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HIV and co-infections

Section edited by Carlo Torti 

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of HIV and HIV-associated infections in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section also aims to publish studies on the adverse events of HAART and non HIV-related comorbidities in the HAART era.

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  1. The implementation of national antiretroviral therapy (ART) and expanded ART policies results in that more and more HIV-infected patients receive ART in Kunming, Yunnan province, China. At the same time, howev...

    Authors: Bin Liao, Xiao-Wen Zhang, Jing-Ying Wang, Jun Liu, Jun Liang, Wen-Jie He, Biao Hong and Yi Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1043

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Anemia is a common problem in HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infected patients, and is associated with decreased functional capacity and quality of life. Ethiopia is one of the countries which has expanded...

    Authors: Fasil Wagnew, Setegn Eshetie, Animut Alebel, Cheru Tesema, Getiye Dejenu Kibret, Alemu Gebrie, Getenet Dessie and Amanuel Alemu Abajobir

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1032

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Cytomegalovirus infection dramatically decreased with the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. Whether incidence, clinical characteristics and prognosis of cytomegalovirus in HIV infected patients, has chan...

    Authors: R. Perello, A. Vergara, E. Monclus, S. Jimenez, M. Montero, N. Saubi, A. Moreno, Y. Eto, A. Inciarte, J. Mallolas, E. Martínez and M. A. Marcos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1030

    Content type: Research article

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  4. In 2018 in Ethiopia, magnitude of human immunodeficiency virus Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome treatment failure was 15.9% and currently the number of patient receiving second line antiretroviral therapy (A...

    Authors: Diriba Mulisa, Mulugeta Tesfa, Getachew Mullu Kassa and Tadesse Tolossa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1024

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Few countries in sub-Saharan Africa know the magnitude of their HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID). This was the first study in Mozambique to measure prevalence of HIV, HBV, and HCV, and to asse...

    Authors: Cynthia Semá Baltazar, Roberta Horth, Makini Boothe, Isabel Sathane, Peter Young, Denise Chitsondzo Langa, Manuel Condula, Helena Ricardo, Liliana Dengo Baloi, Beverley Cummings, Nicolas Schaad, Lídia Gouveia, Eugénia Teodoro and Henry F. Raymond

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1022

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) has greatly improved the prognosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients globally, opportunistic infections (OIs) are still common in Chinese AIDS patients...

    Authors: Yongxi Zhang, Brian Cooper, Xi’en Gui, Renslow Sherer and Qian Cao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1003

    Content type: Case report

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  7. The prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) has become a significant public health challenge. The aim was to comprehensively estimate the national prevalence of HIV among MSM and its time trend...

    Authors: Meng-Jie Dong, Bin Peng, Zhen-Feng Liu, Qian-ni Ye, Hao Liu, Xi-Li Lu, Bo Zhang and Jia-Jia Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1000

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Malaria and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection constitute public health problems in Cameroon including the South West Region (SWR). This study determined the prevalence of malaria parasites and h...

    Authors: Sorelle Mekachie Sandie, Irene Ule Ngole Sumbele, Martin Mih Tasah and Helen Kuokuo Kimbi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:988

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The co-occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and malaria in humans in endemic areas raises the question of whether one of these infections affects the course of the other. Although epidemi...

    Authors: Guangjie Liu, Youjia Li, Li Qin, Yongxiang Yan, Yijian Ye, Yue Chen, Cuizhu Huang, Siting Zhao, Yongchao Yao, Zhong Su and Xiaoping Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:965

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Ruili is a border city in southwest China along the heroin trafficking route. In recent decades, the city has witnessed increased in HIV transmission. The current study aims to explore the spatiotemporal trend...

    Authors: Li Jiang, Zhoulin Li, Jin Huang, Bang Liu, Yingbo Yang, Lanzhu Lin, Chengbo Wang, Ximei Xie, Xia Peng, Wen Xu and Hong Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:925

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Programmatic data on the baseline risk of tuberculosis in people living with HIV (PLHIV) are needed to evaluate long-term effectiveness of the ongoing isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) roll-out in India.

