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Healthcare-associated infection control

This section aims to publish studies looking at infection prevention and control in the healthcare setting and includes disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis, alongside hand hygiene, surveillance and other interventions.


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  1. Although prior hospitalization (PH) has been considered as a risk factor for infection with potentially drug-resistant (PDR) pathogens in patients admitted with pneumonia, the evidence is limited. We aimed to ...

    Authors: Jae-Uk Song, Yee Hyung Kim, Mi Yeon Lee and Jonghoo Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:349

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Antimicrobial overuse and misuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics increases the risk for antimicrobial resistance. Investigating unwarranted variation in antibiotic prescription has therefore gained global priority.

    Authors: Pia Kjær Kristensen, Søren Paaske Johnsen and Reimar Wernich Thomsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:337

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Various integrated care models have been used to improve treatment completion of medications for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB), and Human immuno...

    Authors: Jørn Henrik Vold, Christer Aas, Rafael Alexander Leiva, Peter Vickerman, Fatemeh Chalabianloo, Else-Marie Løberg, Kjell Arne Johansson and Lars Thore Fadnes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:306

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Post-operative infections are frequent after radical cystectomy with urinary diversion surgery (UDS). Reduction of post-operative infections necessitates appropriate peri-operative antimicrobial prophylaxis ta...

    Authors: E. Kolwijck, A. E. M. Seegers, S. C. M. Tops, A. G. van der Heijden, J. P. M. Sedelaar and J. ten Oever

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:303

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Surgical site infection (SSI) is the foremost infection in the overall patient population, affecting up to 66% of operated patients and with a frequency up to nine times more than in developed countries. This ...

    Authors: Bruke B. Billoro, Mengistu H. Nunemo and Seid E. Gelan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:298

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Diarrhoea remains an important cause of childhood mortality in Nigeria, with Rotavirus and Cryptosporidium reported to have the highest contribution. However, high use of antibiotics for treatment of paediatric d...

    Authors: Akinwale M. Efunshile, Obumneme Ezeanosike, Chukwuemeka Chijioke Nwangwu, Brigitte König, Pikka Jokelainen and Lucy J. Robertson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:275

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Knowledge transfer of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) involves the dissemination of created/acquired information on MERS-CoV in hospitals, making this information accessible to all heal...

    Authors: Meshal Aldohyan, Nedal Al-Rawashdeh, Farouk M. Sakr, Saeed Rahman, Ali I. Alfarhan and Mahmoud Salam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:273

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Enterococcus faecium is ranked worldwide as one of the top ten pathogens identified in healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and is classified as one of the high priority pathogens for research and development o...

    Authors: Nancy Carolina Corredor, Carolina López, Paula Andrea Aguilera, Lina María Prieto, Giovanni Rodríguez-Leguizamón, Aura Lucía Leal, María Victoria Ovalle-Guerro, Juan Mauricio Pardo-Oviedo, Claudia Elena Chica and Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:258

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Brucella is high-consequence pathogen and one of the most common seen laboratory- acquired infection pathogens. Quick and accurate detection of the pathogen will be of great important to reducing laboratory- acqu...

    Authors: Junfei Guo, Weiming Lai, Biting Li, Lingling Tang, Yongbing Wu, Yasha Luo, Chengyi Liu, Weiming Lu and Xiaoping Mu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:240

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Self-protective behaviors of social distancing and vaccination uptake vary by demographics and affect the transmission dynamics of influenza in the United States. By incorporating the socio-behavioral differen...

    Authors: Meghendra Singh, Prasenjit Sarkhel, Gloria J. Kang, Achla Marathe, Kevin Boyle, Pamela Murray-Tuite, Kaja M. Abbas and Samarth Swarup

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:221

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Central Line-Associated BloodStream Infections (CLABSIs) are emerging challenge in Respiratory semi-Intensive Care Units (RICUs). We evaluated efficacy of educational interventions on rate of CLABSIs and effec...

    Authors: Riccardo Inchingolo, Giuliana Pasciuto, Daniele Magnini, Manuela Cavalletti, Giancarlo Scoppettuolo, Giuliano Montemurro, Andrea Smargiassi, Riccardo Torelli, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Teresa Spanu, Giuseppe Maria Corbo and Luca Richeldi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:215

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Healthcare-associated infection (HAI) is a major public health problem. As a form of prevention and control, preparations of chlorhexidine are used extensively; however, the reduction of susceptibility to chlo...

    Authors: Bruna Costa Moura do Vale, Acácia Gentil Nogueira, Thiago André Cidral, Maria Carolina Soares Lopes and Maria Celeste Nunes de Melo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:199

    Content type: Research article

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  13. A novel method, termed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), was developed by Notomi et al. (2000). Individually published results have been reported that this technology has been successfully applied...

