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Healthcare-associated infection control

This section aims to publish studies looking at infection prevention and control in the healthcare setting and includes disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis, alongside hand hygiene, surveillance and other interventions.


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  1. Due to the vulnerable nature of its patients, the wide use of invasive devices and broad-spectrum antimicrobials used, the intensive care unit (ICU) is often called the epicentre of infections. In the present ...

    Authors: Carmen Axente, Monica Licker, Roxana Moldovan, Elena Hogea, Delia Muntean, Florin Horhat, Ovidiu Bedreag, Dorel Sandesc, Marius Papurica, Dorina Dugaesescu, Mirela Voicu and Luminita Baditoiu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:358

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Chlorhexidine (CHG) penetrates poorly into skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the depth of CHG skin permeation from solutions containing either 2% (w/v) CHG and 70% (v/v) isopropyl alcohol (IPA) or 2%...

    Authors: A. L. Casey, T. J. Karpanen, B. R. Conway, T. Worthington, P. Nightingale, R. Waters and T. S. J. Elliott

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:350

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Over the past few decades, numerous forecasting methods have been proposed in the field of epidemic forecasting. Such methods can be classified into different categories such as deterministic vs. probabilistic...

    Authors: Farzaneh Sadat Tabataba, Prithwish Chakraborty, Naren Ramakrishnan, Srinivasan Venkatramanan, Jiangzhuo Chen, Bryan Lewis and Madhav Marathe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:345

    Content type: TECHNICAL ADVANCE

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  4. No guidelines exist on assessing ventilation through air changes per hour (ACH) using a vaneometer. The objective of the study was to evaluate the position and frequency for measuring air velocity using a vane...

    Authors: Miranda Brouwer, Achilles Katamba, Elly Tebasoboke Katabira and Frank van Leth

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:325

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The prophylactic use of antimicrobial agents to prevent infections in non-surgical situations has hardly been investigated. We investigate the extent, indications and appropriateness of antimicrobial prophylax...

    Authors: Jan W. T. Deelen, Caroline E. Visser, Jan M. Prins and Reinier M. van Hest

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:296

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Identification of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in faecal specimens is challenging. This fact is particularly critical because low-level carbapenem-resistant organisms such as IMP-producing CPE...

    Authors: Norihisa Yamamoto, Ryuji Kawahara, Yukihiro Akeda, Rathina Kumar Shanmugakani, Hisao Yoshida, Hideharu Hagiya, Naohiro Hara, Isao Nishi, Satomi Yukawa, Rumiko Asada, Yumi Sasaki, Kazuhiro Maeda, Noriko Sakamoto, Shigeyuki Hamada and Kazunori Tomono

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:229

    Content type: Research article

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  7. External and intraocular infections can lead to visual impairments, which is a major public health problem. Bacteria are the most frequent pathogens affecting ocular structures; the increasing rate of antimicr...

    Authors: Mebrahtu Teweldemedhin, Muthupandian Saravanan, Araya Gebreyesus and Dawit Gebreegziabiher

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:207

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Preparedness is considered essential for healthcare organizations to respond effectively to outbreaks. In the current study we aim to capture the views of first responders on what they consider key recommendat...

    Authors: Evelien Belfroid, Aura Timen, Jim E. van Steenbergen, Anita Huis and Marlies E. J. L. Hulscher

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:195

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The focus of nursing home infection control procedures has been on decreasing transmission between healthcare workers and residents. Less evidence is available regarding whether decontamination of high-touch e...

    Authors: Christine R. Kovach, Yavuz Taneli, Tammy Neiman, Elaine M. Dyer, Alvin Jason A. Arzaga and Sheryl T Kelber

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:186

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Recent analysis of trends of non-invasive infections with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), of trends of MRSA infections in outpatient settings and of co-resistance profiles of MRSA isolates are...

    Authors: Jan Walter, Ines Noll, Marcel Feig, Bettina Weiss, Hermann Claus, Guido Werner, Tim Eckmanns, Julia Hermes and Muna Abu Sin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:169

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections are a serious concern for children admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Tracheal colonization with MDR Enterobacteriaceae predisposes to respiratory infec...

