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HIV and co-infections

Section edited by Carlo Torti 

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of HIV and HIV-associated infections in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section also aims to publish studies on the adverse events of HAART and non HIV-related comorbidities in the HAART era.

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  1. The implementation of collaborative TB-HIV services is challenging. We, therefore, assessed TB treatment outcomes in relation to HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) among TB patients attending a pri...

    Authors: Mweete D. Nglazi, Linda-Gail Bekker, Robin Wood and Richard Kaplan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:536

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Adolescents have gained increased attention because they are the only age group where HIV related mortality is going up. We set out to describe the level and factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral...

    Authors: Nicolette Nabukeera-Barungi, Peter Elyanu, Barbara Asire, Cordelia Katureebe, Ivan Lukabwe, Eleanor Namusoke, Joshua Musinguzi, Lynn Atuyambe and Nathan Tumwesigye

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:520

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors contribute to increase risk of CVD in people living with HIV (PLWH). Of all world regions, sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of HIV yet little ...

    Authors: Tecla M. Temu, Nicholas Kirui, Celestine Wanjalla, Alfred M. Ndungu, Jemima H. Kamano, Thomas S. Inui and Gerald S. Bloomfield

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:421

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The burden of malnutrition among HIV-infected children is not well described in sub-Saharan Africa, even though it is an important problem to take into account to guarantee appropriate healthcare for these chi...

    Authors: Julie Jesson, David Masson, Arsène Adonon, Caroline Tran, Capitoline Habarugira, Réjane Zio, Léoncie Nicimpaye, Sophie Desmonde, Goreth Serurakuba, Rosine Kwayep, Edith Sare, Tiefing Konate, Abdoulaye Nimaga, Philemon Saina, Akossiwa Kpade, Andrée Bassuka…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:216

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection of the liver, known as hepatic TB, is an extrapulmonary manifestation of TB. Hepatic TB has become more prevalent, likely as a result of the human immunodeficiency virus/...

    Authors: Andrew J Hickey, Lilishia Gounder, Mahomed-Yunus S Moosa and Paul K Drain

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:209

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Truck drivers constitute an important bridging group in the HIV epidemic in Morocco. This study examined the effect of a community-based educational intervention in Morocco on HIV testing and counseling, in re...

    Authors: Hakima Himmich, Lahoucine Ouarsas, Fatima Zahra Hajouji, Caroline Lions, Perrine Roux and Patrizia Carrieri

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:208

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine antibody response has been associated with reduced risk of AIDS or death. However, it is unknown whether HBV vaccine responsiveness is associated with improved immune reconstitu...

    Authors: Kahtonna Allen, Octavio Mesner, Anuradha Ganesan, Thomas A O’Bryan, Robert G Deiss, Brian K Agan and Jason F Okulicz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:203

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Over the last two decades, the proportion of people who inject drugs among newly reported HIV cases in Italy has been continuously declining. This trend is reflected in the prevalence of HIV infection among pr...

    Authors: Mario Cruciani, Lucas Wiessing, Giovanni Serpelloni, Bruno Genetti, Alessandra Andreotti, Carpignano Iulia, Monica Zermiani and Barbara Suligoi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:201

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Among people living with HIV/AIDS, illicit drug use is a risk for sub-optimal treatment outcomes. However, few studies have examined the relative contributions of different patterns of drug use on adherence to...

    Authors: Pouya Azar, Evan Wood, Paul Nguyen, Maxo Luma, Julio Montaner, Thomas Kerr and M-J Milloy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:193

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Syphilis facilitates both HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) transmission and acquisition, reflecting the complex interplay between the two infections. Scarce information exists regarding syphilis epidemiology...

    Authors: Techalew Shimelis, Kinfe Lemma, Henock Ambachew and Endale Tadesse

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:189

    Content type: Research article

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  11. After more than a decade of establishing and expanding access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), empirical evidence on its impact on trends of opportunistic infections (OIs) associated with the d...

    Authors: John Rubaihayo, Nazarius M Tumwesigye and Joseph Konde-Lule

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:187

    Content type: Research article

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  12. We explored the impact of transient cART started during the primary HIV-infection (PHI) on the long-term immunologic and virologic response on cART resumption, by comparison with treatment initiation during th...

    Authors: Evguenia Krastinova, Remonie Seng, Jerome Lechenadec, Henri Panjo, Asma Essat, Djamila Makhloufi, Martine Obadia, Louis Bernard, Cecile Goujard and Laurence Meyer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:178

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The causes of severe morbidity in health facilities implementing Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) programmes are poorly documented in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to describe severe morbidity among HIV-infected ...