    Authors: Zi-Hong Cai, Yuan-Yuan Dai, Lin-Yan Huang, Wen-Sheng Zhang and Xu-Guang Guo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:173

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with several extragastric conditions including dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to investigate additional metabolic parameters associated with H. p...

    Authors: Miao-Miao Zhao, Jeremy Krebs, Xi Cao, Jing Cui, Dong-Ning Chen, Yu Li, Lin Hua, Jim Mann and Jin-Kui Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:157

    Content type: Research article

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  15. To determine the epidemiology and risk factors for nosocomial infection (NI) in the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) of a teaching hospital in Northwest China.

    Authors: Linchuan Wang, Kai-Ha Zhou, Wei Chen, Yan Yu and Si-Fang Feng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:145

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome (CAIDS) has been identified in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC), predisposing them to a wide variety of infections. In patients with LC, healthcare-associated...

    Authors: Tamara Milovanovic, Igor Dumic, Jelena Veličkovic, Milica Stojkovic Lalosevic, Vladimir Nikolic and Ivan Palibrk

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:141

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Infectious gastroenteritis is common in the emergency department (ED). Patients infected with either Norovirus or toxigenic Clostridium difficile require special isolation procedures. The aims were to describe th...

    Authors: Florence Skyum, Court Pedersen, Vibeke Andersen, Ming Chen, Andreas Franke, Detlev Petersen, Wolfgang Ries and Christian Backer Mogensen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:133

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Although short-range large-droplet transmission is possible for most respiratory infectious agents, deciding on whether the same agent is also airborne has a potentially huge impact on the types (and costs) of...

    Authors: Raymond Tellier, Yuguo Li, Benjamin J. Cowling and Julian W. Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:101

    Content type: Review

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  19. Taking consecutive antibiotic use into account is of importance to obtain insight in treatment within disease episodes, use of 2nd- and 3rd-choice antibiotics, therapy failure and/or side effects. Nevertheless...

    Authors: Loek A. W. de Jong, Paul D. van der Linden, Monique M. B. Roukens, Ewoudt M. W. van de Garde, Alike W. van der Velden and Stephanie Natsch

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:84

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a main cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in humans. Several studies have been performed to reveal the prevalence rate of C. difficile in cats and dogs. However, litt...

    Authors: Yanxia Wei, Mingchuang Sun, Yuhan Zhang, Jing Gao, Fanyun Kong, Dianbin Liu, Hao Yu, Jinxin Du and Renxian Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:46

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The preventive effect of laminar air flow (LAF) on aspergillosis has been observed in patients with hematological malignancies. However, the short follow-up period limits the interpretation of study results.

    Authors: Makoto Iwasaki, Junya Kanda, Masakatsu Hishizawa, Toshiyuki Kitano, Tadakazu Kondo, Kouhei Yamashita and Akifumi Takaori-Kondo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:38

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Healthcare-associated infections have become a public health problem, creating a new burden on medical care in hospitals. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria poses a difficult task for physicians, wh...

    Authors: F. Cyr Doscoph Afle, Alidéhou Jerrold Agbankpe, Roch Christian Johnson, Olivia Houngbégnon, Sègbè Christophe Houssou and Honoré Sourou Bankole

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:28

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease caused by enteroviruses that has a severely impair for those high incidence countries such as China.The current study aimed to investigate the epide...

    Authors: JiFeng Liu, XiaoMei Xiang, ZhongShu Pu, Yong Long, Dan Xiao, WeiLu Zhang, Qian Li, XiTong Li, SiYao Li, ZhongJun Shao, XiaoLi Yang and YongMin Xiong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:19

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Timely initiation of antibiotics within one hour of prescription is one of the recommended antibiotic stewardship interventions when managing patients with pneumonia in the emergency department. Effective impl...

    Authors: Chimwemwe Tusekile Mula, Lyn Middleton, Nicola Human and Christine Varga

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:697

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The mortality following blood stream infection (BSI) and risk of subsequent BSI in relation to dialysis modality, vascular access, and other potential risk factors has received relatively little attention. Con...

    Authors: Karl Emil Nelveg-Kristensen, Gunnar Hellmund Laier and James Goya Heaf

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:688

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Health care associated infections (HAI) among adults admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) have been shown to increase length of stay, the cost of care, and in some cases increased the risk of hospital dea...

    Authors: Steven A. Frost, Yu Chin Hou, Lien Lombardo, Lauren Metcalfe, Joan M. Lynch, Leanne Hunt, Evan Alexandrou, