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Healthcare-associated infection control

Section edited by Holly Seale

This section aims to publish studies looking at infection prevention and control in the healthcare setting and includes disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis, alongside hand hygiene, surveillance and other interventions.


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  1. Urinary and (peripheral and central) intravenous catheters are widely used in hospitalized patients. However, up to 56% of the catheters do not have an appropriate indication and some serious complications wit...

    Authors: Bart J. Laan, Ingrid J. B. Spijkerman, Mieke H. Godfried, Berend C. Pasmooij, Jolanda M. Maaskant, Marjon J. Borgert, Brent C. Opmeer, Margreet C. Vos and Suzanne E. Geerlings

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:53

    Content type: Study protocol

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  2. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among hospital personnel is a common cause of hospital acquired infections. Emergence of drug resistant strains especially methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a serio...

    Authors: Nabil Abdullah El Aila, Nahed Ali Al Laham and Basim Mohammad Ayesh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:28

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Escherichia coli (E. coli) comprise part of the normal vaginal microflora. Transfer from mother to neonate can occur during delivery resulting, sometimes, in neonatal bacterial disease...

    Authors: Ciara O’Connor, Roy K. Philip, John Kelleher, James Powell, Alan O’Gorman, Barbara Slevin, Neil Woodford, Jane F. Turton, Elaine McGrath, Cathriona Finnegan, Lorraine Power, Nuala H. O’Connell and Colum P. Dunne

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:16

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is caused by MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV). More than 80% of reported cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia, with a mortality exceeding 50%. Health-care workers (HCWs) are a...

    Authors: Mostafa A. Abolfotouh, Ali A. AlQarni, Suliman M. Al-Ghamdi, Mahmoud Salam, Mohammed H. Al-Assiri and Hanan H. Balkhy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:4

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Antimicrobial resistance has been declared by the World Health Organization as a threat to the public health. The aim of this study was to analyze antimicrobial resistance patterns of the common pathogens occu...

    Authors: Nyambura Moremi, Heike Claus and Stephen E. Mshana

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:756

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Expanding antimicrobial resistance patterns in the face of stagnant growth in novel antibiotic production underscores the importance of antibiotic stewardship in which de-escalation remains an integral compone...

    Authors: Peter Liu, Christopher Ohl, James Johnson, John Williamson, James Beardsley and Vera Luther

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:751

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that has become a major cause of concern, since it is a frequent cause of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The aim of the study was to describe the occ...

    Authors: Aida Bianco, Angela Quirino, Mariavalentina Giordano, Vito Marano, Claudia Rizzo, Maria Carla Liberto, Alfredo Focà and Maria Pavia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:747

    Content type: Research article

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  8. During the last decades, healthcare-associated genotypes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (HA-MRSE) have been established as important opportunistic pathogens. However, data on potential reserv...

    Authors: Micael Widerström, Johan Wiström, Helén Edebro, Elisabeth Marklund, Mattias Backman, Per Lindqvist and Tor Monsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:743

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Bacteria that produce Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) are resistant to broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics. The objective of this study was to phenotypically and genotypically characterize the antibio...

    Authors: Patricia Cristina Saldanha Ribeiro, Andrea Souza Monteiro, Sirlei Garcia Marques, Sílvio Gomes Monteiro, Valério Monteiro-Neto, Martina Márcia Melo Coqueiro, Ana Cláudia Garcia Marques, Rosimary de Jesus Gomes Turri, Simone Gonçalves Santos and Maria Rosa Quaresma Bomfim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:737

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The central-line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are the most common healthcare-associated infections in childhood. Despite the international data available on healthcare-associated infections in se...

    Authors: Elisabetta Venturini, Carlotta Montagnani, Alessandra Benni, Sabrina Becciani, Klaus Peter Biermann, Salvatore De Masi, Elena Chiappini, Maurizio de Martino and Luisa Galli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:725

    Content type: Research article

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  11. China’s Ministry of Health (MOH) has established a policy about the antimicrobial stewardship. To date, the effects of this policy on multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) in critically ill patients are unknown.

