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HIV and co-infections

Section edited by Carlo Torti and Andrea De Luca

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of HIV and HIV-associated infections in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section also aims to publish studies on the adverse events of HAART and non HIV-related comorbidities in the HAART era.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    In Southeast Asia, though fishermen are known to be a key population at high risk of HIV, little is known about their co-infection rates with Hepatitis C virus (HCV), or how illness and risk behaviors vary by ...

    Authors: Janet Ousley, Robin Nesbitt, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Elkin Bermudez, Kyi Pyar Soe, Rey Anicete, Phyu Ei Mon, Win Le Shwe Sin Ei, Susannah Christofani, Marcelo Fernandez and Iza Ciglenecki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:657

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Geographic differences in HIV, syphilis and condomless sex among men who have sex with men in China remained unknown. We aimed to elucidate these spatiotemporal changing patterns in China.

    Authors: Rong Fu, Jinkou Zhao, Dan Wu, Xiayan Zhang, Joseph D. Tucker, Meiwen Zhang and Weiming Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:652

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV infection. However, there are only few data on HIV prevalence in MSM in Japan. The objective of this study was to explore the HIV prevalence in MSM at Sh...

    Authors: Misao Takano, Kohta Iwahashi, Ikuo Satoh, Junko Araki, Takuya Kinami, Yuzuru Ikushima, Toshiya Fukuhara, Hiroo Obinata, Yasuyo Nakayama, Yoshimi Kikuchi and Shinichi Oka

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:627

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Despite persistent calls for HIV care to adopt a chronic care approach, few HIV treatment services have been able to establish service arrangements that prioritise self-management. To prevent cardiovascular an...

    Authors: Tanya Millard, Sarity Dodson, Karalyn McDonald, Karen M. Klassen, Richard H. Osborne, Malcolm W. Battersby, Christopher K. Fairley and Julian H. Elliott

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:615

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  5. Content type: Research article

    The HIV-Brazil Cohort Study (HIV-BCS) is a research primarily based on data collection from medical records of people living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the validating design ...

    Authors: Alex Jones Flores Cassenote, Alexandre Grangeiro, Maria Mercedes Escuder, Jair Minoro Abe and Aluísio Augusto Cotrim Segurado

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:617

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Despite substantial advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the last decades, non-adherence (NA) continues to be a major challenge in the real-life treatment. To meet...

    Authors: Sabrina Mueller, Thomas Wilke, Vanessa Gorasso, Marc Erhart and Jens M. Kittner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:599

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The new HIV treatment guidelines in China recommend antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all people living with HIV, but significant gaps in implementation still exist. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can effectiv...

    Authors: Jinghua Li, Liping Peng, Stuart Gilmour, Jing Gu, Yuhua Ruan, Huachun Zou, Chun Hao, Yuantao Hao and Joseph Tak-fai Lau

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:600

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  8. Content type: Research article

    In most developing economies particularly in Africa, more people are likely to die of HIV/AIDS and malaria compared to other diseases. HIV/AIDS tends to be superimposed on the long standing malaria burden part...

    Authors: Isaiah Gwitira, Amon Murwira, Joseph Mberikunashe and Mhosisi Masocha

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:598

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  9. Content type: Research article

    High retention (follow-up) rates improve the validity and statistical power of outcomes in longitudinal studies and the effectiveness of programs with prolonged administration of interventions. We assessed par...

    Authors: Noah Kiwanuka, Juliet Mpendo, Stephen Asiimwe, Julius Ssempiira, Annet Nalutaaya, Betty Nambuusi, Mathias Wambuzi, Brian Kabuubi, Annemarie Namuniina, Frederick Oporia, Annet Nanvubya and Ali Ssetaala

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:591

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  10. Content type: Research article

    With the expansion of Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) services in Senegal, there is growing interest in using PMTCT program data in lieu of conducting unlinked anonymous testing (UAT)-based ...

