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HIV and co-infections

Section edited by Carlo Torti 

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of HIV and HIV-associated infections in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section also aims to publish studies on the adverse events of HAART and non HIV-related comorbidities in the HAART era.

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  1. Content type: Case report

    Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin plays an important role in the treatment of patients with severe refractory human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS). High cumulative doses of conventio...

    Authors: Ayaka Ishihara, Shuji Hatakeyama, Jun Suzuki, Yusuke Amano, Teppei Sasahara, Masaki Toshima and Yuji Morisawa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:848

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)-containing combinations were introduced in Switzerland after October 2016 and are recommended over tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in patients with osteoporosis or impaired rena...

    Authors: Bernard Surial, Matthias Cavassini, Alexandra Calmy, Jan Fehr, Marcel Stöckle, Enos Bernasconi, Bianca Roth, Christoph A. Fux, Helen Kovari, Hansjakob Furrer, Andri Rauch and Gilles Wandeler

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:834

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  3. Content type: Case report

    Elite controllers (EC), a small subset of the HIV-positive population (< 1%), suppress HIV viremia below the limit of quantification of clinical viral load assays in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART)...

    Authors: Deirdre Morley, John S. Lambert, Louise E. Hogan, Cillian De Gascun, Niamh Redmond, Rachel L. Rutishauser, Cassandra Thanh, Erica A. Gibson, Kristen Hobbs, Sonia Bakkour, Michael P. Busch, Jeremy Farrell, Padraig McGetrick and Timothy J. Henrich

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:815

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  4. Content type: Study protocol

    Prevention of new HIV infections is a critical public health issue. The highest HIV testing gaps are in men, adolescents 15–19 years old, and adults 40 years and older. Community-based HIV testing services (HT...

    Authors: Pitchaya P. Indravudh, Katherine Fielding, Moses K. Kumwenda, Rebecca Nzawa, Richard Chilongosi, Nicola Desmond, Rose Nyirenda, Cheryl C. Johnson, Rachel C. Baggaley, Karin Hatzold, Fern Terris-Prestholt and Elizabeth L. Corbett

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:814

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  5. Content type: Research article

    HIV self-testing (HIVST) is a promising approach to expand HIV testing. HIVST is a process in which a person performs an HIV test and interprets the result. Negative HIVST results may encourage men who have se...

    Authors: Weiming Tang, Wenting Huang, Haidong Lu, Bolin Cao, Dan Wu, Jason Ong, Hongyun Fu, Ye Zhang, Bin Yang, Cheng Wang, Wei Ma, Chongyi Wei and Joseph D. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:807

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  6. Content type: Case report

    Non-typhoidal salmonellae (NTS) have been associated with invasive disease, notably meningitis, in immunocompromised individuals. Infections of this nature carry high rates of morbidity and mortality. Colistin...

    Authors: Roxanne Rule, Nontombi Mbelle, John Osei Sekyere, Marleen Kock, Anwar Hoosen and Mohamed Said

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:806

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The HLA-B*57:01 allele is associated with a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir. Due to the lack of knowledge of HLA-B*57:01 prevalence in Colombia, routine screening is not performed and is not recommended ...

    Authors: Ernesto Martínez Buitrago, José Millán Oñate, José Fernando García-Goez, Jorge Álvarez, William Lenis, Luz Marina Sañudo and Luisa Consuelo Rubiano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:793

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  8. Content type: Research article

    South Africa has the highest HIV prevalence and supports the largest antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme globally. With the introduction of a test and treat policy, ensuring long term optimal adherence to A...

    Authors: Atika Moosa, Tanuja N. Gengiah, Lara Lewis and Kogieleum Naidoo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:775

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  9. Content type: Research article

    HCV (Hepatitis C virus) is a prevalent chronic disease with potentially deadly consequences, especially for drug users. However, there are no special HCV or HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)-related intervent...

