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HIV and co-infections

Section edited by Carlo Torti 

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of HIV and HIV-associated infections in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section also aims to publish studies on the adverse events of HAART and non HIV-related comorbidities in the HAART era.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Late presentation to HIV/AIDS care which is attended by problems like, poor treatment outcomes, early development of opportunistic infections, increased healthcare costs, and mortality is a major problem in Et...

    Authors: Getaneh Mulualem Belay, Aklilu Endalamaw and Amare Demsie Ayele

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:534

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  2. Content type: Case report

    Tuberculosis (TB)-associated Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an aberrant inflammatory response in TB patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus coinfection, after antiretrovir...

    Authors: Gopalan Narendran, Deivide Oliveira-de-Souza, Caian L. Vinhaes, Kevan Akrami, Kiyoshi F. Fukutani, Kesavamurthy Banu, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Narayanan Ravichandran, Irini Sereti, Soumya Swaminathan and Bruno B. Andrade

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:529

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Several factors have been identified as being associated with increased adherence to antiretroviral therapy, including sero-status disclosure; however, studies examining the effect of disclosure on ART adheren...

    Authors: Getenet Dessie, Fasil Wagnew, Henok Mulugeta, Dessalegn Amare, Dube Jara, Cheru Tesema Leshargie, Ayenew Negesse, Swati Rayasam and Sahai Burrowes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:528

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  4. Content type: Case report

    As technology progresses, several highly sensitive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening kits are being researched and developed to quickly and efficiently identify serum HIV antibodies within the non-w...

    Authors: Shuangquan Yan, Jing Huang, Qiaofei Zheng, Hongguo Zhu, Zhuolin Gao, Jiaxi Feng and Youzu Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:525

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Heterosexual transmission is the main driver of the HIV epidemic in Tanzania. Only one estimate of the incidence rate of intra-marital HIV seroconversion in Tanzania has been reported and was derived from data...

    Authors: Soledad Colombe, James Beard, Baltazar Mtenga, Peter Lutonja, Julius Mngara, Claudia J. de Dood, Govert J. van Dam, Paul L. A. M. Corstjens, Samuel Kalluvya, Mark Urassa, Jim Todd and Jennifer A. Downs

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:518

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Although Option B+ may be more costly than Options B, it may provide additional health benefits that are currently unclear in Yunnan province. We created deterministic models to estimate the cost-effectiveness...

    Authors: Xiaowen Wang, Guangping Guo, Jiarui Zheng and Lin Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:517

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Most of studies on the relationship between drug use and HIV have focused largely on people who inject drugs. Non-injecting drug use is much more common than injecting drug use, and although it can also predis...

    Authors: Sovannary Tuot, Gitau Mburu, Phalkun Mun, Pheak Chhoun, Navy Chann, Kiesha Prem and Siyan Yi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:515

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Regardless of chronic treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART), the switching rate for ART regarding anchor drugs has not been articulated in real-world clinical-settings in Japan. We assessed switch rates ...

    Authors: Daniel J. Ruzicka, Naho Kuroishi, Nobuyuki Oshima, Ryuta Sakuma and Toshio Naito

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:505

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Fine scale geospatial analysis of HIV infection patterns can be used to facilitate geographically targeted interventions. Our objective was to use the geospatial technology to map age and time standardized HIV...

    Authors: Gita Ramjee, Benn Sartorius, Natashia Morris, Handan Wand, Tarylee Reddy, Justin D. Yssel and Frank Tanser

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:500

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  10. Content type: Research article

    HIV testing serves as a critical gateway for linkage and retention to care services, particularly in sub-Saharan African countries with high burden of HIV infections. However, the current progress towards addr...

    Authors: Mbuzeleni Hlongwa, Tivani Mashamba-Thompson, Sizwe Makhunga and Khumbulani Hlongwana

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:496

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  11. Content type: Research article

    A high proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) use geosocial networking apps (Apps) to seek partners. However, the relationship of app use with HIV risk is unknown. Further, the risks of some sexually tr...