    Authors: Ousmane Diouf, Astou Gueye-Gaye, Moussa Sarr, Abdou Salam Mbengue, Christopher S. Murrill, Jacob Dee, Papa Ousmane Diaw, Ndeye Fatou Ngom-Faye, Pape Amadou Niang Diallo, Carlos Suarez, Massaer Gueye, Aminata Mboup, Coumba Toure-Kane and Souleymane Mboup

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:588

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Schistosoma mansoni infection has been associated with increased risk of HIV transmission in African women. This association might be causal or mediated through shared socio-behavioural factors and associated co-...

    Authors: Sergey Yegorov, Ronald M. Galiwango, Sara V. Good, Juliet Mpendo, Egbert Tannich, Andrea K. Boggild, Noah Kiwanuka, Bernard S. Bagaya and Rupert Kaul

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:586

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of HIV transmission in high risk individuals. However, the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis is highly dependent on...

    Authors: David Sidebottom, Anna Mia Ekström and Susanne Strömdahl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:581

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  13. Content type: Research article

    HIV/AIDS patients who fail to respond to first-line treatment protocols are switched to second-line ART. Identifying factors that influence effective second-line treatment can improve utilization of limited me...

    Authors: Junli Chen, Min Zhang, Mingquan Shang, Weiwei Yang, Zhe Wang and Hong Shang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:571

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  14. Content type: Research article

    To investigate the associations between the perceived barriers and benefits of using HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis medication, including worries about the side effects, disliking taking drugs, perceived burden ...

    Authors: Ying Hu, Xiao-ni Zhong, Bin Peng, Yan Zhang, Hao Liang, Jiang-hong Dai, Ju-ying Zhang and Ai-long Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:575

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) has lowered the incidence of paediatric HIV globally. The risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) remains high in Africa, where there is a high pre...

    Authors: Mariama Mustapha, Victor Musiime, Sabrina Bakeera-Kitaka, Joseph Rujumba and Nicolette Nabukeera-Barungi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:566

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Viral load (VL) testing is being scaled up in resource-limited settings. However, not all commercially available VL testing methods have been evaluated under field conditions. This study is one of a few to eva...

    Authors: Bernhard Kerschberger, Qhubekani Mpala, Paola Andrea Díaz Uribe, Gugu Maphalala, Roberto de la Tour, Sydney Kalombola, Addis Bekele, Tiwonge Chawinga, Mukelo Mliba, Nombuso Ntshalintshali, Nomcebo Phugwayo, Serge Mathurin Kabore, Javier Goiri, Sindisiwe Dlamini, Iza Ciglenecki and Emmanuel Fajardo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:570

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Although HIV prevalence in Cambodia has declined to 0.6% among the general population, the prevalence remains high among female sex workers (14.0%) and men who have sex with men (2.3%). Over the past 10 years,...

    Authors: Heng Sopheab, Chhorvann Chhea, Sovannary Tuot and Jonathan A. Muir

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:562

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Nevirapine has been used as antiretroviral agent since early ‘90. Although nevirapine is not currently recommended in initial anti-HIV regimens, its use remains consistent in a certain number of HIV-1-positive...

    Authors: Andrea Giacomelli, Agostino Riva, Felicia Stefania Falvella, Maria Letizia Oreni, Dario Cattaneo, Stefania Cheli, Giulia Renisi, Valentina Di Cristo, Angelica Lupo, Emilio Clementi, Stefano Rusconi, Massimo Galli and Anna Lisa Ridolfo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:556

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  19. Content type: Case report

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation with neurological involvement in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is increasingly rare since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Manifest...

    Authors: Pedro Palma, Andreia Costa, Raquel Duro, Nélia Neves, Cândida Abreu and António Sarmento

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:554

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Increasing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is critical for HIV control. This study aimed to evaluate the interaction between social norms and self-efficacy on HIV testing among Chinese men who have ...

    Authors: Peizhen Zhao, Li Liu, Ye Zhang, Huanhuan Cheng, Bolin Cao, Chuncheng Liu, Cheng Wang, Bin Yang, Chongyi Wei, Joseph D. Tucker and Weiming Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:541

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) often have their TB and HIV managed in separate vertical programs that offer care for each disease with little coordination. Such “siloed” approaches are associat...

