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HIV and co-infections

Section edited by Carlo Torti 

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of HIV and HIV-associated infections in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section also aims to publish studies on the adverse events of HAART and non HIV-related comorbidities in the HAART era.

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  1. HIV affects the central nervous system resulting in HIV associated neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in approximately 50% of people living with HIV. It typically affects memory, learning, working memory, fine mo...

    Authors: Primrose Nyamayaro, Hetta Gouse, James Hakim, Reuben N. Robbins and Dixon Chibanda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:383

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Disclosure of Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive status significantly reduced the transmission of HIV; yet, it remains a challenge for many HIV patients. Disclosure serves plays a crucial role to raise awar...

    Authors: Fikadu Yehualashet, Eleni Tegegne, Mekbib Tessema and Mulualem Endeshaw

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:382

    Content type: Research article

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  3. After successful of antiretroviral therapy, highly effective direct acting antiviral (DAA) make HCV elimination reasonable in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. However, in achieving this target, there are still ba...

    Authors: Evy Yunihastuti, Bramantya Wicaksana, Andrian Wiraguna, Ainum Jhariah Hidayah, Fhadilla Amelia, Veritea Natali, Alvina Widhani, Andri Sanityoso Sulaiman and Juferdy Kurniawan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:372

    Content type: Research article

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  4. To date, very little information is available concerning the relationship between acanthosis nigricans (AN) and infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

    Authors: Alessandra Iacovelli, Ivano Mezzaroma, Marcello Di Paolo, Giuseppe Soda, Ludovica De Vincentiis and Paolo Palange

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:360

    Content type: Case report

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  5. Tuberculosis (TB) and HV have been intertwined and makeup a deadly human syndemic worldwide, especially in developing countries like Ethiopia. Previous studies have reported different TB incidences and its ass...

    Authors: Demeke Geremew, Mulugeta Melku, Aklilu Endalamaw, Berhanu Woldu, Alebachew Fasil, Markos Negash, Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Habtamu Geremew, Takele Teklu, Tekalign Deressa, Belay Tessema and Ulrich Sack

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:325

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are a cornerstone of HIV diagnosis and rely on good quality processing and interpretation, particularly in the era of test and treat. The Deki Reader (Fio Corporation®, Toronto, O...

    Authors: Lara Noble, Lesley Scott, Lynsey Stewart-Isherwood, Seponono John Molifi, Ian Sanne, Pedro Da Silva and Wendy Stevens

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:320

    Content type: Research article

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  7. There is increasing evidence that HIV-1 genetic diversity can have an impact on drug resistance. The aim of this study is to investigate the epidemiological situation of CRF65_cpx and the impact of natural pol...

    Authors: Yongjian Liu, Yu Zhang, Hanping Li, Xiaolin Wang, Lei Jia, Jingwan Han, Tianyi Li, Jingyun Li and Lin Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:313

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Clinical manifestations of extraneural infection with the pork tapeworm Taenia solium typically affect the muscles, eyes, alimentary canal, and/or subcutaneous tissues. Children living with HIV are at increased r...

    Authors: David W. McCormick, Jason M. Bacha, Nader K. El-Mallawany, Carrie L. Kovarik, J. S. Slone and Liane R. Campbell

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:309

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Sexualized drug use (SDU) refers to use of any psychoactive substance before/during sexual intercourse. Chemsex is a subset of SDU, which is defined as the use of some specific psychoactive substances (methamp...

    Authors: Zixin Wang, Phoenix K. H. Mo, Mary Ip, Yuan Fang and Joseph T. F. Lau

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:299

    Content type: Research article

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  10. In the context of global aging, HIV infection has become a new chronic disease and requires innovative models of care. Treating isolated comorbidities represents a useless and potentially harmful practice at a...

    Authors: Ines Pintassilgo, Matteo Cesari, Henrique N. Santos, Jovana Milic, Iacopo Franconi, Cristina Mussini, Nuno Marques and Giovanni Guaraldi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:290

    Content type: Correspondence

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  11. Haiti initiated the scale-up of HIV viral load (VL) testing in 2015–2016, with plans to achieve 100% coverage for all patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for treatment of HIV/AIDS. In the absence of HIV d...

    Authors: Yu Wang, Scott Barnhart, Kesner Francois, Ermane Robin, Mireille Kalou, Georges Perrin, Lara Hall, Jean Baptiste Koama, Elisma Marinho, Jean Gabriel Balan, Jean Guy Honoré and Nancy Puttkammer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:283

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Fatigue is one of the most common and devastating Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) - related symptoms, with a varying prevalence in different study areas. In Ethiopia, there is a paucity of information on t...

    Authors: Tsiwaye Gebreyesus, Addisalem Belay, Gebretsadik Berhe and Gebremedhin Haile

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:280

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Tuberculosis (TB) disease is a common opportunistic infection among people living with HIV (PLHIV). WHO recommends at least 6 months of isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) to reduce the risk of active TB. It is...

    Authors: Masanja Robert, Jim Todd, Bernard J. Ngowi, Sia E. Msuya, Angella Ramadhani, Veryhel Sambu, Isaya Jerry, Martin R. Mujuni, Michael J. Mahande, James S. Ngocho and Werner Maokola

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:276

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Syphilis has been associated with an increase in HIV RNA and a temporary decline in CD4 T cell counts in people living with HIV who are not receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), and may be associated with ...

    Authors: Andrea Giacomelli, Valeria Micheli, Dario Cattaneo, Alessandro Mancon and Cristina Gervasoni

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:273

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Modelling of longitudinal biomarkers and time-to-event data are important to monitor disease progression. However, these two variables are traditionally analyzed separately or time-varying Cox models are used....

    Authors: Nobuhle N. Mchunu, Henry G. Mwambi, Tarylee Reddy, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma and Kogieleum Naidoo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:256

    Content type: Research Article

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  16. Understanding factors driving virological failure, including the contribution of HIV drug resistance mutations (DRM), is critical to ensuring HIV treatment remains effective. We examine the contribution of dru...

    Authors: Sheri A. Lippman, Alyssa C. Mooney, Adrian Puren, Gillian Hunt, Jessica S. Grignon, Lisa M. Prach, Hailey J. Gilmore, Hong-Ha M. Truong, Scott Barnhart and Teri Liegler

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:248

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Patients infected with HIV may experience a succession of clinical stages before the disease diagnosis and their health status may be followed-up by tracking disease biomarkers. In this study, we present a joi...

    Authors: Zelalem G. Dessie, Temesgen Zewotir, Henry Mwambi and Delia North

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:246

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Adolescents living with HIV/AIDS (ALHIV) are a particularly vulnerable but often overlooked group in the HIV response despite additional disease management challenges.

    Authors: Jillian Murray, Katherine Whitehouse, Janet Ousley, Elkin Bermudez, Theint Thida Soe, Adelene Hilbig, Kyi Pyar Soe, Phyu Ei Mon, Kyaw Tint Tun, Win Le Shwe Sin Ei, Joanne Cyr, Carole Deglise and Iza Ciglenecki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:241

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Anemia is common among people living with HIV infection (PLWH) and is associated with adverse health outcomes. Information on risk factors for anemia incidence in the current antiretroviral therapy (ART) era i...

    Authors: B. N. Harding, B. M. Whitney, R. M. Nance, S. A. Ruderman, H. M. Crane, G. Burkholder, R. D. Moore, W. C. Mathews, J. J. Eron, P. W. Hunt, P. Volberding, B. Rodriguez, K. H. Mayer, M. S. Saag, M. M. Kitahata, S. R. Heckbert…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:238

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Loss to follow-up (LTFU) deprives HIV-exposed infants the lifesaving care required and results in exposing HIV free infants to virus requisition risk. We aimed to determine the rate of LTFU, postnatal mother-t...