    Authors: Ning Zhao, Katherine T. Li, Yang-yang Gao, Jun-jie Xu and De-Sheng Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:494

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Network meta-analyses (NMAs) provide comparative treatment effects estimates in the absence of head-to-head randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This NMA compared the efficacy and safety of dolutegravir (DTG) ...

    Authors: Sonya J. Snedecor, Matthew Radford, David Kratochvil, Richard Grove and Yogesh S. Punekar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:484

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The HIV epidemic remains a concern on the global health agenda, despite progress made in reducing incidence. Investigation of trends among young people is important for monitoring HIV incidence and informing p...

    Authors: Chola Nakazwe, Charles Michelo, Ingvild F. Sandøy and Knut Fylkesnes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:432

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children represent a very vulnerable population for anti-retroviral therapy (ART) drug resistance. As a global target, 90% of patients receiving ART should have HIV-...

    Authors: Melashu Balew Shiferaw, Demeke Endalamaw, Mulat Hussien, Manamnot Agegne, Desalegn Amare, Fikirte Estifanos and Dinbere Temesgen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:419

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV makeup a deadly synergy of infectious disease, and the combined effect is apparent in resource limited countries like Ethiopia. Previous studies have demonstrated inconsistent results...

    Authors: Demeke Geremew, Aklilu Endalamaw, Markos Negash, Setegn Eshetie and Belay Tessema

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:405

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  16. Content type: Research article

    France is the European country with the lowest level of confidence in vaccines. Measurement of patients’ acceptability towards a future therapeutic HIV vaccine is critically important. Thus, the aim of this st...

    Authors: Svetlane Dimi, David Zucman, Olivier Chassany, Christophe Lalanne, Thierry Prazuck, Emmanuel Mortier, Catherine Majerholc, Isabelle Aubin-Auger, Pierre Verger and Martin Duracinsky

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:401

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Uptake of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) re-testing among postnatal mothers who had previously tested HIV-negative is crucial for the detection of recent seroconverters who are likely to have high plasma v...

    Authors: Saumu Iddy Nungu, Janneth Maridadi Mghamba, Susan Fred Rumisha and Innocent Antony Semali

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:398

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Most studies assessing drug resistant tuberculosis (DRTB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected patients in India have used conventional culture- based systems to diagnose DRTB that have a longer t...

    Authors: Neil Saldanha, Kiran Runwal, Charulata Ghanekar, Sunil Gaikwad, Shrivallabh Sane and Sanjay Pujari

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:391

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Blood transfusion is one of the routine therapeutic interventions in hospitals that can be lifesaving. However, this intervention is related to several transfusion-related infections. The human immunodeficienc...

    Authors: Henok Mulugeta, Getenet Dessie, Fasil Wagnew, Dube Jara, Cheru Tesema Leshargie and Ayenew Negesse

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:383

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly decreased HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and mortality. However, globally, many people living with HIV die from non-AIDS related illnesses including liver diseases wh...

    Authors: Faustina Pappoe, Charles Kofi Oheneba Hagan, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah and Paul Nsiah

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:380

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Treatments for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have vastly improved over the past few decades with current regimens now offering pangenotypic activity with excellent cure rates reported in clinical trials, i...

    Authors: A. Maughan, K. Sadigh, V. Angulo-Diaz, C. Mandimika, M. Villanueva, J. K. Lim and O. Ogbuagu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:378

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Body mass index (BMI) may contribute somewhat to drug metabolism, and thus affecting the efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This study aimed to determine the frequencies of underweight, ...

    Authors: Xiaolin Li, Haibo Ding, Wenqing Geng, Jing Liu, Yongjun Jiang, Junjie Xu, Zining Zhang and Hong Shang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:373

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  23. Content type: Study protocol

    The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 90–90-90 goal envisions 90% of all people receiving antiretroviral therapy to be virally suppressed by 2020. Implied in that goal is that viral load be quantified...