    Authors: Akshay N. Gupte, Dileep Kadam, Shashikala Sangle, Bharat B. Rewari, Sonali Salvi, Amol Chavan, Smita Nimkar, Jonathan Golub, Nikhil Gupte, Amita Gupta, Ivan Marbaniang and Vidya Mave

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:914

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Self-reported antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence measures that are associated with plasma viral load (VL) are valuable to clinicians and researchers, but are rarely examined among groups vulnerable to drop...

    Authors: William E. Cunningham, Robin M. Nance, Carol E. Golin, Patrick Flynn, Kevin Knight, Curt G. Beckwith, Irene Kuo, Anne Spaulding, Faye S. Taxman, Fredrick Altice, Joseph A. Delaney, Heidi M. Crane and Sandra A. Springer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:913

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Migrants often face barriers to accessing healthcare. We examined disparities in access to and use of HIV-related health services between migrant and non-migrant people recently diagnosed with HIV living in th...

    Authors: Janneke P. Bil, Freke R. Zuure, Debora Alvarez-del Arco, Jan M. Prins, Kees Brinkman, Eliane Leyten, Ard van Sighem, Fiona Burns and Maria Prins

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:906

    Content type: Research article

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  14. It is frequently of epidemiological and/or clinical interest to estimate the date of HIV infection or time-since-infection of individuals. Yet, for over 15 years, the only widely-referenced infection dating al...

    Authors: Eduard Grebe, Shelley N. Facente, Jeremy Bingham, Christopher D. Pilcher, Andrew Powrie, Jarryd Gerber, Gareth Priede, Trust Chibawara, Michael P. Busch, Gary Murphy, Reshma Kassanjee and Alex Welte

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:894

    Content type: Technical advance

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  15. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin plays an important role in the treatment of patients with severe refractory human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS). High cumulative doses of conventio...

    Authors: Ayaka Ishihara, Shuji Hatakeyama, Jun Suzuki, Yusuke Amano, Teppei Sasahara, Masaki Toshima and Yuji Morisawa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:848

    Content type: Case report

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  16. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)-containing combinations were introduced in Switzerland after October 2016 and are recommended over tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in patients with osteoporosis or impaired rena...

    Authors: Bernard Surial, Matthias Cavassini, Alexandra Calmy, Jan Fehr, Marcel Stöckle, Enos Bernasconi, Bianca Roth, Christoph A. Fux, Helen Kovari, Hansjakob Furrer, Andri Rauch and Gilles Wandeler

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:834

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Elite controllers (EC), a small subset of the HIV-positive population (< 1%), suppress HIV viremia below the limit of quantification of clinical viral load assays in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART)...

    Authors: Deirdre Morley, John S. Lambert, Louise E. Hogan, Cillian De Gascun, Niamh Redmond, Rachel L. Rutishauser, Cassandra Thanh, Erica A. Gibson, Kristen Hobbs, Sonia Bakkour, Michael P. Busch, Jeremy Farrell, Padraig McGetrick and Timothy J. Henrich

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:815

    Content type: Case report

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:877

  18. Prevention of new HIV infections is a critical public health issue. The highest HIV testing gaps are in men, adolescents 15–19 years old, and adults 40 years and older. Community-based HIV testing services (HT...

    Authors: Pitchaya P. Indravudh, Katherine Fielding, Moses K. Kumwenda, Rebecca Nzawa, Richard Chilongosi, Nicola Desmond, Rose Nyirenda, Cheryl C. Johnson, Rachel C. Baggaley, Karin Hatzold, Fern Terris-Prestholt and Elizabeth L. Corbett

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:814

    Content type: Study protocol

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  19. HIV self-testing (HIVST) is a promising approach to expand HIV testing. HIVST is a process in which a person performs an HIV test and interprets the result. Negative HIVST results may encourage men who have se...