    Authors: Rogers Ankunda, Samuel Nambile Cumber, Catherine Atuhaire, Taseera Kabanda, Claude Ngwayu Nkfusai, Frankline Sevidzem Wirsiy and Eleanor Turyakira

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:235

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) typically infects oral or anogenital squamous epithelium and causes blisters and ulcerations. Here we reported an unusual case of HSV induced exuberant rectal inflammatory pseudotumo...

    Authors: Shi Bai, Justin A. Maykel and Michelle X. Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:234

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Early infant diagnosis is important for timely identification of HIV-infected infants and linkage to care. Testing at birth has been implemented to facilitate earlier diagnosis of HIV infection but may present...

    Authors: Catherine G. Sutcliffe, Jane N. Mutanga, Nkumbula Moyo, Jessica L. Schue, Mutinta Hamahuwa, Philip E. Thuma and William J. Moss

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:227

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Cervical lymphadenopathy refers to a frequently observed clinical presentation in numerous pathological conditions. A wide spectrum of diseases can cause cervical lymphadenopathy, irrespective of the fact that...

    Authors: Lei Sun, Liang Zhang, Kun Yang, Xiang-mei Chen, Jia-min Chen, Jiang Xiao, Hong-xin Zhao, Zhi-yuan Ma, Li-ming Qi and Peng Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:224

    Content type: Research article

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  24. In Ethiopia, by the end of 2018, an estimated 690,000 people are infected with HIV and the annual cases of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is estimated to be between 4000 and 5000 with over 3.2 million people are ...

    Authors: Mehdi Mohebali and Yonas Yimam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:214

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Studies indicate that responses to HIV-2 treatment regimens are worse than responses to HIV-1 regimens during the first 12 months of treatment, but longer-term treatment responses are poorly described. We util...

    Authors: Peter A. Minchella, Christiane Adjé-Touré, Guoqing Zhang, Andre Tehe, Judith Hedje, Erin R. Rottinghaus, Natacha Kohemun, Micheline Aka, Karidia Diallo, G. Laissa Ouedraogo, Kevin M. De Cock and John N Nkengasong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:213

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Although married couples can be at an elevated risk of HIV infection, few studies have explored the risk factors for HIV infection at the couple-level. We explored the risk factors for HIV infection among marr...

    Authors: Anne M. Nabukenya, Aminah Nambuusi and Joseph K. B. Matovu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:198

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) demonstrates high efficacy in reducing the risk of HIV transmission to sexual partners. However, it is not clear if the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in HIV-1-serodiscorda...

    Authors: Lijun Sun, An Liu, Jianwei Li, Ying Shao, Qiuyun Li, Jiangzhu Ye, Hongwei Zhang, Zaicun Li and Hui Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:195

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Worldwide, there is limited epidemiologic evidence on the seroprevalence of undiagnosed chronic viral infections including HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among patients wit...

    Authors: Getinet Ayano, Kibrom Haile, Abel Tesfaye, Kelemua Haile, Sileshi Demelash, Mikias Tulu, Belachew Tsegaye, Melat Solomon, Alem Kebede, Aynalem Biru, Habte Birhanu, Gebresilassie Zenawi, Yodit Habtamu, Esias Kibron, Seneshet Eshetu, Meseret Sefiw…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:180

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The impacts of genetic polymorphisms on drug resistance mutations (DRMs) among various HIV-1 subtypes have long been debated. In this study, we aimed to analyze the natural polymorphisms and acquired DRM profi...

    Authors: Zesong Sun, Jinming Ouyang, Bin Zhao, Minghui An, Lin Wang, Haibo Ding and Xiaoxu Han

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:178

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Studies report serious adherence problems among youth (individuals age 15–24 years of age) in Uganda. Recent growth in mobile phone ownership has highlighted the potential of using text-based interventions to ...