    Authors: Seema T. Meloni, Oche Agbaji, Charlotte A. Chang, Patricia Agaba, Godwin Imade, Stephen Oguche, Ahmed Mukhtar, Kiren Mitruka, Mackenzie Hurlston Cox, Aaron Zee and Phyllis Kanki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:368

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines expressed in human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection, may induce oxidative stress likely to compromise the patency of the airways or damage the lung tissues/cardiac function. H...

    Authors: S. C. Ibeneme, C. Omeje, H. Myezwa, Salome Nwaelom Ezeofor, E. M. Anieto, F. Irem, Amaka Obiageli Nnamani, Fortune Elochukwu Ezenwankwo and G. C. Ibeneme

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:359

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  25. Content type: Research article

    The geographical distribution of intestinal parasites with conditions of poverty in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa coincides with that of HIV/AIDS. However, there is paucity of studies investigating the ...

    Authors: Tuom Gebrewahid, Gebretsadkan Gebrekirstos, Mebrahtu Teweldemedhin, Hailay Gebreyesus, Abrham Awala and Kiros Tadla

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:350

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Past studies have found a relationship between detectable HIV viral load and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy in high-income settings, however there is lit...

    Authors: S. George, N. McGrath and T. Oni

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:348

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Compromised immune function, associated with human immune deficiency virus(HIV) infection, is improved by antiretroviral therapy(ART) which also decreases bone mineral density(BMD), and possibly the quality of...

    Authors: Sam Chidi Ibeneme, Franklin Onyedinma Irem, Nneka Ifeyinwa Iloanusi, Amarachi Destiny Ezuma, Fortune Elochukwu Ezenwankwo, Philip Chinedu Okere, Amaka Obiageli Nnamani, Salome Nwaelom Ezeofor, Ngozi Regina Dim and Gerhard Fortwengel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:340

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  28. Content type: Research article

    The identification and management of cardiovascular risk factors became a major clinical issue among HIV-infected individuals in the post-cART era. As in the past decades the link between acute infections and ...

    Authors: Emersom Cicilini Mesquita, Lara Esteves Coelho, Rodrigo Teixeira Amancio, Valdilea Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Paula Luz and Fernando Augusto Bozza

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:319

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Genetic variability and liability to develop drug-resistant mutations are the main characteristics of HIV-1, which can not only increase the risk of antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure, but also can lead to...

    Authors: Zhenyan Wang, Min Zhang, Renfang Zhang, Li Liu, Yinzhong Shen, Jiangrong Wang and Hongzhou Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:313

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Currently, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. To address this challenge, outcomes of second-line protease inhibitor (PI) based ART...

    Authors: Sabin Nsanzimana, Muhammed Semakula, Vedaste Ndahindwa, Eric Remera, Dieudonne Sebuhoro, Jean Paul Uwizihiwe, Nathan Ford, Marcel Tanner, Steve Kanters, Edward J. Mills and Heiner C. Bucher

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:312

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  31. Content type: Research article

    African, Caribbean, and Black (Black) men account for 16.5% of new HIV diagnoses among men in Ontario. There is substantial evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are associated with increased li...

    Authors: LaRon E. Nelson, Wangari Tharao, Winston Husbands, Ting Sa, Nanhua Zhang, Sameer Kushwaha, David Absalom and Rupert Kaul

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:294

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  32. Content type: Research article

    The World Health Organisation approved boosted atazanavir as a preferred second line protease inhibitor in 2010. This is as an alternative to the current boosted lopinavir. Atazanavir has a lower genetic barri...

