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HIV and co-infections

Section edited by Carlo Torti 

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of HIV and HIV-associated infections in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section also aims to publish studies on the adverse events of HAART and non HIV-related comorbidities in the HAART era.

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  1. Cryptococcal meningitis (CCM) is a common and deadly disease among HIV-infected patients. Notable about CCM is its association with the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Though it has been po...

    Authors: Ssegujja Boniface Joseph Otto, Paul E. George, Rebecca Mercedes and Nicolette Nabukeera-Barungi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:68

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  2. Timely infant testing for HIV is critical to ensure optimal treatment outcomes among exposed infants. While world health organization recommends HIV exposed infants to be tested between 4 to 6 weeks of age, in...

    Authors: Hiluf Ebuy, Alemayehu Bekele and Getachew Redae

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:67

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The impact of HIV-1 subtype (CRF01_AE and non-CRF01_AE) on HIV-1 DNA levels in HIV-1 chronically infected patients with suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains poorly understood. To evaluate the corre...

    Authors: Tingxia Lyu, Yongsong Yue, Evelyn Hsieh, Yang Han, Ting Zhu, Xiaojing Song, Wei Cao, Wei Lyu, Jianhua Wang and Taisheng Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:66

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening with fluconazole prophylaxis has been shown to prevent cryptococcal meningitis and mortality for people living with HIV (PLWH) with CD4 < 100 cells/mm3. While cryptococcal me...

    Authors: James Wykowski, Sean R. Galagan, Sabina Govere, Carole L. Wallis, Mahomed-Yunus Moosa, Connie Celum and Paul K. Drain

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:61

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Tuberculosis (TB) and AIDS are the leading causes of infectious disease death worldwide. In some TB-HIV co-infected individuals treated for both diseases simultaneously, a pathological inflammatory reaction te...

    Authors: Nathalia Beatriz Ramos de Sá, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Tatiana Pereira da Silva, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Valeria Cavalcanti Rolla, Carmem B. W. Giacoia-Gripp, Daniel Scott-Algara, Mariza Gonçalves Morgado and Sylvia Lopes Maia Teixeira

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:59

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Opportunistic infections (OIs) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). For better treatments and interventions, current and up-to-date in...

    Authors: Mamaru Wubale Melkamu, Mulugeta Tesfa Gebeyehu, Abebe Dilie Afenigus, Yitbarek Tenaw Hibstie, Belisty Temesgen, Pammla Petrucka and Animut Alebel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:50

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Hepatitis B is a major concern in Africa, especially in HIV-infected patients. Unfortunately, access to hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing and adequate treatment remains a challenge in the continent. We investiga...

    Authors: Florian Liégeois, Sylvie Boyer, Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay, Patrizia Carrieri, Charles Kouanfack, Jenny Domyeum, Gwenaëlle Maradan, Jacques Ducos, Eitel Mpoudi-Ngolé, Bruno Spire, Eric Delaporte, Christopher Kuaban, Laurent Vidal and Christian Laurent

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:49

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Anticipated HIV stigma, i.e., the expectation of adverse experiences from one’s seroconversion, is associated with both negative psychological and behavioral outcomes. We know little about anticipated HIV stig...

    Authors: Chuncheng Liu, Ye Zhang, Stephen W. Pan, Bolin Cao, Jason J. Ong, Hongyun Fu, Dan Wu, Rong Fu, Chongyi Wei, Joseph D. Tucker and Weiming Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:44

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLWH) is increasing. Effective biomedical prevention methods (treatment as prevention and preexposure prophylaxis) are being widely implemented in high-income nations...

    Authors: Ben Huntingdon, Louise Sharpe, John de Wit, Martin Duracinsky and Ilona Juraskova

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:31

    Content type: Research article

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  10. An individual is considered HIV positive when a confirmatory HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation test returns positive following an initial reactive antigen/antibody combination screen. Falsely reactive HIV screens ha...

    Authors: Polly Tsybina, Maurice Hennink, Tania Diener, Jessica Minion, Amanda Lang, Stephanie Lavoie, John Kim and Alexander Wong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:9

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Cysteine-cysteine chemokine receptor 5 is the main HIV co-receptor involved in the virus and cell-to-cell spread. A variant of the CCR5 gene known as CCR5-Δ32 which is a product of 32 base pair deletion in the...

    Authors: Ekerette Friday Ekere, Monday F. Useh, Henshaw Uchechi Okoroiwu and Tatfeng Youtchou Mirabeau

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:5

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Despite the adoption of the provider-initiated HIV testing strategy, the rate of HIV testing is still very low in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to assess the factors associated with HIV testing...