    Authors: Michael E Herce, Jill Morse, Dora Luhanga, Jennifer Harris, Helene J Smith, Stable Besa, Graham Samungole, Nzali Kancheya, Monde Muyoyeta and Stewart E Reid

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:536

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Lifelong antiretroviral therapy for HIV infected pregnant and lactating women (Option B+) has been rapidly scaled up but there are concerns about poor retention of women initiating treatment. However, facility...

    Authors: George Kiwanuka, Noah Kiwanuka, Fiston Muneza, Juliet Nabirye, Frederick Oporia, Magdalene A. Odikro, Barbara Castelnuovo and Rhoda K. Wanyenze

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:533

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  23. Content type: Study protocol

    Among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the UK, an estimated 28% have never tested for HIV and only 27% of those at higher risk test at least every 6 months. HIV self-testing (HIVST), where the person takes t...

    Authors: Michelle M. Gabriel, David T. Dunn, Andrew Speakman, Leanne McCabe, Denise Ward, T. Charles Witzel, Justin Harbottle, Simon Collins, Mitzy Gafos, Fiona M. Burns, Fiona C. Lampe, Peter Weatherburn, Andrew Phillips, Sheena McCormack and Alison J. Rodger

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:531

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  24. Content type: Case report

    Cryptococcal meningitis remains the leading cause of adult meningitis in Sub-Saharan Africa. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) following anti-retroviral therapy (ART) initiation is an importan...

    Authors: Jayne P. Ellis, Newton Kalata, Elizabeth C. Joekes, Samuel Kampondeni, Laura A. Benjamin, Thomas S. Harrison, David G. Lalloo and Robert S. Heyderman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:520

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Incomplete virologic suppression results in mutations associated with resistance and is a major obstacle to disease control. We analyzed the genotypic profiles of HIV-1 patients at the time of the first virolo...

    Authors: Marta Iglis Oliveira, Valter Romão de Souza Junior, Claudia Fernanda de Lacerda Vidal and Paulo Sérgio Ramos de Araújo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:514

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  26. Content type: Research article

    HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective for prevention of HIV acquisition, but requires HIV testing at regular intervals. Female sex workers (FSWs) are a priority population for HIV prevention ...

    Authors: Katrina F. Ortblad, Michael M. Chanda, Daniel Kibuuka Musoke, Thomson Ngabirano, Magdalene Mwale, Aidah Nakitende, Steven Chongo, Nyambe Kamungoma, Catherine Kanchele, Till Bärnighausen and Catherine E. Oldenburg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:503

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Youth in southern Africa, particularly adolescent girls and young women, are a key population for HIV prevention interventions. Untreated genital tract infections (GTIs) increase both HIV transmission and acqu...

    Authors: Angela Kaida, Janan J. Dietrich, Fatima Laher, Mags Beksinska, Manjeetha Jaggernath, Megan Bardsley, Patricia Smith, Laura Cotton, Pooja Chitneni, Kalysha Closson, David A. Lewis, Jenni A. Smit, Thumbi Ndung’u, Mark Brockman and Glenda Gray

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:499

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) use in pregnancy presents unquestionable benefits in preventing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV although it is associated with maternal adverse effects. The aim of this ...

    Authors: Adriane M. Delicio, Giuliane J. Lajos, Eliana Amaral, Fabia Lopes, Fernanda Cavichiolli, Isabeli Myioshi and Helaine Milanez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:485

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Zimbabwe is on track towards achieving viral suppression among adults (87%). However, adolescents have only achieved 44% by 2016. In Harare city, 57% of adolescents had attained viral suppression after 12 mont...

    Authors: Zvanaka Sithole, Elizabeth Mbizvo, Prosper Chonzi, More Mungati, Tsitsi Patience Juru, Gerald Shambira, Notion Tafara Gombe and Mufuta Tshimanga

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:469

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Previous studies reported HIV infection alters the distribution and function of γδ T cells and their subsets. γδ T phenotypes in healthy and diseased individuals has received little attention in Ethiopia. We c...