    Authors: Yao Abo, Marcel Zannou Djimon, Eugène Messou, Eric Balestre, Martial Kouakou, Jocelyn Akakpo, Carin Ahouada, Nathalie de Rekeneire, François Dabis, Charlotte Lewden and Albert Minga

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:176

    Content type: Research article

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  14. In the Mitra plus study of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, which included 501 women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) was given from late pregnancy throughout...

    Authors: Matilda Ngarina, Charles Kilewo, Katarina Karlsson, Said Aboud, Annika Karlsson, Gaetano Marrone, Germana Leyna, Anna Mia Ekström and Gunnel Biberfeld

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:175

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Few studies have described time-based trends of clinical and demographic characteristics of children enrolling in HIV and AIDS care and treatment services. We present findings of a study that explored time-bas...

    Authors: David Sando, Donna Spiegelman, Lameck Machumi, Mary Mwanyika-Sando, Eric Aris, Aisa Muya, Elizabeth Jackson, Till Baernighausen, Ellen Hertzmark, Guerino Chalamilla and Wafaie Fawzi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:157

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Daily throughout 2011, about 900 new HIV infections occurred in children and 630 children died as a result of AIDS-related complications worldwide. Late diagnosis, mortality trends, causes of and risk factors ...

    Authors: Sandra Fagundes Moreira-Silva, Eliana Zandonade and Angélica Espinosa Miranda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:155

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Increased levels of markers of systemic inflammation have been associated with serious non-AIDS events even in patients on fully suppressive antiretroviral therapy. We explored residual viremia and systemic in...

    Authors: Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Ana Milinkovic, Dimitra Peppa, Anna McKendry, Mala Maini and Richard Gilson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:138

    Content type: Research article

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  18. In Nigeria, reports of the outcomes of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) interventions had been limited to the MTCT rates of HIV, with no information on HIV-free survival (HFS) in the H...

    Authors: Emmanuel A Anígilájé, Othniel J Dabit, Ayodotun Olutola, Bem Ageda and Sunday A Aderibigbe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:132

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Achieving the goal of eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) necessitates increased access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected pregnant women. Option B provides ART through pregnancy ...

    Authors: Adam VanDeusen, Elijah Paintsil, Thomas Agyarko-Poku and Elisa F Long

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:130

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced mortality among HIV-infected children. However, there is growing concern about long-term effects associated to ART. The aim of this study was to...

    Authors: Daniel Blázquez, José Tomás Ramos-Amador, Talía Saínz, María José Mellado, Marta García-Ascaso, María Isabel De José, Pablo Rojo, María Luisa Navarro, María Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Jesús Saavedra, Miguel Angel Roa, Santiago Jiménez, José Beceiro, Luis Prieto, Milagros García Hortelano and María Isabel González-Tomé

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:119

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The rate of vertical HIV transmission has decreased in Brazil, but regional inequalities suggest problems in implementing control measures during pregnancy and delivery. The aims of this study were to ascertai...

    Authors: Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Celia Landmann Szwarcwald, Paulo Roberto Borges Souza Jr and Maria do Carmo Leal

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:100

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has extended life expectancy and enhanced the well-being of HIV-positive individuals. Since there are concerns regarding HAART-mediated onset of cardio-metabolic di...

    Authors: Theodore A Nell, Maritza J Kruger, Dillan C Beukes, Esme Calitz, Rehana Essop and M Faadiel Essop

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:85

    Content type: Research article

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  23. People who inject drugs (PWID) are an important group at risk of blood borne infections in Poland. However, robust evidence regarding the magnitude of the problem and geographical variation is lacking, while c...

    Authors: Magdalena Rosińska, Janusz Sierosławski and Lucas Wiessing

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:83

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The HIV-1 epidemic in Slovenia, a small Central European country, has some characteristics that make it an ideal model to study HIV-1 transmission. The epidemic is predominantly affecting men who have sex with...

    Authors: Maja M Lunar, Anne-Mieke Vandamme, Janez Tomažič, Primož Karner, Tomaž D Vovko, Blaž Pečavar, Gabriele Volčanšek, Mario Poljak and Ana B Abecasis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:65

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Several in vitro studies suggested the microRNA-29 (miRNA-29) family is involved in regulating HIV-1 and modulating the expression of interleukin (IL)-32, an anti-HIV-1 cytokine.

    Authors: Katia Monteleone, Carla Selvaggi, Giulia Cacciotti, Francesca Falasca, Ivano Mezzaroma, Gabriella D’Ettorre, Ombretta Turriziani, Vincenzo Vullo, Guido Antonelli and Carolina Scagnolari

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:51

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Penicillium marneffei disseminates hematogenously and can infect most organs, though infection leading to osteolysis is extremely rare. We describe the clinical and laboratory features, management, and outcomes o...