    Authors: Hanna Renk, Lenja Stoll, Felix Neunhoeffer, Florian Hölzl, Matthias Kumpf, Michael Hofbeck and Dominik Hartl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:163

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Surgical site infections are commonest nosocomial infections and responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality as well as increased hospitalizations and treatment cost related to surgical operations. Th...

    Authors: Tamrat Legesse Laloto, Desta Hiko Gemeda and Sadikalmahdi Hussen Abdella

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:119

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Nosocomial pneumonia has correlated to dental plaque and to oropharynx colonization in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. The interruption of this process, by preventing colonization of pathogenic bact...

    Authors: Claudia Fernanda de Lacerda Vidal, Aurora Karla de Lacerda Vidal, José Gildo de Moura Monteiro Jr., Aracele Cavalcanti, Ana Paula da Costa Henriques, Márcia Oliveira, Michele Godoy, Mirella Coutinho, Pollyanna Dutra Sobral, Claudia Ângela Vilela, Bárbara Gomes, Marta Amorim Leandro, Ulisses Montarroyos, Ricardo de Alencar Ximenes and Heloísa Ramos Lacerda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:112

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:173

  14. To understand the relationship between the Staphylococcus aureus infection rate and the reasonable usage of antibiotics, which will help in the effective control of MRSA infection.

    Authors: Kaisen Chen, Yanfang Huang, Qiuyue Song, Chenhui Wu, Xiaowen Chen and Lingbing Zeng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:97

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Cleaning of environmental surfaces in hospitals is important for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other hospital-acquired infections transmitted by the contact route. Guidance...

    Authors: Hao Lei, Rachael M. Jones and Yuguo Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:85

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The emergence and spread of Carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli (CREC) is becoming a serious problem in Chinese hospitals, however, the data on this is scarce. Therefore, we investigate the risk factors for hea...

    Authors: Xiujuan Meng, Sidi Liu, Juping Duan, Xun Huang, Pengcheng Zhou, Xinrui Xiong, Ruie Gong, Ying Zhang, Yao Liu, Chenchao Fu, Chunhui Li and Anhua Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:82

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) of intensive care unit (ICU) patients has been shown to reduce healthcare-associated infections and colonization by multidrug resistant organisms. The objective...

    Authors: Jackson S. Musuuza, Tonya J. Roberts, Pascale Carayon and Nasia Safdar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:75

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Urinary and (peripheral and central) intravenous catheters are widely used in hospitalized patients. However, up to 56% of the catheters do not have an appropriate indication and some serious complications wit...

    Authors: Bart J. Laan, Ingrid J. B. Spijkerman, Mieke H. Godfried, Berend C. Pasmooij, Jolanda M. Maaskant, Marjon J. Borgert, Brent C. Opmeer, Margreet C. Vos and Suzanne E. Geerlings

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:53

    Content type: Study protocol

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  19. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among hospital personnel is a common cause of hospital acquired infections. Emergence of drug resistant strains especially methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a serio...

    Authors: Nabil Abdullah El Aila, Nahed Ali Al Laham and Basim Mohammad Ayesh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:28

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Escherichia coli (E. coli) comprise part of the normal vaginal microflora. Transfer from mother to neonate can occur during delivery resulting, sometimes, in neonatal bacterial disease...

    Authors: Ciara O’Connor, Roy K. Philip, John Kelleher, James Powell, Alan O’Gorman, Barbara Slevin, Neil Woodford, Jane F. Turton, Elaine McGrath, Cathriona Finnegan, Lorraine Power, Nuala H. O’Connell and Colum P. Dunne

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:16

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is caused by MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV). More than 80% of reported cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia, with a mortality exceeding 50%. Health-care workers (HCWs) are a...

    Authors: Mostafa A. Abolfotouh, Ali A. AlQarni, Suliman M. Al-Ghamdi, Mahmoud Salam, Mohammed H. Al-Assiri and Hanan H. Balkhy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:4

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Antimicrobial resistance has been declared by the World Health Organization as a threat to the public health. The aim of this study was to analyze antimicrobial resistance patterns of the common pathogens occu...