    Authors: Mikias Negash, Aster Tsegaye, Liya Wassie and Rawleigh Howe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:464

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  31. Content type: Research article

    As countries scale up antiretroviral therapy (ART) for children, innovative strategies to deliver quality services to children are needed. Differentiated ART delivery models have been successful in adults, but...

    Authors: Jason M. Bacha, Lynda C. Aririguzo, Veronica Mng’ong’o, Beatrice Malingoti, Richard S. Wanless, Katherine Ngo, Liane R. Campbell and Gordon E. Schutze

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:448

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  32. Content type: Case report

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been recognized as a risk factor for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke among young adults. However, information on the optimal management of HIV patients pre...

    Authors: Ping Liu, Min Wu, Ning Zhang, Chunyou Chen, Bing Xiong and Xiaoying Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:434

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Chronic diseases, chiefly cancers and circulatory system diseases (CSDs), have become the leading non-AIDS-related causes of death among HIV-infected people, as in the general population. After our previous re...

    Authors: Barbara Suligoi, Saverio Virdone, Martina Taborelli, Luisa Frova, Enrico Grande, Francesco Grippo, Marilena Pappagallo, Vincenza Regine, Lucia Pugliese, Diego Serraino and Antonella Zucchetto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:428

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Since the early 90’s antiretroviral drugs have been available at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH&RC), a referral hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, for the treatment of both adults and...

    Authors: Maha Al-Mozaini, Tahani Alrahbeni, Reem Al-Mograbi and Abdulrahman Alrajhi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:425

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  35. Content type: Research article

    HIV remains a significant public health dilemma in West and Central Africa. HIV-related morbidity and mortality are unjustly high, yet little is known about the spectrum of complicating comorbidities in HIV-po...

    Authors: Richard Odame Phillips, Alexis Steinmetz, Justin Nichols, Emmanuel Adomako, Emmanuel Ofori, Emilia Antonio, St.-Martin Allihien, Collins Peprah-Addae and William Adams

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:419

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Uganda’s HIV Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) program rapidly scaled up testing of HIV-exposed infants (HEI) in its early years. However, little was known about retention outcomes of HEI after testing. Provision o...

    Authors: Charles Kiyaga, Vijay Narayan, Ian McConnell, Peter Elyanu, Linda Nabitaka Kisaakye, Adeodata Kekitiinwa, Matthew Price and Jeff Grosz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:416

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  37. Content type: Research article

    We examined differences in incident HIV infection between newly-arrived Asian-born and other men who have sex with men (MSM) after the introduction of universal HIV treatment guidelines in 2015 and pre-exposur...

    Authors: Nicholas A. Medland, Eric P. F. Chow, Timothy H. R. Read, Jason J. Ong, Marcus Chen, Ian Denham, Praveena Gunaratnum and Christopher K. Fairley

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:410

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis, bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) are the three commonest causes of hospitalisation in HIV-infected adults. Prompt diagnosis and treatment init...

    Authors: Fiona Mendelson, Rulan Griesel, Nicki Tiffin, Molebogeng Rangaka, Andrew Boulle, Marc Mendelson and Gary Maartens

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:399

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  39. Content type: Research article

    The long-term benefits of antiretroviral treatment (ART) are associated with metabolic complications, especially lipodystrophy, which has been well described among HIV-infected adults and children on ART in de...

    Authors: Cecile Cames, Lea Pascal, Aissatou Ba, Hélène Mbodj, Baly Ouattara, Ndeye-Fatou Diallo, Philippe Msellati, Ngagne Mbaye, Haby Sy Signate, Stephane Blanche and Aminata Diack

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:374

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Reducing the number of people with undiagnosed HIV infection is a major goal of HIV control and prevention efforts in Europe and elsewhere. We analysed data from a large multi-city European bio-behavioural sur...

    Authors: Ulrich Marcus, Christiana Nöstlinger, Magdalena Rosińska, Nigel Sherriff, Lorenzo Gios, Sonia F. Dias, Ana F. Gama, Igor Toskin, Ivailo Alexiev, Emilia Naseva, Susanne Barbara Schink and Massimo Mirandola

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:368

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Concomitant use of ledipasvir and boosted protease inhibitors (PIs) may increase the risk of tenofovir (TDF) nephrotoxicity, since both these drugs increase TDF levels. Our aim was to evaluate glomerular filtr...