    Authors: Ndeye Aïssatou Lakhe, Khardiata Diallo Mbaye, Khadime Sylla and Cheikh Tidiane Ndour

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 20:1

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Kaposi sarcoma, as an epidemiological factor, is associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and it is related to human herpes virus (HHV-8), as well as a higher prevalence in males and non-genit...

    Authors: Helena Lucia Barroso dos Reis, Dennis de Carvalho Ferreira, Neide Aparecida Tosato Boldrini, Carolina Galvão, João Victor Jacomele Caldas, Marize Freitas Santos Neves and Philippe Godefroy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1095

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection has become a global concern. Determining the factors leading to death among HIV patients helps controlling Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. Up t...

    Authors: Zahra Gheibi, Zahra Shayan, Hassan Joulaei, Mohammad Fararouei, Shohreh Beheshti and Mostafa Shokoohi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1094

    Content type: Research article

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  15. A key goal of Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) is to achieve and maintain durable viral suppression. Thus, the most important use of viral load measurement is to monitor the effectiveness of therapy after initia...

    Authors: Jemal Hassen Ali and Tewodros Getinet Yirtaw

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1084

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Brazil has the largest population of individuals living with HIV/AIDS in Latin America, with a disproportional prevalence of infection among gays, bisexuals and other men who have sex with men (MSM). Of releva...

    Authors: Thiago S. Torres, Luana M. S. Marins, Valdilea G. Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn and Paula M. Luz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1067

    Content type: Research article

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  17. HIV, HBV and HCV remain a global public health concern especially in Africa. Prevalence of these infections is changing and identification of risk factors associated with each infection in Mali is needed to im...

    Authors: Aude Jary, Sidi Dienta, Valentin Leducq, Quentin Le Hingrat, Mahamadou Cisse, Amadou B. Diarra, Djeneba B. Fofana, Alhassane Ba, Mounirou Baby, Chad J. Achenbach, Robert Murphy, Vincent Calvez, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin and Almoustapha I. Maiga

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1064

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is not widely available in China. Previous studies reported low awareness and inconclusive findings on the acceptability of PrEP among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM).

    Authors: Wenting Huang, Dan Wu, Jason J. Ong, M. Kumi Smith, Fan Yang, Hongyun Fu, Weiming Tang and Joseph D. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1057

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Primary care may be an avenue to increase coverage of HIV testing but it is unclear what challenges primary healthcare professionals in low- and middle-income countries face. We describe the HIV testing practi...

    Authors: Jason J. Ong, Ming Hui Peng, William W. Wong, Ying-Ru Lo, Michael R. Kidd, Martin Roland, Shan Zhu Zhu and Sun Fang Jiang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1054

    Content type: Research article

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  20. HIV-specific Antibody Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity (ADCC) has shown to be important in HIV control and resistance. The ADCC is mediated primarily by natural killer cell activated through the binding of FcγRIIIa...

    Authors: Sneha Pramod Talathi, Nawaj Najir Shaikh, Sudhanshu Shekhar Pandey, Vandana Ashish Saxena, Megha Sunil Mamulwar and Madhuri Rajeev Thakar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1053

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Cryptococcal prostatitis is a rare clinical disease and has never been reported in China.

    Authors: Lijun Xu, Ran Tao, Qiyu Zhao, Jinlin Cheng and Biao Zhu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1051

    Content type: Case report

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  22. The implementation of national antiretroviral therapy (ART) and expanded ART policies results in that more and more HIV-infected patients receive ART in Kunming, Yunnan province, China. At the same time, howev...

    Authors: Bin Liao, Xiao-Wen Zhang, Jing-Ying Wang, Jun Liu, Jun Liang, Wen-Jie He, Biao Hong and Yi Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1043

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Anemia is a common problem in HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infected patients, and is associated with decreased functional capacity and quality of life. Ethiopia is one of the countries which has expanded...

    Authors: Fasil Wagnew, Setegn Eshetie, Animut Alebel, Cheru Tesema, Getiye Dejenu Kibret, Alemu Gebrie, Getenet Dessie and Amanuel Alemu Abajobir

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1032

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Cytomegalovirus infection dramatically decreased with the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. Whether incidence, clinical characteristics and prognosis of cytomegalovirus in HIV infected patients, has chan...

    Authors: R. Perello, A. Vergara, E. Monclus, S. Jimenez, M. Montero, N. Saubi, A. Moreno, Y. Eto, A. Inciarte, J. Mallolas, E. Martínez and M. A. Marcos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1030

    Content type: Research article

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  25. In 2018 in Ethiopia, magnitude of human immunodeficiency virus Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome treatment failure was 15.9% and currently the number of patient receiving second line antiretroviral therapy (A...