    Authors: Ye Qiu, Jianquan Zhang, Guangnan Liu, Xiaoning Zhong, Jingmin Deng, Zhiyi He and Bai Jing

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:47

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Between 2010–2013, South Africa implemented WHO ‘Option A’ for prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT), where all HIV-infected pregnant women (from 14 weeks gestation) received zidovudine (AZT) as A...

    Authors: Kathryn Schnippel, Constance Mongwenyana, Lawrence C Long and Bruce A Larson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:46

    Content type: Research article

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  28. In Ethiopia a tiebreaker algorithm using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in series is used to diagnose HIV. Discordant results between the first 2 RDTs are resolved by a third ‘tiebreaker’ RDT. Médecins Sans F...

    Authors: Leslie Shanks, M Ruby Siddiqui, Jarmila Kliescikova, Neil Pearce, Cono Ariti, Libsework Muluneh, Erwan Pirou, Koert Ritmeijer, Johnson Masiga and Almaz Abebe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:39

    Content type: Research article

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  29. After the onset of HAART, some HIV-infected individuals under treatment present a exacerbated inflammation in response to a latent or a previously treated opportunistic pathogen termed immune reconstitution in...

    Authors: Luana Gois, Roberto Badaró, Robert Schooley and Maria Fernanda Rios Grassi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:38

    Content type: Case report

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  30. HIV-uninfected infants born to HIV-infected mothers (HIV-exposed uninfected, HEU) have been described to have immune alterations as compared to unexposed infants. This study sought to characterize T-cell popul...

    Authors: Nilsa de Deus, Cinta Moraleda, Celia Serna-Bolea, Montse Renom, Clara Menendez and Denise Naniche

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:37

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Around 3.3 million children worldwide are infected with HIV and 90% of them live in sub-Saharan Africa. Our study aimed to estimate adherence levels and find the determinants, facilitators and barriers of ART ...

    Authors: Daniel Nyogea, Sally Mtenga, Lars Henning, Fabian C Franzeck, Tracy R Glass, Emilio Letang, Marcel Tanner and Eveline Geubbels

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:28

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Many low and middle-income countries are experiencing colliding epidemics of chronic infectious (ID) and non-communicable diseases (NCD). As a result, the prevalence of multiple morbidities (MM) is rising.

    Authors: Tolu Oni, Elizabeth Youngblood, Andrew Boulle, Nuala McGrath, Robert J Wilkinson and Naomi S Levitt

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:20

    Content type: Research article

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  33. In recent years community-based voluntary counselling and testing sites (CB-VCT) for men having sex with men (MSM) have been established in larger cities in Germany to offer more opportunities for HIV testing....

    Authors: Ulrich Marcus, Jasmin Ort, Marc Grenz, Kai Eckstein, Karin Wirtz and Andreas Wille

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:14

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Previous studies reported that the incidence of intestinal spirochetosis was high in homosexual men, especially those with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. The aim of the present study was to clarify th...

    Authors: Yoko Tateishi, Masae Takahashi, Shin-ichiro Horiguchi, Nobuaki Funata, Koichi Koizumi, Koji Okudela, Tsunekazu Hishima and Kenichi Ohashi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:13

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Dilated cardiomyopathy occurring in HIV-infected patients raises both diagnostic and therapeutic challenging problems. Indeed myocardial involvement in HIV infection has been variously attributed to several ca...

    Authors: Andrea Frustaci, Nicola Petrosillo, Marco Francone, Romina Verardo, Giuseppe Ippolito and Cristina Chimenti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:729

    Content type: Case report

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  36. HIV increasingly is experienced as a complex chronic illness where individuals are living longer with a range of physical, cognitive, mental and social health-related challenges associated with HIV, comorbidit...

    Authors: Kelly K O’Brien, Francisco Ibáñez-Carrasco, Patricia Solomon, Richard Harding, Jessica Cattaneo, William Chegwidden, Jacqueline Gahagan, Larry Baxter, Catherine Worthington, Patriic Gayle, Brenda Merritt, Rosalind Baltzer-Turje, Nkem Iku and Elisse Zack

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:724

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Few data exist on the use of text messaging as a tool to promote retention in HIV care and virologic suppression at the clinic level in the United States. We describe the protocol for a study designed to inves...

    Authors: Katerina A Christopoulos, Elise D Riley, Jacqueline Tulsky, Adam W Carrico, Judith T Moskowitz, Leslie Wilson, Lara S Coffin, Veesta Falahati, Jordan Akerley and Joan F Hilton

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:718

    Content type: Study protocol

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  38. Our aim was to compare the 12-month incidence and clearance of oral high-risk HPV infection between HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-negative MSM.