    Authors: Weiming Tang, Wenting Huang, Haidong Lu, Bolin Cao, Dan Wu, Jason Ong, Hongyun Fu, Ye Zhang, Bin Yang, Cheng Wang, Wei Ma, Chongyi Wei and Joseph D. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:807

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Non-typhoidal salmonellae (NTS) have been associated with invasive disease, notably meningitis, in immunocompromised individuals. Infections of this nature carry high rates of morbidity and mortality. Colistin...

    Authors: Roxanne Rule, Nontombi Mbelle, John Osei Sekyere, Marleen Kock, Anwar Hoosen and Mohamed Said

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:806

    Content type: Case report

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  21. The HLA-B*57:01 allele is associated with a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir. Due to the lack of knowledge of HLA-B*57:01 prevalence in Colombia, routine screening is not performed and is not recommended ...

    Authors: Ernesto Martínez Buitrago, José Millán Oñate, José Fernando García-Goez, Jorge Álvarez, William Lenis, Luz Marina Sañudo and Luisa Consuelo Rubiano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:793

    Content type: Research article

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  22. South Africa has the highest HIV prevalence and supports the largest antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme globally. With the introduction of a test and treat policy, ensuring long term optimal adherence to A...

    Authors: Atika Moosa, Tanuja N. Gengiah, Lara Lewis and Kogieleum Naidoo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:775

    Content type: Research article

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  23. HCV (Hepatitis C virus) is a prevalent chronic disease with potentially deadly consequences, especially for drug users. However, there are no special HCV or HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)-related intervent...

    Authors: Jing Ying Zhang, Zhi Bin Li, Lei Zhang, Jun Wang, Le Ping Huang, Gui Lai Zhan, Zhu Li, Jiang Du and Min Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:774

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Tuberculosis (TB) is among the world’s top public health challenges and the leading killer of people with HIV, yet is a treatable disease. This study aimed to assess, in a real-world setting, the implementatio...

    Authors: Ley Muyaya Muyaya, Esperance Manwana Musanda and Jacques Lukenze Tamuzi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:767

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Little is known about contextual factors that predict long-term mortality following HIV testing in resource-limited settings. We evaluated the impact of contextual factors on 5-year mortality among HIV-infecte...

    Authors: Ingrid V. Bassett, Ai Xu, Janet Giddy, Laura M. Bogart, Andrew Boulle, Lucia Millham, Elena Losina and Robert A. Parker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:751

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The use of fixed combination antiretroviral therapy with a low genetic barrier for the treatment of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may affect the local HIV transmitted drug resistanc...

    Authors: Ya-Wei Weng, I-Tzu Chen, Hung-Chin Tsai, Kuan-Sheng Wu, Yu-Ting Tseng, Cheng-Len Sy, Jui-Kuang Chen, Susan Shin-Jung Lee and Yao-Shen Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:741

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Women living with HIV (WLWH) have high rates of persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infections and cervical cancer. We aimed to assess the distribution of hrHPV genotypes, risk factors of type-sp...

    Authors: Kristina Thorsteinsson, Steen Ladelund, Merete Storgaard, Terese L. Katzenstein, Isik Somuncu Johansen, Gitte Pedersen, Frederikke Falkencrone Rönsholt, Lars Nørregård Nielsen, Lisbeth Nilas, Maria Franzmann, Niels Obel, Anne-Mette Lebech and Jesper Bonde

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:740

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in HIV endemic settings is a major threat to public health. MDR-TB is a substantial and underreported problem in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with recognised cases projec...

    Authors: Elvis Dzelamonyuy Chem, Marie Claire Van Hout and Vivian Hope

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:723

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising and effective tool to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission; however, context-specific data to guide optimal implementation are currently lackin...

