hamouda, Louise B Jørgensen, Claudia Kücherer, Daniel Struck, Jean-Claude Schmit, Jurgen Vercauteren, Birgitta Åsjö, Claudia Balotta, Danail Beshkov, Ricardo J Camacho, Bonaventura Clotet, Suzie Coughlan…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:407

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Alcohol use has a detrimental impact on the HIV epidemic, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV counseling and testing (HCT) may provide a contact opportunity to intervene with hazardous alcohol use; however, ...

    Authors: Judith A Hahn, Robin Fatch, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Steven Baveewo, Moses R Kamya, David R Bangsberg and Thomas J Coates

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:403

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Despite a substantial reduction in virological failures following introduction of new potent antiretroviral therapies in the latest years, drug resistance remains a limitation for the control of HIV-1 infectio...

    Authors: Marco Franzetti, Michela Violin, Andrea Antinori, Andrea De Luca, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Nicola Gianotti, Carlo Torti, Stefano Bonora, Maurizio Zazzi and Claudia Balotta

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:398

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Integrase inhibitors are a promising class of antiretroviral drugs to treat chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. During HIV infection, macrophages can extravasate from the blood to the brain, ...

    Authors: Erick T Tatro, Benchawanna Soontornniyomkij, Scott L Letendre and Cristian L Achim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:386

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Protease inhibitor monotherapy is associated with more frequent episodes of viral rebounds above 50 copies/mL than triple therapy. Objective: To evaluate if, compared to triple-drug therapy, protease inhibitor...

    Authors: Miriam Estébanez, Natalia Stella-Ascariz, Jesús Mingorance, Ignacio Pérez-Valero, Jose Ignacio Bernardino, Francisco Xavier Zamora, Maria Luisa Montes, Juan Julián González-García and José Ramón Arribas

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:379

    Content type: Research article

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  33. In much of Africa, most individuals living with HIV do not know their status. Home-based counseling and testing (HBCT) leads to more HIV-infected people learning their HIV status. However, there is little data...

    Authors: Godfrey Bigogo, Manase Amolloh, Kayla F Laserson, Allan Audi, Barrack Aura, Warren Dalal, Marta Ackers, Deron Burton, Robert F Breiman and Daniel R Feikin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:376

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent the fastest growing key population for incident HIV cases in China. We examined five consecutive years of HIV and syphilis prevalence and risk factors data among MSM i...

    Authors: Xiaofang Wang, Guanghua Lan, Zhiyong Shen, Sten H Vermund, Qiuying Zhu, Yi Chen, Kaveh Khoshnood, Zunyou Wu and Zhenzhu Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:367

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The chemokine receptors (CKRs), mainly CCR5 and CXCR4 function as major coreceptors in infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Approximately 20 G protei...

    Authors: Salequl Islam, Katsuaki Kanbe, Nobuaki Shimizu, Takahiro Ohtsuki, Atsushi Jinno-Oue, Atsushi Tanaka and Hiroo Hoshino

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:354

    Content type: Research article

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  36. HIV-infected patients may be at increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, and lipodystrophy is generally associated with proatherogenic metabolic disturbances. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has bee...

    Authors: Paula Freitas, Davide Carvalho, Ana Cristina Santos, António José Madureira, Esteban Martinez, Jorge Pereira, António Sarmento and José Luís Medina

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:348

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Lipodystrophies are characterized by adipose tissue redistribution, insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic complications. Adipokines and hormones related to body composition may play an important role linking t...

    Authors: Paula Freitas, Davide Carvalho, Ana Cristina Santos, António José Madureira, Esteban Martinez, Jorge Pereira, António Sarmento and José Luís Medina

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:347

    Content type: Research article

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  38. A subset of HIV-1 infected patients starting highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) experience suboptimal CD4 response (SCR) despite virologic suppression. We studied the rate of and risk factors for S...

    Authors: Aida Asmelash, Yu Zheng, Kara Wools Kaloustian, Douglas Shaffer, Fred Sawe, Anthony Ogwu, Robert Salata, Judith Currier, Michael D Hughes and Shahin Lockman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:331

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Previous cohort studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on viral load suppression. We aimed to examine the factors associated with virologic suppression for HIV-infecte...