    Authors: Diriba Mulisa, Mulugeta Tesfa, Getachew Mullu Kassa and Tadesse Tolossa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1024

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Few countries in sub-Saharan Africa know the magnitude of their HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID). This was the first study in Mozambique to measure prevalence of HIV, HBV, and HCV, and to asse...

    Authors: Cynthia Semá Baltazar, Roberta Horth, Makini Boothe, Isabel Sathane, Peter Young, Denise Chitsondzo Langa, Manuel Condula, Helena Ricardo, Liliana Dengo Baloi, Beverley Cummings, Nicolas Schaad, Lídia Gouveia, Eugénia Teodoro and Henry F. Raymond

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1022

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) has greatly improved the prognosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients globally, opportunistic infections (OIs) are still common in Chinese AIDS patients...

    Authors: Yongxi Zhang, Brian Cooper, Xi’en Gui, Renslow Sherer and Qian Cao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1003

    Content type: Case report

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1065

  28. The prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) has become a significant public health challenge. The aim was to comprehensively estimate the national prevalence of HIV among MSM and its time trend...

    Authors: Meng-Jie Dong, Bin Peng, Zhen-Feng Liu, Qian-ni Ye, Hao Liu, Xi-Li Lu, Bo Zhang and Jia-Jia Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1000

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Malaria and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection constitute public health problems in Cameroon including the South West Region (SWR). This study determined the prevalence of malaria parasites and h...

    Authors: Sorelle Mekachie Sandie, Irene Ule Ngole Sumbele, Martin Mih Tasah and Helen Kuokuo Kimbi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:988

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The co-occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and malaria in humans in endemic areas raises the question of whether one of these infections affects the course of the other. Although epidemi...

    Authors: Guangjie Liu, Youjia Li, Li Qin, Yongxiang Yan, Yijian Ye, Yue Chen, Cuizhu Huang, Siting Zhao, Yongchao Yao, Zhong Su and Xiaoping Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:965

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Ruili is a border city in southwest China along the heroin trafficking route. In recent decades, the city has witnessed increased in HIV transmission. The current study aims to explore the spatiotemporal trend...

    Authors: Li Jiang, Zhoulin Li, Jin Huang, Bang Liu, Yingbo Yang, Lanzhu Lin, Chengbo Wang, Ximei Xie, Xia Peng, Wen Xu and Hong Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:925

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Programmatic data on the baseline risk of tuberculosis in people living with HIV (PLHIV) are needed to evaluate long-term effectiveness of the ongoing isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) roll-out in India.

    Authors: Akshay N. Gupte, Dileep Kadam, Shashikala Sangle, Bharat B. Rewari, Sonali Salvi, Amol Chavan, Smita Nimkar, Jonathan Golub, Nikhil Gupte, Amita Gupta, Ivan Marbaniang and Vidya Mave

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:914

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Self-reported antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence measures that are associated with plasma viral load (VL) are valuable to clinicians and researchers, but are rarely examined among groups vulnerable to drop...

    Authors: William E. Cunningham, Robin M. Nance, Carol E. Golin, Patrick Flynn, Kevin Knight, Curt G. Beckwith, Irene Kuo, Anne Spaulding, Faye S. Taxman, Fredrick Altice, Joseph A. Delaney, Heidi M. Crane and Sandra A. Springer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:913

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Migrants often face barriers to accessing healthcare. We examined disparities in access to and use of HIV-related health services between migrant and non-migrant people recently diagnosed with HIV living in th...

    Authors: Janneke P. Bil, Freke R. Zuure, Debora Alvarez-del Arco, Jan M. Prins, Kees Brinkman, Eliane Leyten, Ard van Sighem, Fiona Burns and Maria Prins

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:906

    Content type: Research article

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  35. It is frequently of epidemiological and/or clinical interest to estimate the date of HIV infection or time-since-infection of individuals. Yet, for over 15 years, the only widely-referenced infection dating al...

    Authors: Eduard Grebe, Shelley N. Facente, Jeremy Bingham, Christopher D. Pilcher, Andrew Powrie, Jarryd Gerber, Gareth Priede, Trust Chibawara, Michael P. Busch, Gary Murphy, Reshma Kassanjee and Alex Welte

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:894

    Content type: Technical advance

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  36. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin plays an important role in the treatment of patients with severe refractory human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS). High cumulative doses of conventio...

    Authors: Ayaka Ishihara, Shuji Hatakeyama, Jun Suzuki, Yusuke Amano, Teppei Sasahara, Masaki Toshima and Yuji Morisawa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:848

    Content type: Case report

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  37. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)-containing combinations were introduced in Switzerland after October 2016 and are recommended over tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in patients with osteoporosis or impaired rena...