    Authors: Cristina Aurora São Pedro Soeiro, Celina Andreia Melo Gonçalves, Marta Sofia Correia Marques, Maria Josefina Vazquez Méndez, Ana Paula Ribeiro Almeida Tavares, Ana Maria Lacerda Morgado Fernandes de Carvalho de Aboim Horta and Rui Manuel do Rosário Sarmento-Castro

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:364

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Dyslipidemia represents a significant non-infectious comorbidity among people living with HIV. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact on lipid profile of switches from an efavirenz (EFV) or protease i...

    Authors: Lucia Taramasso, Paola Tatarelli, Elena Ricci, Giordano Madeddu, Barbara Menzaghi, Nicola Squillace, Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio, Canio Martinelli, Roberto Gulminetti, Paolo Maggi, Giancarlo Orofino, Francesca Vichi, Antonio Di Biagio and Paolo Bonfanti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:357

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Infectious diarrhea is a common problem in the developing world, especially among people living with HIV/AIDS. Traditional diagnostic methods such as stool culture and microscopic examination are limited by re...

    Authors: Lubaba Seid, William Stokes, Abebe Genetu Bayih, Sisay Getie, Aberham Abere, Habtie Tesfa and Dylan R. Pillai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:354

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  44. Content type: Research article

    No study has reported the epidemiology of AIDS-related opportunistic illnesses (AOIs) in patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection in Taiwan in the past decade. Understanding the current trends in AOI-relate...

    Authors: Chun-Yuan Lee, Yu-Ting Tseng, Wei-Ru Lin, Yen-Hsu Chen, Jih-Jin Tsai, Wen-Hung Wang, Po-Liang Lu and Hung-Chin Tsai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:352

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Male circumcision provides men with approximately 60% protection from acquiring HIV infection via heterosexual sex, and has become a key component of HIV prevention efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. Possible mech...

    Authors: Stephanie M. Davis, Sherri Pals, Chunfu Yang, Elijah Odoyo-June, Joy Chang, Maroya Spalding Walters, Walter Jaoko, Naomi Bock, Larry Westerman, Carlos Toledo and Robert C. Bailey

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:350

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Refugees in sub-Saharan Africa face both the risk of HIV infection and barriers to HIV testing. We conducted a pilot study to determine the feasibility and acceptability of home-based HIV testing in Nakivale R...

    Authors: Kelli N. O’Laughlin, Wei He, Kelsy E. Greenwald, Julius Kasozi, Yuchiao Chang, Edgar Mulogo, Zikama M. Faustin, Patterson Njogu, Rochelle P. Walensky and Ingrid V. Bassett

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:332

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Despite wide spread use of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) by pregnant women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the transmission rate is still higher by 18% after breastfeeding ends. The aim of this ...

    Authors: Girma Alemayehu Beyene, Lelisa Sena Dadi and Solomon Berhanu Mogas

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:327

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Etravirine (ETR), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) available in France since 2006, is indicated for antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected adults, in combination with a ritonavir-boost...

    Authors: Valérie Potard, Cécile Goujard, Marc Antoine Valantin, Jean Marc Lacombe, Rima Lahoulou, Arnaud Chéret, Pierre Marie Girard and Dominique Costagliola

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:326

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  49. Content type: Research article

    IL-17 and IL-22 cytokines play an important role in protective immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Information on the production of these cytokines and the factors that regulate t...

    Authors: Kamakshi Prudhula Devalraju, Venkata Sanjeev Kumar Neela, Sharadambal Sunder Ramaseri, Arunabala Chaudhury, Abhinav Van, Siva Sai Krovvidi, Ramakrishna Vankayalapati and Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:321

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  50. Content type: Research article

    HIV infection continues to be epidemic of public health importance with a prevalence of 1.1% and incidence of 0.33/1000 population having low-intensity mixed epidemic. Ethiopia has adopted the 90–90-90 by 2020...

    Authors: Tadele Girum, Abebaw Wasie and Abdulsemed Worku

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:320

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