    Authors: David A Martin, Paula M Luz, Jordan E Lake, Jesse L Clark, Valdilea G Veloso, Ronaldo I Moreira, Sandra W Cardoso, Jeffrey D Klausner and Beatriz Grinsztejn

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:322

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Schistosomiasis co-infection is common among residents at the shores of Lake Victoria in Kenya. About 36% of this population initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) exper...

    Authors: George O Ogola, Collins Ouma, Walter GZO Jura, Erick O Muok, Robert Colebunders and Pauline N Mwinzi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:316

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Appendicitis occurs with increased frequency in HIV infected compared to HIV uninfected persons. CMV-related appendicitis specifically presents with typical appendicitis symptoms including surgical abdomen, fe...

    Authors: Kimberly F Faldetta, Sarah Kattakuzhy, Hao-Wei Wang, Irini Sereti and Virginia Sheikh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:313

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Optimal timing for initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-TB coinfected patients is challenging for clinicians. We aim to evaluate the impact of different timing of HAART initiation on ...

    Authors: Chin-Hui Yang, Kuan-Jung Chen, Jih-Jin Tsai, Yu-Hui Lin, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Kwei-Feng Wang and Hung-Yi Chiou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:304

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Although local spatiotemporal analysis can improve understanding of geographic variation of the HIV epidemic, its drivers, and the search for targeted interventions, it is limited in sub-Saharan Africa. Despit...

    Authors: Leo C Zulu, Ezekiel Kalipeni and Eliza Johannes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:285

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Mortality among people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is increasingly due to non-communicable causes. This has been observed mostly in developed countries and the routine care of HIV infecte...

    Authors: Gerald S Bloomfield, Joseph W Hogan, Alfred Keter, Thomas L Holland, Edwin Sang, Sylvester Kimaiyo and Eric J Velazquez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:284

    Content type: Research article

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  45. In high-income settings, the spectrum of morbidity and mortality experienced by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has switched from pre...

    Authors: Paula Mendes Luz, Mathias Bruyand, Sayonara Ribeiro, Fabrice Bonnet, Ronaldo Ismério Moreira, Mojgan Hessamfar, Dayse Perreira Campos, Carine Greib, Charles Cazanave, Valdilea Gonçalves Veloso, François Dabis, Beatriz Grinsztejn and Geneviève Chêne

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:278

    Content type: Research article

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  46. In the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) era, the prognosis of children perinatally infected with HIV-1 has significantly improved, so the number of perinatally-infected females entering child-beari...

    Authors: Carmelina Calitri, Clara Gabiano, Luisa Galli, Elena Chiappini, Carlo Giaquinto, Wilma Buffolano, Orazio Genovese, Susanna Esposito, Stefania Bernardi, Maurizio De Martino and Pier-Angelo Tovo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:277

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Women living with HIV (WLWH) are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). International HIV guidelines suggest cervical screening twice the first year after HIV diagnosis and thereafter annually. A...

    Authors: Kristina Thorsteinsson, Steen Ladelund, Søren Jensen-Fangel, Terese L Katzenstein, Isik Somuncu Johansen, Gitte Pedersen, Jette Junge, Marie Helleberg, Merete Storgaard and Anne-Mette Lebech

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:256

    Content type: Research article

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  48. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of K101Q, Y181C and H221Y emerging in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with different mutations patterns in phenotypic susceptibility to currently available NNRTIs ...

    Authors: Wei Guo, Hanping Li, Daomin Zhuang, Liyan Jiao, Siyang Liu, Lin Li, Yongjian Liu, Tao Gui, Lei Jia and Jingyun Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:237

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Reports of increased morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases among HIV Exposed Uninfected (HEU) infants have raised concern about a possible underlying immunodeficiency among them. The objective of th...

    Authors: Fatima Kakkar, Valerie Lamarre, Thierry Ducruet, Marc Boucher, Silvie Valois, Hugo Soudeyns and Normand Lapointe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:236

    Content type: Research article

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