    Authors: Nyambura Moremi, Heike Claus and Stephen E. Mshana

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:756

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Expanding antimicrobial resistance patterns in the face of stagnant growth in novel antibiotic production underscores the importance of antibiotic stewardship in which de-escalation remains an integral compone...

    Authors: Peter Liu, Christopher Ohl, James Johnson, John Williamson, James Beardsley and Vera Luther

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:751

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that has become a major cause of concern, since it is a frequent cause of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The aim of the study was to describe the occ...

    Authors: Aida Bianco, Angela Quirino, Mariavalentina Giordano, Vito Marano, Claudia Rizzo, Maria Carla Liberto, Alfredo Focà and Maria Pavia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:747

    Content type: Research article

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  25. During the last decades, healthcare-associated genotypes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (HA-MRSE) have been established as important opportunistic pathogens. However, data on potential reserv...

    Authors: Micael Widerström, Johan Wiström, Helén Edebro, Elisabeth Marklund, Mattias Backman, Per Lindqvist and Tor Monsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:743

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Bacteria that produce Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) are resistant to broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics. The objective of this study was to phenotypically and genotypically characterize the antibio...

    Authors: Patricia Cristina Saldanha Ribeiro, Andrea Souza Monteiro, Sirlei Garcia Marques, Sílvio Gomes Monteiro, Valério Monteiro-Neto, Martina Márcia Melo Coqueiro, Ana Cláudia Garcia Marques, Rosimary de Jesus Gomes Turri, Simone Gonçalves Santos and Maria Rosa Quaresma Bomfim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:737

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The central-line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are the most common healthcare-associated infections in childhood. Despite the international data available on healthcare-associated infections in se...

    Authors: Elisabetta Venturini, Carlotta Montagnani, Alessandra Benni, Sabrina Becciani, Klaus Peter Biermann, Salvatore De Masi, Elena Chiappini, Maurizio de Martino and Luisa Galli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:725

    Content type: Research article

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  28. China’s Ministry of Health (MOH) has established a policy about the antimicrobial stewardship. To date, the effects of this policy on multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) in critically ill patients are unknown.

    Authors: Xudong Ma, Jianfeng Xie, Yi Yang, Fengmei Guo, Zhiwei Gao, Hua Shao, Yingzi Huang, Congshan Yang and Haibo Qiu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:704

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The Emergency Department (ED) is a frequent site of antibiotic use; poor adherence with evidence-based guidelines and broad-spectrum antibiotic overuse is common. Our objective was to determine rates and predi...

    Authors: Catherine Zatorski, Mark Zocchi, Sara E. Cosgrove, Cynthia Rand, Gillian Brooks and Larissa May

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:638

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Despite the availability of TB infection control guidelines, and good levels of healthcare worker knowledge about infection control, often these measures are not well implemented. This study sought to determin...

    Authors: Michelle Engelbrecht, André Janse van Rensburg, Gladys Kigozi and HCJ (Dingie) van Rensburg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:633

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Achromobacter xylosoxidans (AX) is known for intrinsic resistance to disinfectants. Our laboratory routine surveillance system detected an unexpected rise in AX bloodstream infections in a 2200-bed hospital. An e...

    Authors: Frank Günther, Uta Merle, Uwe Frank, Matthias M. Gaida and Nico T. Mutters

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:584

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The best surgical modality for treating chronic periprosthetic hip infections remains controversial, with a lack of randomised controlled studies. The aim of this systematic review is to compare the infection ...

    Authors: D. A. George, N. Logoluso, G. Castellini, S. Gianola, S. Scarponi, F. S. Haddad, L. Drago and C. L. Romano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:553

    Content type: Research article

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  33. One important aspect in combatting resistance to antibiotics is to increase the awareness and knowledge by epidemiological studies. We therefore conducted a German-wide point-prevalence survey for multidrug re...

    Authors: Nils-Olaf Huebner, Kathleen Dittmann, Vivien Henck, Christian Wegner and Axel Kramer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:467

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Appropriate antimicrobial prescribing is essential for patient care, yet up to half of antimicrobial prescriptions written in the UK are sub-optimal. Improving prescriber education has recently been promoted a...