    Authors: Eva Agnes Odongpiny Laker, Maria Sarah Nabaggala, Arvind Kaimal, Damalie Nalwanga, Barbara Castelnuovo, Abdu Musubire, Agnes Kiragga, Mohammed Lamorde and Rosalind Parkes- Ratanshi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:280

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  33. Content type: Research article

    HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was implemented in France in November 2015 based on individual-level risk factors for HIV infection. We evaluated the proportion of missed opportunities for PrEP among newly...

    Authors: C. Lions, O. Cabras, L. Cotte, T. Huleux, A. Gagneux-Brugnon, A. Makinson, A. Cabié, B. Bonnet, C. Duvivier, L. Hocqueloux, E. Cua, A. Cheret, L. Hustache-Mathieu, V. Obry-Roguet, C. Jacomet and I. Poizot-Martin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:278

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of death in HIV patients worldwide. Here we describe the epidemiology and outcome of HIV-TB co-infections in a high-income country with low TB incidence and integrated HIV an...

    Authors: Ville Holmberg, Hanna Soini, Pia Kivelä, Jukka Ollgren and Matti Ristola

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:264

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  35. Content type: Research article

    The WHO guidelines for the management of advanced HIV disease recommend a package of care consisting of rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), enhanced screening and diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) a...

    Authors: Noelle A. Benzekri, Jacques F. Sambou, Sanou Ndong, Ibrahima Tito Tamba, Dominique Faye, Mouhamadou Baïla Diallo, Jean Phillippe Diatta, Khadim Faye, Ibrahima Sall, Fatima Sall, Noël Magloire Manga, Jean Jacques Malomar, Cheikh T. Ndour, Stephen E. Hawes, Moussa Seydi and Geoffrey S. Gottlieb

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:261

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  36. Content type: Research article

    The effect of ART initiation time on HIV-1 DNA reservoir in chronically infected individuals is not well understood. Determining the potential influencing factors associated with a low HIV-1 DNA level in chron...

    Authors: Ling Luo, Nidan Wang, Yongsong Yue, Yang Han, Wei Lv, Zhengyin Liu, Zhifeng Qiu, Hongzhou Lu, Xiaoping Tang, Tong Zhang, Min Zhao, Yun He, He Shenghua, Min Wang, Yongzhen Li, Shaobiao Huang…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:257

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus are significant global public health challenges. In Sub-Saharan Africa, study findings regarding prevalence of diabetes mellitus amongst tuberculosis patients have been incon...

    Authors: Animut Alebel, Amsalu Taye Wondemagegn, Cheru Tesema, Getiye Dejenu Kibret, Fasil Wagnew, Pammla Petrucka, Amit Arora, Amare Demsie Ayele, Mulunesh Alemayehu and Setegn Eshetie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:254

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Schistosoma sp. infection has been shown to interact with HIV-1 by modifying susceptibility to the virus and impacting AIDS outcome, but very little is known about the potential impact of Schistosoma sp. infectio...

    Authors: Peter Masikini, Soledad Colombe, Amon Marti, Bernard Desderius, Claudia J. de Dood, Paul L. A. M. Corstjens, Govert J. van Dam, Mwanaisha Seugendo, Samuel Kalluvya and Jennifer A. Downs

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:249

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Evidence on patient-reported outcomes of newly diagnosed HIV patients is scarce, and largely cross-sectional. This prospective cohort study describes the prevalence of, and changes in, patient-reported outcome...

    Authors: Victoria Simms, Julia Downing, Eve Namisango, R. Anthony Powell, Faith Mwangi-Powell, Irene J. Higginson and Richard Harding

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:248

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  40. Content type: Research article

    With the phase-out of stavudine (d4T), change to first-line regimens with zidovudine (AZT) or tenofovir (TDF) in resource-limited settings (RLS) might increase risks of cross-resistance to nucleos(t) ide rever...