    Authors: Fleur van Aar, Sofie H Mooij, Marianne AB van der Sande, Chris JLM Meijer, Audrey J King, Dominique WM Verhagen, Titia Heijman, Roel A Coutinho and Maarten F Schim van der Loeff

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:668

    Content type: Research article

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  39. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV infection has become a chronic condition in children with improved survival and quality of life. Reports on long term effectiveness of non-n...

    Authors: Aparna Mukherjee, Nipam Shah, Ravinder Singh, Madhu Vajpayee, Sushil K Kabra and Rakesh Lodha

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:701

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy has resulted in a marked impact on reducing the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MCT) of HIV. However the safety of in utero ART exposure in newborns remains a co...

    Authors: Luis M Prieto, María Isabel González- Tomé, Eloy Muñoz, María Fernández-Ibieta, Beatriz Soto, Ana Álvarez, Maria Luisa Navarro, Miguel Ángel Roa, José Beceiro, María Isabel de José, Iciar Olabarrieta, David Lora and José Tomás Ramos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:700

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Anaemia is frequently associated with both HIV-infection and HIV-related tuberculosis (TB) in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients in sub-Saharan Africa and is strongly associated with poor prognosis. H...

    Authors: Andrew D Kerkhoff, Robin Wood, Frank G Cobelens, Ankur Gupta-Wright, Linda-Gail Bekker and Stephen D Lawn

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:3860

    Content type: Research article

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  42. People who inject drugs (PWID) are a key population affected by HIV. We assessed the effectiveness of HIV treatment among a clinical cohort of people living with HIV (PLHIV) diagnosed and referred for communit...

    Authors: Nick Walsh, Anne Mijch, Kerrie Watson, Handan Wand, Christopher K Fairley, John McNeil, Nick Crofts and Lisa Maher

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:707

    Content type: Research article

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  43. World-wide, the notable expansion of HIV/AIDS treatment programs in resource-limited settings has lead to an increasing number of patients in need of second-line cART. To adequately address and prepare for thi...

    Authors: Sandra W Cardoso, Paula M Luz, Luciane Velasque, Thiago S Torres, Isabel C Tavares, Sayonara R Ribeiro, Ronaldo I Moreira, Valdilea G Veloso, Richard D Moore and Beatriz Grinsztejn

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:699

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is an important public health issue, because TDR-associated mutation may affect the outcome of antiretroviral treatment potentially or directly. Men who have sex with men (MSM...

    Authors: Yang Jiao, Shuming Li, Zhenpeng Li, Zheng Zhang, Jianhong Zhao, Li Li, Lijuan Wang, Qianqian Yin, Yan Wang, Zhaoli Zeng, Yiming Shao and Liying Ma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:689

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Anal cancer has become one of the most common non-AIDS-defined tumors among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive (HIV+) individuals, and a rise in its incidence among HIV+ Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) has ...

    Authors: Rocío Méndez-Martínez, Norma E Rivera-Martínez, Brenda Crabtree-Ramírez, Juan G Sierra-Madero, Yanink Caro-Vega, Silvia C Galván, David Cantú de León and Alejandro García-Carrancá

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:671

    Content type: Research article

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  46. The HIV co-receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 play an important role in HIV infection and replication. Therefore we hypothesize that long-term non-progressors (LTNP) with viral control have lower expression of CCR5 and ...

    Authors: Hinta Meijerink, Agnes R Indrati, Reinout van Crevel, Irma Joosten, Hans Koenen and Andre JAM van der Ven

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:683

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Most patients who experience virologic failure (VF) on second line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low-middle income countries fail due to poor adherence rather than antiretroviral resistance. A simple adheren...

    Authors: Richard Court, Rory Leisegang, Annemie Stewart, Henry Sunpath, Richard Murphy, Philip Winternheimer, Mashuda Ally and Gary Maartens

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:664

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Major hospitals in most Chinese cities have the capability to perform HIV testing. However, it is not a routine test for all patients and, as a result, many patients are not aware of their HIV status. To under...

    Authors: Hua-Feng Xu, Hai-Zhou Zhou, Li-Xin Jiang, Na Zhang, Xuan Zhang and Xiu-Ru Guan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:605

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Global health investment has reduced HIV mortality and transmission. However, little is known of patient-reported outcomes alongside ART rollout. This study aimed to measure wellbeing using patient-reported ou...

    Authors: Richard Harding, Victoria Simms, Suzanne Penfold, Julia Downing, Eve Namisango, Richard A Powell, Faith Mwangi-Powell, Scott Moreland, Nancy Gikaara, Mackuline Atieno and Irene J Higginson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:613

    Content type: Research article

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