    Authors: Bernard Surial, Matthias Cavassini, Alexandra Calmy, Jan Fehr, Marcel Stöckle, Enos Bernasconi, Bianca Roth, Christoph A. Fux, Helen Kovari, Hansjakob Furrer, Andri Rauch and Gilles Wandeler

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:834

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Elite controllers (EC), a small subset of the HIV-positive population (< 1%), suppress HIV viremia below the limit of quantification of clinical viral load assays in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART)...

    Authors: Deirdre Morley, John S. Lambert, Louise E. Hogan, Cillian De Gascun, Niamh Redmond, Rachel L. Rutishauser, Cassandra Thanh, Erica A. Gibson, Kristen Hobbs, Sonia Bakkour, Michael P. Busch, Jeremy Farrell, Padraig McGetrick and Timothy J. Henrich

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:815

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:877

  39. Prevention of new HIV infections is a critical public health issue. The highest HIV testing gaps are in men, adolescents 15–19 years old, and adults 40 years and older. Community-based HIV testing services (HT...

    Authors: Pitchaya P. Indravudh, Katherine Fielding, Moses K. Kumwenda, Rebecca Nzawa, Richard Chilongosi, Nicola Desmond, Rose Nyirenda, Cheryl C. Johnson, Rachel C. Baggaley, Karin Hatzold, Fern Terris-Prestholt and Elizabeth L. Corbett

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:814

    Content type: Study protocol

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  40. HIV self-testing (HIVST) is a promising approach to expand HIV testing. HIVST is a process in which a person performs an HIV test and interprets the result. Negative HIVST results may encourage men who have se...

    Authors: Weiming Tang, Wenting Huang, Haidong Lu, Bolin Cao, Dan Wu, Jason Ong, Hongyun Fu, Ye Zhang, Bin Yang, Cheng Wang, Wei Ma, Chongyi Wei and Joseph D. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:807

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Non-typhoidal salmonellae (NTS) have been associated with invasive disease, notably meningitis, in immunocompromised individuals. Infections of this nature carry high rates of morbidity and mortality. Colistin...

    Authors: Roxanne Rule, Nontombi Mbelle, John Osei Sekyere, Marleen Kock, Anwar Hoosen and Mohamed Said

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:806

    Content type: Case report

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  42. The HLA-B*57:01 allele is associated with a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir. Due to the lack of knowledge of HLA-B*57:01 prevalence in Colombia, routine screening is not performed and is not recommended ...

    Authors: Ernesto Martínez Buitrago, José Millán Oñate, José Fernando García-Goez, Jorge Álvarez, William Lenis, Luz Marina Sañudo and Luisa Consuelo Rubiano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:793

    Content type: Research article

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  43. South Africa has the highest HIV prevalence and supports the largest antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme globally. With the introduction of a test and treat policy, ensuring long term optimal adherence to A...

    Authors: Atika Moosa, Tanuja N. Gengiah, Lara Lewis and Kogieleum Naidoo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:775

    Content type: Research article

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  44. HCV (Hepatitis C virus) is a prevalent chronic disease with potentially deadly consequences, especially for drug users. However, there are no special HCV or HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)-related intervent...

    Authors: Jing Ying Zhang, Zhi Bin Li, Lei Zhang, Jun Wang, Le Ping Huang, Gui Lai Zhan, Zhu Li, Jiang Du and Min Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:774

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Tuberculosis (TB) is among the world’s top public health challenges and the leading killer of people with HIV, yet is a treatable disease. This study aimed to assess, in a real-world setting, the implementatio...

    Authors: Ley Muyaya Muyaya, Esperance Manwana Musanda and Jacques Lukenze Tamuzi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:767

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Little is known about contextual factors that predict long-term mortality following HIV testing in resource-limited settings. We evaluated the impact of contextual factors on 5-year mortality among HIV-infecte...

    Authors: Ingrid V. Bassett, Ai Xu, Janet Giddy, Laura M. Bogart, Andrew Boulle, Lucia Millham, Elena Losina and Robert A. Parker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:751

    Content type: Research article

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  47. The use of fixed combination antiretroviral therapy with a low genetic barrier for the treatment of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may affect the local HIV transmitted drug resistanc...

    Authors: Ya-Wei Weng, I-Tzu Chen, Hung-Chin Tsai, Kuan-Sheng Wu, Yu-Ting Tseng, Cheng-Len Sy, Jui-Kuang Chen, Susan Shin-Jung Lee and Yao-Shen Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:741

    Content type: Research article

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