    Authors: Xudong Ma, Jianfeng Xie, Yi Yang, Fengmei Guo, Zhiwei Gao, Hua Shao, Yingzi Huang, Congshan Yang and Haibo Qiu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:704

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The Emergency Department (ED) is a frequent site of antibiotic use; poor adherence with evidence-based guidelines and broad-spectrum antibiotic overuse is common. Our objective was to determine rates and predi...

    Authors: Catherine Zatorski, Mark Zocchi, Sara E. Cosgrove, Cynthia Rand, Gillian Brooks and Larissa May

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:638

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Despite the availability of TB infection control guidelines, and good levels of healthcare worker knowledge about infection control, often these measures are not well implemented. This study sought to determin...

    Authors: Michelle Engelbrecht, André Janse van Rensburg, Gladys Kigozi and HCJ (Dingie) van Rensburg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:633

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Achromobacter xylosoxidans (AX) is known for intrinsic resistance to disinfectants. Our laboratory routine surveillance system detected an unexpected rise in AX bloodstream infections in a 2200-bed hospital. An e...

    Authors: Frank Günther, Uta Merle, Uwe Frank, Matthias M. Gaida and Nico T. Mutters

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:584

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The best surgical modality for treating chronic periprosthetic hip infections remains controversial, with a lack of randomised controlled studies. The aim of this systematic review is to compare the infection ...

    Authors: D. A. George, N. Logoluso, G. Castellini, S. Gianola, S. Scarponi, F. S. Haddad, L. Drago and C. L. Romano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:553

    Content type: Research article

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  16. One important aspect in combatting resistance to antibiotics is to increase the awareness and knowledge by epidemiological studies. We therefore conducted a German-wide point-prevalence survey for multidrug re...

    Authors: Nils-Olaf Huebner, Kathleen Dittmann, Vivien Henck, Christian Wegner and Axel Kramer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:467

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Appropriate antimicrobial prescribing is essential for patient care, yet up to half of antimicrobial prescriptions written in the UK are sub-optimal. Improving prescriber education has recently been promoted a...

    Authors: Myriam Gharbi, Luke S. P. Moore, Enrique Castro-Sánchez, Elpiniki Spanoudaki, Charlotte Grady, Alison H. Holmes and Lydia N. Drumright

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:456

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of infectious nosocomial diarrhoea but the economic costs of CDI on healthcare systems in the US remain uncertain.

    Authors: Shanshan Zhang, Sarah Palazuelos-Munoz, Evelyn M. Balsells, Harish Nair, Ayman Chit and Moe H. Kyaw

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:447

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide public health problem and is associated with antibiotic overuses. Whether personalized prescription feedback to high antibiotic prescribers using routine...

    Authors: Lars G. Hemkens, Ramon Saccilotto, Selene L. Reyes, Dominik Glinz, Thomas Zumbrunn, Oliver Grolimund, Viktoria Gloy, Heike Raatz, Andreas Widmer, Andreas Zeller and Heiner C. Bucher

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:421

    Content type: Study protocol

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  20. A prospective study was performed to investigate the prevalence of colonization among ICU patients and to examine whether asymptomatic carriers were the source of subsequent C. difficile infection (CDI) and acqui...

    Authors: Xiaoxia Zhang, Xiaohui Wang, Jingyu Yang, Xiaohua Liu, Lin Cai and Zhiyong Zong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:397

    Content type: Research article

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  21. It has been challenging to determine the true clinical impact of Acinetobacter spp., due to the predilection of this pathogen to colonize and infect critically ill patients, who often have a poor prognosis. The a...

    Authors: Aline C. Q. Leão, Paulo R. Menezes, Maura S. Oliveira and Anna S. Levin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:386

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America/The American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) provide recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). However, the me...