    Authors: Jing Ying Zhang, Zhi Bin Li, Lei Zhang, Jun Wang, Le Ping Huang, Gui Lai Zhan, Zhu Li, Jiang Du and Min Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:774

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis (TB) is among the world’s top public health challenges and the leading killer of people with HIV, yet is a treatable disease. This study aimed to assess, in a real-world setting, the implementatio...

    Authors: Ley Muyaya Muyaya, Esperance Manwana Musanda and Jacques Lukenze Tamuzi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:767

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Little is known about contextual factors that predict long-term mortality following HIV testing in resource-limited settings. We evaluated the impact of contextual factors on 5-year mortality among HIV-infecte...

    Authors: Ingrid V. Bassett, Ai Xu, Janet Giddy, Laura M. Bogart, Andrew Boulle, Lucia Millham, Elena Losina and Robert A. Parker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:751

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  12. Content type: Research article

    The use of fixed combination antiretroviral therapy with a low genetic barrier for the treatment of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may affect the local HIV transmitted drug resistanc...

    Authors: Ya-Wei Weng, I-Tzu Chen, Hung-Chin Tsai, Kuan-Sheng Wu, Yu-Ting Tseng, Cheng-Len Sy, Jui-Kuang Chen, Susan Shin-Jung Lee and Yao-Shen Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:741

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) have high rates of persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infections and cervical cancer. We aimed to assess the distribution of hrHPV genotypes, risk factors of type-sp...

    Authors: Kristina Thorsteinsson, Steen Ladelund, Merete Storgaard, Terese L. Katzenstein, Isik Somuncu Johansen, Gitte Pedersen, Frederikke Falkencrone Rönsholt, Lars Nørregård Nielsen, Lisbeth Nilas, Maria Franzmann, Niels Obel, Anne-Mette Lebech and Jesper Bonde

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:740

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in HIV endemic settings is a major threat to public health. MDR-TB is a substantial and underreported problem in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with recognised cases projec...

    Authors: Elvis Dzelamonyuy Chem, Marie Claire Van Hout and Vivian Hope

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:723

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  15. Content type: Study protocol

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising and effective tool to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission; however, context-specific data to guide optimal implementation are currently lackin...

    Authors: Hongyi Wang, Yonghui Zhang, Zhu Mei, Yueru Jia, Sequoia I. Leuba, Jing Zhang, Zhenxing Chu, Haibo Ding, Yongjun Jiang, Wenqing Geng, Hong Shang and Junjie Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:721

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Gynecomastia is known to occur in some men taking an efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. However, the incidence and outcomes of gynecomastia are not known in Zimbabwe. We described the charac...

    Authors: Sandra Shawarira-Bote, Tinei Shamu and Cleophas Chimbetete

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:715

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Thymidine analogues (TA) and didanosine (ddI) are associated with long-lasting adipose tissue redistribution. Adiponectin is a widely used marker of adipocyte activity, and adipose tissue density assessed by C...

    Authors: Marco Gelpi, Andreas Dehlbæk Knudsen, Karoline Brostrup Larsen, Amanda Mocroft, Anne-Mette Lebech, Birgitte Lindegaard, Jens Lundgren, Klaus Fuglsang Kofoed and Susanne Dam Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:708

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  18. Content type: Research article

    The SELPHI study (An HIV Self-Testing Public Health Intervention) is an online randomised controlled trial (RCT) of HIV self-testing (HIVST). The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of recruiting U...

    Authors: T. Charles Witzel, Michelle M. Gabriel, Leanne McCabe, Peter Weatherburn, Mitzy Gafos, Andrew Speakman, Roger Pebody, Fiona M. Burns, Chris Bonell, Fiona C. Lampe, David T. Dunn, Denise Ward, Justin Harbottle, Andrew N. Phillips, Sheena McCormack and Alison J. Rodger

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:699

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  19. Content type: Research article

    In Europe, the highest proportion of HIV diagnoses are in gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM). Globally, HIV prevalence is particularly high among males who report selling sex, but rates among me...