    Authors: Desire Takou, Joseph Fokam, Georges Teto, Maria-Mercedes Santoro, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Aubin Joseph Nanfack, Samuel Martin Sosso, Béatrice Dambaya, Romina Salpini, Serge Clotaire Billong, Caterina Gori, Charles Ntungwen Fokunang, Giulia Cappelli, Vittorio Colizzi, Carlo-Federico Perno and Alexis Ndjolo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:246

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  41. Content type: Research article

    With a growing access to free ART, switching of ART to second line regimen has also become common following failure of first line ART regimens. Patients failing on first line ART regimens have been shown to st...

    Authors: Daniel W. Gunda, Semvua B. Kilonzo, Tarcisius Mtaki, Desderius M. Bernard, Samwel E. Kalluvya and Elichilia R. Shao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:235

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  42. Content type: Research article

    The study of stool microbiota has taken great relevance in the last years, given its role in the maintenance of the intestinal metabolic, physiological, and immunological homeostasis, as well as, its effect ov...

    Authors: Luz A. González-Hernández, Mariana del Rocio Ruiz-Briseño, Karina Sánchez-Reyes, Monserrat Alvarez-Zavala, Natali Vega-Magaña, Alvaro López-Iñiguez, Julio A. Díaz-Ramos, Pedro Martínez-Ayala, RA Soria-Rodriguez, Moises Ramos-Solano and Jaime F. Andrade-Villanueva

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:234

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Access to HIV services among men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSWs) remains suboptimal globally. While the reasons for this dismal performance have been documented, limited evidence exis...

    Authors: Joseph K. B. Matovu, Geofrey Musinguzi, Juliet Kiguli, Fred Nuwaha, Geoffrey Mujisha, Joshua Musinguzi, Jim Arinaitwe and Rhoda K. Wanyenze

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:214

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Latent class analyses (LCA) are increasingly being used to target specialized HIV interventions, but generalizability of emergent population structures across settings has yet to be considered. We compare LCA ...

    Authors: M. Kumi Smith, Gabriella Stein, Weibin Cheng, William C. Miller and Joseph D. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:213

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:284

  45. Content type: Research article

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women in Sub-Saharan Africa are subjected to high levels of sexual behavior-related stigma, which may affect mental health and sexual risk behaviors. MSM and tra...

    Authors: Carrie Lyons, Shauna Stahlman, Claire Holland, Sosthenes Ketende, Lynn Van Lith, Duncan Kochelani, Mpumelelo Mavimbela, Bhekie Sithole, Libet Maloney, Sibusiso Maziya and Stefan Baral

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:211

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  46. Content type: Debate

    Internalized HIV stigma is a public health concern as it can compromise HIV prevention, care and treatment. This paper has two aims. First, it highlights the urgent need for research evidence on internalized H...

    Authors: Marija Pantelic, Laurel Sprague and Anne L. Stangl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:210

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a key enzyme in the degradation of tryptophan (Trp) to kynurenine (Kyn). We measured IDO activity as the Kyn to Trp ratio, and investigated whether IDO could be used to as...

    Authors: Mengyan Wang, Xiaotian Dong, Ying Huang, Junwei Su, Xiahong Dai, Yongzheng Guo, Caiqin Hu, Qihui Zhou and Biao Zhu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:223

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  48. Content type: Research article

    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections remain a burden on men who have sex with men in the era of effective combination antiretroviral therapy. New prevention efforts are therefore needed. One of these ...

    Authors: Reinier J. M. Bom, Kalja van der Linden, Amy Matser, Nicolas Poulin, Maarten F. Schim van der Loeff, Bouko H. W. Bakker and Theodoor F. van Boven

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:222

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  49. Content type: Case report

    Cryptococcosis is a common opportunistic infection in patients infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and is the second leading cause of mortality in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients ...

    Authors: Hareton Teixeira Vechi, Raquel Cordeiro Theodoro, Andrea Lima de Oliveira, Ronald Muryellison Oliveira da Silva Gomes, Rodolfo Daniel de Almeida Soares, Munya Gandour Freire and Mônica Baumgardt Bay

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:220

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