    Authors: Nasia Safdar, Jackson S Musuuza, Anping Xie, Ann Schoofs Hundt, Matthew Hall, Kenneth Wood and Pascale Carayon

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:349

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The currently available evidence shows fluconazole is an effective prophylaxis treatment against invasive fungal infections in preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). However, the duration a...

    Authors: Datian Che, Hua Zhou, Te Li and Bin Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:312

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Cancer patients have a higher risk of severe sepsis in comparison with non-cancer patients, with an increased risk for hospital-acquired infections (HAI), particularly with multidrug resistant bacteria (MDRB)....

    Authors: Patricia Cornejo-Juárez, Diana Vilar-Compte, Alejandro García-Horton, Marco López-Velázquez, Silvio Ñamendys-Silva and Patricia Volkow-Fernández

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:274

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Health care associated transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is well described. A previous survey of infection control (IC) practices at clinical research sites in low and middle income countries (LMIC)...

    Authors: Catherine Godfrey, Gail Tauscher, Sally Hunsberger, Melissa Austin, Lesley Scott, Jeffrey T. Schouten, Anne F. Luetkemeyer, Constance Benson, Robert Coombs and Susan Swindells

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:269

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Although N95 filtering facepiece respirators and medical masks are commonly used for protection against respiratory infections in healthcare settings, more clinical evidence is needed to understand the optimal...

    Authors: Lewis J. Radonovich Jr., Mary T. Bessesen, Derek A. Cummings, Aaron Eagan, Charlotte Gaydos, Cynthia Gibert, Geoffrey J. Gorse, Ann-Christine Nyquist, Nicholas G. Reich, Maria Rodrigues-Barradas, Connie Savor-Price, Ronald E. Shaffer, Michael S. Simberkoff and Trish M. Perl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:243

    Content type: Study protocol

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  27. Worldwide, there is a wealth of literature examining patient-level risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia. At the hospital-level it is generally accepted that MRSA bactera...

    Authors: Cheryl L. Gibbons, Bram A. D. van Bunnik, Oliver Blatchford, Chris Robertson, Thibaud Porphyre, Laura Imrie, Julie Wilson, J. Ross Fitzgerald, Mark E. J. Woolhouse and Margo E. Chase-Topping

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:222

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Antibiotic overuse is driving the emergence of antibiotic resistance worldwide. Good data on prescribing behaviours of healthcare providers are needed to support antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. This stu...

    Authors: Norazida Ab Rahman, Cheong Lieng Teng and Sheamini Sivasampu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:208

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The impact of sink location on hand washing compliance after contact with patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is poorly understood. The aim of this study is to determine the location of hand wash ...

    Authors: Alexander Deyneko, Fernanda Cordeiro, Laurie Berlin, Debby Ben-David, Silvana Perna and Yves Longtin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:203

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Little is known about the management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers in the German outpatient sector and about the impact of MRSA on their daily life. Reimbursement for MRSA related...

    Authors: Heike Raupach-Rosin, Nicole Rübsamen, Sebastian Szkopek, Oliver Schmalz, André Karch, Rafael Mikolajczyk and Stefanie Castell

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:184

    Content type: Research article

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  31. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of healthcare-associated infection (HAI) in the China-Japan Friendship Hospital, a tertiary level hospital in Beijing, China.

    Authors: Yaowen Zhang, Jing Zhang, Dong Wei, Zhirong Yang, Yanyan Wang and Zhiyuan Yao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:161

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Systemic antibiotics vary widely in in vitro activity against Clostridium difficile. Some agents with activity against C. difficile (e.g., piperacillin/tazobactam) inhibit establishment of colonization in mice. W...