    Authors: Rigmor C. Berg, Peter Weatherburn, Ulrich Marcus and Axel J. Schmidt

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:686

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  20. Content type: Research article

    HIV-infected children are at a higher risk of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) and its mortality, even in the era of antiretroviral therapy. Therefore, an effective vaccination strategy would be beneficial....

    Authors: Hossein Molavi Vardanjani, Hodjat Borna and Ali Ahmadi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:685

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  21. Content type: Study protocol

    The antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence club (AC) differentiated service delivery model, where clinically stable ART patients receive their ART refills and psychosocial support in groups has supported clini...

    Authors: Lynne Wilkinson, Anna Grimsrud, Tali Cassidy, Catherine Orrell, Jacqueline Voget, Helen Hayes, Claire Keene, Sarah Jane Steele and Rodd Gerstenhaber

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:674

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  22. Content type: Research article

    As a gateway for HIV-1 in China, Yunnan has experienced dramatic changes in HIV-1 epidemics, during which HIV-1 genotypes have become complex. To track dynamic changes in HIV-1 genotypes, an HIV-1 molecular ep...

    Authors: Min Chen, Yanling Ma, Huichao Chen, Jie Dai, Hongbing Luo, Chaojun Yang, Lijuan Dong, Xiaomei Jin, Min Yang, Li Yang, Lijun Song, Zhizhong Song and Manhong Jia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:669

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Biomedical interventions such as antiretroviral therapy (ART) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are highly effective for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, China has not rel...

    Authors: Qing-hai Hu, Kathrine Meyers, Jun-jie Xu, Zhen-xing Chu, Jing Zhang, Hai-bo Ding, Xiao-xu Han, Yong-jun Jiang, Wen-qing Geng and Hong Shang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:663

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is one of the most common HIV-related opportunistic infections. The diagnosis of PCP is based on analyses from respiratory tract specimens which may require the invasive pro...

    Authors: Helena Hammarström, Anna Grankvist, Isabell Broman, Nahid Kondori, Christine Wennerås, Magnus Gisslen and Vanda Friman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:658

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Retaining patients on antiretroviral treatment in care is critical to sustaining the 90:90:90 vision. Nigeria has made some progress in placing HIV-positive patients on treatment. In an effort to increase acce...

    Authors: Chukwuma David Umeokonkwo, Chima Ariel Onoka, Pearl Adaoha Agu, Edmund Ndudi Ossai, Muhammad Shakir Balogun and Lawrence Ulu Ogbonnaya

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:654

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Given the widespread use of the Internet among men who have sex with men (MSM) and high risk of Internet-facilitated sexual behaviors, Internet-based interventions to reduce sexual risk are urgently needed.

    Authors: Weibin Cheng, Huifang Xu, Weiming Tang, Fei Zhong, Gang Meng, Zhigang Han and Jinkou Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:644

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death for individuals infected with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Conversely, HIV is the most important risk factor in the progression of TB from the latent to t...

    Authors: Augustus Aturinde, Mahdi Farnaghi, Petter Pilesjö and Ali Mansourian

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:612

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Second-line Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) regimens are used when patients develop treatment failure for first-line drug regimens. It is costly unaffordable and it is not widely available for patients in resourc...

    Authors: Muluneh Alene, Tadesse Awoke, Melaku Kindie Yenit and Adino Tesfahun Tsegaye

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:599

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  29. Content type: Research article

    People aging with HIV can experience a variety of health challenges associated with HIV and multimorbidity, referred to as ‘disability’. Our aim was to characterize the disability experience and examine relati...

    Authors: Kelly K. O’Brien, Steven Hanna, Patricia Solomon, Catherine Worthington, Francisco Ibáñez-Carrasco, Soo Chan Carusone, Stephanie Nixon, Brenda Merritt, Jacqueline Gahagan, Larry Baxter, Patriic Gayle, Greg Robinson, Rosalind Baltzer Turje, Stephen Tattle and Tammy Yates

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:594

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  30. Content type: Case report

    HIV controllers (HICs) are a rare group of HIV-1-infected individuals able to naturally control viral replication. Several studies have identified the occurrence of HIV dual infections in seropositive individu...