    Authors: Sarah MacCarthy, Zachary Wagner, Alexandra Mendoza-Graf, Carlos Ignacio Gutierrez, Clare Samba, Josephine Birungi, Stephen Okoboi and Sebastian Linnemayr

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:173

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Identifying immunogens that induce HIV-1-specific immune responses is a lengthy process that can benefit from computational methods, which predict T-cell epitopes for various HLA types.

    Authors: Daniel Lule Bugembe, Andrew Obuku Ekii, Nicaise Ndembi, Jennifer Serwanga, Pontiano Kaleebu and Pietro Pala

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:172

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection can be diagnosed clinically once classical rash occurs but the diagnosis is challenging when typical rash is absent. We reported a case of fulminant central nervous syste...

    Authors: Mingxia Fang, Xing Weng, Liyun Chen, Yaling Chen, Yun Chi, Wei Chen and Zhiliang Hu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:159

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Although the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has improved significantly due to antiretroviral treatment (ART), ART-related adverse events (AEs) remain an issue. Therefore, investigating the ...

    Authors: Lili Dai, Bin Su, An Liu, Hongwei Zhang, Hao Wu, Tong Zhang, Ying Shao, Jianwei Li, Jiangzhu Ye, Shaoli Bai, Xiaoling Guo and Lijun Sun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:158

    Content type: Research article

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  34. HIV testing plays a central role in the combat against HIV. We aimed to determine if the availability of HIV self-testing (HIVST) would increase the frequency of testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) a...

    Authors: Song Fan, Zhongquan Liu, Zhenzhou Luo, Maohe Yu, Lin Ouyang, Hui Gong, Yi Ding, Peiyang Li, Tanwei Yuan, Yepeng Zhou, Guohui Wu and Huachun Zou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:149

    Content type: Study protocol

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  35. Low level viremia (LLV) often occurs during antiretroviral therapy (ART) against HIV-1. However, whether LLV increases the risk of virologic failure (VF) is controversial because of the non-uniform definitions...

    Authors: Tong Zhang, Haibo Ding, Minghui An, Xiaonan Wang, Wen Tian, Bin Zhao and Xiaoxu Han

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:147

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The southeastern US is an epicenter for incident HIV in the US with high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) co-infections. However, epidemiologies of HPV-associated clinical conditions (CC) among people ...

    Authors: Yuanfan Ye, Greer A. Burkholder, Howard W. Wiener, Russell Griffin, Stella Aslibekyan, Karen Fry, Ashraf Khan and Sadeep Shrestha

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:144

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The global annual estimate for cryptococcal disease-related deaths exceeds 180,000, with three fourth occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends cryptococcal antigen (CrAg)...

    Authors: Sulaiman Lakoh, Hannah Rickman, Momodu Sesay, Sartie Kenneh, Rachael Burke, Mamadu Baldeh, Darlinda F. Jiba, Yusuf S. Tejan, Sonia Boyle, Comfort Koroma, Gibrilla F. Deen and Fenella Beynon

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:141

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The rate of S68G mutation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase has increased and is closely related to the K65R mutation among CRF01_AE-infected patients who failed treatment. W...

    Authors: Shengjia Li, Jinming Ouyang, Bin Zhao, Minghui An, Lin Wang, Haibo Ding, Min Zhang and Xiaoxu Han

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:123

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Tuberculosis continues to be a health problem of both developed and developing countries, and its incidence has currently increased due to HIV induced immune suppression. HIV-co-infection decreases the total n...

    Authors: Tadelo Wondmagegn, Debasu Damtie, Meaza Genetu, Belete Biadgo, Mulualem Lemma and Markos Negash

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:109

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Following migration from Schistosoma and Strongyloides endemic to non-endemic regions, people remain at high risk for adverse sequelae from these chronic infections. HIV co-infected persons are particularly vulne...

    Authors: Jessica McLellan, M. John Gill, Stephen Vaughan and Bonnie Meatherall

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:76

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Cryptococcal meningitis (CCM) is a common and deadly disease among HIV-infected patients. Notable about CCM is its association with the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Though it has been po...