    Authors: Sirisha Kundrapu, Venkata C. K. Sunkesula, Lucy A. Jury, Jennifer L. Cadnum, Michelle M. Nerandzic, Jackson S. Musuuza, Ajay K. Sethi and Curtis J. Donskey

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:159

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Malaria remains a major cause of febrile illness in Nigeria and interventions to reduce malaria burden in Nigeria focus on the use of insecticide-treated nets. This study determined the prevalence of malaria p...

    Authors: Anthony Achizie Iwuafor, Chukwudi Charles Egwuatu, Agwu Ulu Nnachi, Ita Okokon Ita, Godwin Ibitham Ogban, Comfort Nneka Akujobi and Tenny Obiageli Egwuatu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:151

    Content type: Research article

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  34. In intensive care unit (ICU), infection and colonization by resistant Gram-negative bacteria increase costs, length of stay and mortality. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase − producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-...

    Authors: Mikael Alves, Astrid Lemire, Dominique Decré, Dimitri Margetis, Naïke Bigé, Claire Pichereau, Hafid Ait-Oufella, Jean-Luc Baudel, Georges Offenstadt, Bertrand Guidet, Frédéric Barbut and Eric Maury

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:147

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Tuberculosis infection among health care workers is capable of worsening the existing health human resource problems of low - and middle-income countries. Tuberculosis infection control is often weakly impleme...

    Authors: Y. A. Kuyinu, A. S. Mohammed, O. O. Adeyeye, B. A. Odugbemi, O. O. Goodman and O. O. Odusanya

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:126

    Content type: Research article

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  36. To improve antibiotic use globally, we must deepen our understanding of the public’s knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) concerning antibiotics. Children are frequent users of antibiotics, and their careg...

    Authors: Lilu Ding, Qiang Sun, Weishuai Sun, Yihui Du, Yue Li, Xuefeng Bian, Guiqin He, Huidong Bai and Oliver J. Dyar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:576

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Acinetobacter baumannii is an important hospital-acquired pathogen in healthcare facilities that frequently causes bacteraemia and ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care uni...

    Authors: Michelle Lowings, Marthie Magdaleen Ehlers, Andries William Dreyer and Marleen Magdalena Kock

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:521

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The most common cause of Gram-negative bacterial neonatal meningitis is E. coli K1. It has a mortality rate of 10–15 %, and neurological sequelae in 30–50 % of cases. Infections can be attributable to nosocomial ...

    Authors: Aldukali Alkeskas, Pauline Ogrodzki, Mohamed Saad, Naqash Masood, Nasreddin R. Rhoma, Karen Moore, Audrey Farbos, Konrad Paszkiewicz and Stephen Forsythe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:449

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (IRAB) is an important cause of hospital-acquired infection. We aimed to describe an outbreak of IRAB infection and to investigate its possible source in an intensive ca...

    Authors: Dan Ye, Jinglan Shan, Yongbo Huang, Jianchun Li, Changan Li, Xiaoqing Liu, Weiqun He, Yimin Li and Pu Mao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:179

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The performance of recommended control measures is necessary for quick and uniform infectious disease outbreak control. To assess whether these procedures are performed, a valid set of quality indicators (QIs)...

    Authors: Evelien Belfroid, Jeannine LA Hautvast, Mirrian Hilbink, Aura Timen and Marlies EJL Hulscher

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:166

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a frequent complication associated with hospitalization of infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The aim of this study was to evaluate and describe the r...

    Authors: Valeria Crivaro, Lidija Bogdanović, Maria Bagattini, Vita Dora Iula, Mariarosaria Catania, Francesco Raimondi, Maria Triassi and Raffaele Zarrilli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:152

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Annual influenza vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs) is recommended in Australia, but uptake in healthcare facilities has historically been low (approximately 50%). The objective of this study was to deve...

    Authors: Kristina Heinrich-Morrison, Sue McLellan, Ursula McGinnes, Brendan Carroll, Kerrie Watson, Pauline Bass, Leon J Worth and Allen C Cheng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2015 15:42

    Content type: Research article

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