    Authors: Diogo Gama Caetano, Fernanda Heloise Côrtes, Gonzalo Bello, Suwellen Sardinha Dias de Azevedo, Brenda Hoagland, Larissa Melo Villela, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdiléa Gonçalves Veloso, Monick Lindenmeyer Guimarães and Mariza Gonçalves Morgado

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:588

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are implicated in drug-induced hypersensitivity, including by nevirapine and abacavir. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between HLA polym...

    Authors: Kun Hu, Qian Xiang, Zhe Wang, Guang-yan Mu, Zhuo Zhang, Ling-yue Ma, Qiu-fen Xie, Shu-qing Chen, Shuang Zhou, Xiao-dan Zhang and Yi-min Cui

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:583

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  32. Content type: Research article

    To evaluate the trends in AIDS detection and the AIDS-attributed death rate in Brazil between 2007 and 2015 and to determine the population characteristics associated with AIDS detection.

    Authors: Gerson Fernando Mendes Pereira, Meritxell Sabidó, Alessandro Caruso and Adele Schwartz Benzaken

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:579

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) was rolled-out in Ethiopia in 2005, but there are no reports on outcome of ART and human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) at national level. We described acquired dru...

    Authors: Nigus Fikrie Telele, Amare Worku Kalu, Solomon Gebre-Selassie, Daniel Fekade, Gaetano Marrone, Sebastian Grossmann, Ujjwal Neogi, Belete Tegbaru and Anders Sönnerborg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:569

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  34. Content type: Research article

    To infer transmission direction of a HIV transmission chain is helpful not only in legal jurisdiction but also in precise intervention to prevent HIV spread. Recently, the direction of transmission is inferred...

    Authors: Jianjun Wu, Zhongwang Hu, Hui Yao, Hai Wang, Yanhua Lei, Ping Zhong, Yi Feng, Hui Xing, Yuelan Shen, Lin Jin, Aiwen Liu, Yizu Qin, Lifeng Miao, Bin Su, Yibo Zhang and Hongxiong Guo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:566

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  35. Content type: Research article

    The proportion of older HIV-1 infected people in China has increased rapidly in recent years. Elucidation of the transmission characteristics of this high-risk population subgroup is helpful for the developmen...

    Authors: Jianjun Wu, Yu Zhang, Yuelan Shen, Xiaolin Wang, Hui Xing, Xiaohui Yang, Xinping Ding, Bing Hu, Hanping Li, Jingwan Han, Jingyun Li, Bin Su, Yongjian Liu and Lin Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:562

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Amphotericin-induced phlebitis is a common infusion-related reaction in patients managed for cryptococcal meningitis. High-quality nursing care is critical component to successful cryptococcosis treatment. We ...

    Authors: Cynthia Ahimbisibwe, Richard Kwizera, Jane Frances Ndyetukira, Florence Kugonza, Alisat Sadiq, Kathy Huppler Hullsiek, Darlisha A. Williams, Joshua Rhein, David R. Boulware and David B. Meya

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:558

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Among people living with HIV (PLWH), the prevalence of non-HIV related co-morbidities is increasing. Aim of the present study is to describe co-morbidity and multi-morbidity, their clustering mode and the pote...

    Authors: Paolo Maggi, Carmen R. Santoro, Marco Nofri, Elena Ricci, Nicolò De Gennaro, Chiara Bellacosa, Elisabetta Schiaroli, Giancarlo Orofino, Barbara Menzaghi, Antonio Di Biagio, Nicola Squillace, Daniela Francisci, Francesca Vichi, Chiara Molteni, Paolo Bonfanti, Giovanni Battista Gaeta…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:555

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Late presentation to HIV/AIDS care which is attended by problems like, poor treatment outcomes, early development of opportunistic infections, increased healthcare costs, and mortality is a major problem in Et...