    Authors: Myriam Gharbi, Luke S. P. Moore, Enrique Castro-Sánchez, Elpiniki Spanoudaki, Charlotte Grady, Alison H. Holmes and Lydia N. Drumright

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:456

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of infectious nosocomial diarrhoea but the economic costs of CDI on healthcare systems in the US remain uncertain.

    Authors: Shanshan Zhang, Sarah Palazuelos-Munoz, Evelyn M. Balsells, Harish Nair, Ayman Chit and Moe H. Kyaw

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:447

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide public health problem and is associated with antibiotic overuses. Whether personalized prescription feedback to high antibiotic prescribers using routine...

    Authors: Lars G. Hemkens, Ramon Saccilotto, Selene L. Reyes, Dominik Glinz, Thomas Zumbrunn, Oliver Grolimund, Viktoria Gloy, Heike Raatz, Andreas Widmer, Andreas Zeller and Heiner C. Bucher

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:421

    Content type: Study protocol

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  37. A prospective study was performed to investigate the prevalence of colonization among ICU patients and to examine whether asymptomatic carriers were the source of subsequent C. difficile infection (CDI) and acqui...

    Authors: Xiaoxia Zhang, Xiaohui Wang, Jingyu Yang, Xiaohua Liu, Lin Cai and Zhiyong Zong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:397

    Content type: Research article

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  38. It has been challenging to determine the true clinical impact of Acinetobacter spp., due to the predilection of this pathogen to colonize and infect critically ill patients, who often have a poor prognosis. The a...

    Authors: Aline C. Q. Leão, Paulo R. Menezes, Maura S. Oliveira and Anna S. Levin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:386

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America/The American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) provide recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). However, the me...

    Authors: Nasia Safdar, Jackson S Musuuza, Anping Xie, Ann Schoofs Hundt, Matthew Hall, Kenneth Wood and Pascale Carayon

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:349

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The currently available evidence shows fluconazole is an effective prophylaxis treatment against invasive fungal infections in preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). However, the duration a...

    Authors: Datian Che, Hua Zhou, Te Li and Bin Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:312

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Cancer patients have a higher risk of severe sepsis in comparison with non-cancer patients, with an increased risk for hospital-acquired infections (HAI), particularly with multidrug resistant bacteria (MDRB)....

    Authors: Patricia Cornejo-Juárez, Diana Vilar-Compte, Alejandro García-Horton, Marco López-Velázquez, Silvio Ñamendys-Silva and Patricia Volkow-Fernández

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:274

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Health care associated transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is well described. A previous survey of infection control (IC) practices at clinical research sites in low and middle income countries (LMIC)...

    Authors: Catherine Godfrey, Gail Tauscher, Sally Hunsberger, Melissa Austin, Lesley Scott, Jeffrey T. Schouten, Anne F. Luetkemeyer, Constance Benson, Robert Coombs and Susan Swindells

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:269

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Although N95 filtering facepiece respirators and medical masks are commonly used for protection against respiratory infections in healthcare settings, more clinical evidence is needed to understand the optimal...

    Authors: Lewis J. Radonovich Jr., Mary T. Bessesen, Derek A. Cummings, Aaron Eagan, Charlotte Gaydos, Cynthia Gibert, Geoffrey J. Gorse, Ann-Christine Nyquist, Nicholas G. Reich, Maria Rodrigues-Barradas, Connie Savor-Price, Ronald E. Shaffer, Michael S. Simberkoff and Trish M. Perl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:243

    Content type: Study protocol

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  44. Worldwide, there is a wealth of literature examining patient-level risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia. At the hospital-level it is generally accepted that MRSA bactera...

    Authors: Cheryl L. Gibbons, Bram A. D. van Bunnik, Oliver Blatchford, Chris Robertson, Thibaud Porphyre, Laura Imrie, Julie Wilson, J. Ross Fitzgerald, Mark E. J. Woolhouse and Margo E. Chase-Topping

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:222

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Antibiotic overuse is driving the emergence of antibiotic resistance worldwide. Good data on prescribing behaviours of healthcare providers are needed to support antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. This stu...

    Authors: Norazida Ab Rahman, Cheong Lieng Teng and Sheamini Sivasampu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:208

    Content type: Research article

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