    Authors: Ssegujja Boniface Joseph Otto, Paul E. George, Rebecca Mercedes and Nicolette Nabukeera-Barungi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:68

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Timely infant testing for HIV is critical to ensure optimal treatment outcomes among exposed infants. While world health organization recommends HIV exposed infants to be tested between 4 to 6 weeks of age, in...

    Authors: Hiluf Ebuy, Alemayehu Bekele and Getachew Redae

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:67

    Content type: Research article

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  43. The impact of HIV-1 subtype (CRF01_AE and non-CRF01_AE) on HIV-1 DNA levels in HIV-1 chronically infected patients with suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains poorly understood. To evaluate the corre...

    Authors: Tingxia Lyu, Yongsong Yue, Evelyn Hsieh, Yang Han, Ting Zhu, Xiaojing Song, Wei Cao, Wei Lyu, Jianhua Wang and Taisheng Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:66

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening with fluconazole prophylaxis has been shown to prevent cryptococcal meningitis and mortality for people living with HIV (PLWH) with CD4 < 100 cells/mm3. While cryptococcal me...

    Authors: James Wykowski, Sean R. Galagan, Sabina Govere, Carole L. Wallis, Mahomed-Yunus Moosa, Connie Celum and Paul K. Drain

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:61

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Tuberculosis (TB) and AIDS are the leading causes of infectious disease death worldwide. In some TB-HIV co-infected individuals treated for both diseases simultaneously, a pathological inflammatory reaction te...

    Authors: Nathalia Beatriz Ramos de Sá, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Tatiana Pereira da Silva, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Valeria Cavalcanti Rolla, Carmem B. W. Giacoia-Gripp, Daniel Scott-Algara, Mariza Gonçalves Morgado and Sylvia Lopes Maia Teixeira

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:59

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Opportunistic infections (OIs) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). For better treatments and interventions, current and up-to-date in...

    Authors: Mamaru Wubale Melkamu, Mulugeta Tesfa Gebeyehu, Abebe Dilie Afenigus, Yitbarek Tenaw Hibstie, Belisty Temesgen, Pammla Petrucka and Animut Alebel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:50

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Hepatitis B is a major concern in Africa, especially in HIV-infected patients. Unfortunately, access to hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing and adequate treatment remains a challenge in the continent. We investiga...

    Authors: Florian Liégeois, Sylvie Boyer, Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay, Patrizia Carrieri, Charles Kouanfack, Jenny Domyeum, Gwenaëlle Maradan, Jacques Ducos, Eitel Mpoudi-Ngolé, Bruno Spire, Eric Delaporte, Christopher Kuaban, Laurent Vidal and Christian Laurent

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:49

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Anticipated HIV stigma, i.e., the expectation of adverse experiences from one’s seroconversion, is associated with both negative psychological and behavioral outcomes. We know little about anticipated HIV stig...

    Authors: Chuncheng Liu, Ye Zhang, Stephen W. Pan, Bolin Cao, Jason J. Ong, Hongyun Fu, Dan Wu, Rong Fu, Chongyi Wei, Joseph D. Tucker and Weiming Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:44

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLWH) is increasing. Effective biomedical prevention methods (treatment as prevention and preexposure prophylaxis) are being widely implemented in high-income nations...

    Authors: Ben Huntingdon, Louise Sharpe, John de Wit, Martin Duracinsky and Ilona Juraskova

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:31

    Content type: Research article

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  50. An individual is considered HIV positive when a confirmatory HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation test returns positive following an initial reactive antigen/antibody combination screen. Falsely reactive HIV screens ha...

    Authors: Polly Tsybina, Maurice Hennink, Tania Diener, Jessica Minion, Amanda Lang, Stephanie Lavoie, John Kim and Alexander Wong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:9

    Content type: Case report

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