    Authors: Getaneh Mulualem Belay, Aklilu Endalamaw and Amare Demsie Ayele

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:534

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  39. Content type: Case report

    Tuberculosis (TB)-associated Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an aberrant inflammatory response in TB patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus coinfection, after antiretrovir...

    Authors: Gopalan Narendran, Deivide Oliveira-de-Souza, Caian L. Vinhaes, Kevan Akrami, Kiyoshi F. Fukutani, Kesavamurthy Banu, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Narayanan Ravichandran, Irini Sereti, Soumya Swaminathan and Bruno B. Andrade

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:529

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Several factors have been identified as being associated with increased adherence to antiretroviral therapy, including sero-status disclosure; however, studies examining the effect of disclosure on ART adheren...

    Authors: Getenet Dessie, Fasil Wagnew, Henok Mulugeta, Dessalegn Amare, Dube Jara, Cheru Tesema Leshargie, Ayenew Negesse, Swati Rayasam and Sahai Burrowes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:528

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  41. Content type: Case report

    As technology progresses, several highly sensitive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening kits are being researched and developed to quickly and efficiently identify serum HIV antibodies within the non-w...

    Authors: Shuangquan Yan, Jing Huang, Qiaofei Zheng, Hongguo Zhu, Zhuolin Gao, Jiaxi Feng and Youzu Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:525

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Heterosexual transmission is the main driver of the HIV epidemic in Tanzania. Only one estimate of the incidence rate of intra-marital HIV seroconversion in Tanzania has been reported and was derived from data...

    Authors: Soledad Colombe, James Beard, Baltazar Mtenga, Peter Lutonja, Julius Mngara, Claudia J. de Dood, Govert J. van Dam, Paul L. A. M. Corstjens, Samuel Kalluvya, Mark Urassa, Jim Todd and Jennifer A. Downs

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:518

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Although Option B+ may be more costly than Options B, it may provide additional health benefits that are currently unclear in Yunnan province. We created deterministic models to estimate the cost-effectiveness...

    Authors: Xiaowen Wang, Guangping Guo, Jiarui Zheng and Lin Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:517

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Most of studies on the relationship between drug use and HIV have focused largely on people who inject drugs. Non-injecting drug use is much more common than injecting drug use, and although it can also predis...

    Authors: Sovannary Tuot, Gitau Mburu, Phalkun Mun, Pheak Chhoun, Navy Chann, Kiesha Prem and Siyan Yi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:515

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Regardless of chronic treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART), the switching rate for ART regarding anchor drugs has not been articulated in real-world clinical-settings in Japan. We assessed switch rates ...

    Authors: Daniel J. Ruzicka, Naho Kuroishi, Nobuyuki Oshima, Ryuta Sakuma and Toshio Naito

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:505

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Fine scale geospatial analysis of HIV infection patterns can be used to facilitate geographically targeted interventions. Our objective was to use the geospatial technology to map age and time standardized HIV...

    Authors: Gita Ramjee, Benn Sartorius, Natashia Morris, Handan Wand, Tarylee Reddy, Justin D. Yssel and Frank Tanser

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:500

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  47. Content type: Research article

    HIV testing serves as a critical gateway for linkage and retention to care services, particularly in sub-Saharan African countries with high burden of HIV infections. However, the current progress towards addr...

    Authors: Mbuzeleni Hlongwa, Tivani Mashamba-Thompson, Sizwe Makhunga and Khumbulani Hlongwana

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:496

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  48. Content type: Research article

    A high proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) use geosocial networking apps (Apps) to seek partners. However, the relationship of app use with HIV risk is unknown. Further, the risks of some sexually tr...

    Authors: Ning Zhao, Katherine T. Li, Yang-yang Gao, Jun-jie Xu and De-Sheng Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:494

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  49. Content type: Research article

    Network meta-analyses (NMAs) provide comparative treatment effects estimates in the absence of head-to-head randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This NMA compared the efficacy and safety of dolutegravir (DTG) ...

    Authors: Sonya J. Snedecor, Matthew Radford, David Kratochvil, Richard Grove and Yogesh S. Punekar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:484

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