    Authors: Hongyi Wang, Yonghui Zhang, Zhu Mei, Yueru Jia, Sequoia I. Leuba, Jing Zhang, Zhenxing Chu, Haibo Ding, Yongjun Jiang, Wenqing Geng, Hong Shang and Junjie Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:721

    Content type: Study protocol

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  30. Gynecomastia is known to occur in some men taking an efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. However, the incidence and outcomes of gynecomastia are not known in Zimbabwe. We described the charac...

    Authors: Sandra Shawarira-Bote, Tinei Shamu and Cleophas Chimbetete

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:715

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Thymidine analogues (TA) and didanosine (ddI) are associated with long-lasting adipose tissue redistribution. Adiponectin is a widely used marker of adipocyte activity, and adipose tissue density assessed by C...

    Authors: Marco Gelpi, Andreas Dehlbæk Knudsen, Karoline Brostrup Larsen, Amanda Mocroft, Anne-Mette Lebech, Birgitte Lindegaard, Jens Lundgren, Klaus Fuglsang Kofoed and Susanne Dam Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:708

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The SELPHI study (An HIV Self-Testing Public Health Intervention) is an online randomised controlled trial (RCT) of HIV self-testing (HIVST). The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of recruiting U...

    Authors: T. Charles Witzel, Michelle M. Gabriel, Leanne McCabe, Peter Weatherburn, Mitzy Gafos, Andrew Speakman, Roger Pebody, Fiona M. Burns, Chris Bonell, Fiona C. Lampe, David T. Dunn, Denise Ward, Justin Harbottle, Andrew N. Phillips, Sheena McCormack and Alison J. Rodger

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:699

    Content type: Research article

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  33. In Europe, the highest proportion of HIV diagnoses are in gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM). Globally, HIV prevalence is particularly high among males who report selling sex, but rates among me...

    Authors: Rigmor C. Berg, Peter Weatherburn, Ulrich Marcus and Axel J. Schmidt

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:686

    Content type: Research article

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  34. HIV-infected children are at a higher risk of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) and its mortality, even in the era of antiretroviral therapy. Therefore, an effective vaccination strategy would be beneficial....

    Authors: Hossein Molavi Vardanjani, Hodjat Borna and Ali Ahmadi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:685

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence club (AC) differentiated service delivery model, where clinically stable ART patients receive their ART refills and psychosocial support in groups has supported clini...

    Authors: Lynne Wilkinson, Anna Grimsrud, Tali Cassidy, Catherine Orrell, Jacqueline Voget, Helen Hayes, Claire Keene, Sarah Jane Steele and Rodd Gerstenhaber

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:674

    Content type: Study protocol

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  36. As a gateway for HIV-1 in China, Yunnan has experienced dramatic changes in HIV-1 epidemics, during which HIV-1 genotypes have become complex. To track dynamic changes in HIV-1 genotypes, an HIV-1 molecular ep...

    Authors: Min Chen, Yanling Ma, Huichao Chen, Jie Dai, Hongbing Luo, Chaojun Yang, Lijuan Dong, Xiaomei Jin, Min Yang, Li Yang, Lijun Song, Zhizhong Song and Manhong Jia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:669

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Biomedical interventions such as antiretroviral therapy (ART) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are highly effective for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, China has not rel...

    Authors: Qing-hai Hu, Kathrine Meyers, Jun-jie Xu, Zhen-xing Chu, Jing Zhang, Hai-bo Ding, Xiao-xu Han, Yong-jun Jiang, Wen-qing Geng and Hong Shang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:663

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is one of the most common HIV-related opportunistic infections. The diagnosis of PCP is based on analyses from respiratory tract specimens which may require the invasive pro...

    Authors: Helena Hammarström, Anna Grankvist, Isabell Broman, Nahid Kondori, Christine Wennerås, Magnus Gisslen and Vanda Friman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:658

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Retaining patients on antiretroviral treatment in care is critical to sustaining the 90:90:90 vision. Nigeria has made some progress in placing HIV-positive patients on treatment. In an effort to increase acce...

    Authors: Chukwuma David Umeokonkwo, Chima Ariel Onoka, Pearl Adaoha Agu, Edmund Ndudi Ossai, Muhammad Shakir Balogun and Lawrence Ulu Ogbonnaya

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:654

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Given the widespread use of the Internet among men who have sex with men (MSM) and high risk of Internet-facilitated sexual behaviors, Internet-based interventions to reduce sexual risk are urgently needed.

    Authors: Weibin Cheng, Huifang Xu, Weiming Tang, Fei Zhong, Gang Meng, Zhigang Han and Jinkou Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:644

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death for individuals infected with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Conversely, HIV is the most important risk factor in the progression of TB from the latent to t...

    Authors: Augustus Aturinde, Mahdi Farnaghi, Petter Pilesjö and Ali Mansourian

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:612

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Second-line Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) regimens are used when patients develop treatment failure for first-line drug regimens. It is costly unaffordable and it is not widely available for patients in resourc...

    Authors: Muluneh Alene, Tadesse Awoke, Melaku Kindie Yenit and Adino Tesfahun Tsegaye

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:599

    Content type: Research article

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  43. People aging with HIV can experience a variety of health challenges associated with HIV and multimorbidity, referred to as ‘disability’. Our aim was to characterize the disability experience and examine relati...

    Authors: Kelly K. O’Brien, Steven Hanna, Patricia Solomon, Catherine Worthington, Francisco Ibáñez-Carrasco, Soo Chan Carusone, Stephanie Nixon, Brenda Merritt, Jacqueline Gahagan, Larry Baxter, Patriic Gayle, Greg Robinson, Rosalind Baltzer Turje, Stephen Tattle and Tammy Yates

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:594

    Content type: Research article

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  44. HIV controllers (HICs) are a rare group of HIV-1-infected individuals able to naturally control viral replication. Several studies have identified the occurrence of HIV dual infections in seropositive individu...

    Authors: Diogo Gama Caetano, Fernanda Heloise Côrtes, Gonzalo Bello, Suwellen Sardinha Dias de Azevedo, Brenda Hoagland, Larissa Melo Villela, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdiléa Gonçalves Veloso, Monick Lindenmeyer Guimarães and Mariza Gonçalves Morgado

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:588

    Content type: Case report

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  45. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are implicated in drug-induced hypersensitivity, including by nevirapine and abacavir. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between HLA polym...

    Authors: Kun Hu, Qian Xiang, Zhe Wang, Guang-yan Mu, Zhuo Zhang, Ling-yue Ma, Qiu-fen Xie, Shu-qing Chen, Shuang Zhou, Xiao-dan Zhang and Yi-min Cui

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:583

    Content type: Research article

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  46. To evaluate the trends in AIDS detection and the AIDS-attributed death rate in Brazil between 2007 and 2015 and to determine the population characteristics associated with AIDS detection.

    Authors: Gerson Fernando Mendes Pereira, Meritxell Sabidó, Alessandro Caruso and Adele Schwartz Benzaken

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:579

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) was rolled-out in Ethiopia in 2005, but there are no reports on outcome of ART and human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) at national level. We described acquired dru...

    Authors: Nigus Fikrie Telele, Amare Worku Kalu, Solomon Gebre-Selassie, Daniel Fekade, Gaetano Marrone, Sebastian Grossmann, Ujjwal Neogi, Belete Tegbaru and Anders Sönnerborg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:569

    Content type: Research article

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  48. To infer transmission direction of a HIV transmission chain is helpful not only in legal jurisdiction but also in precise intervention to prevent HIV spread. Recently, the direction of transmission is inferred...

    Authors: Jianjun Wu, Zhongwang Hu, Hui Yao, Hai Wang, Yanhua Lei, Ping Zhong, Yi Feng, Hui Xing, Yuelan Shen, Lin Jin, Aiwen Liu, Yizu Qin, Lifeng Miao, Bin Su, Yibo Zhang and Hongxiong Guo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:566

    Content type: Research article

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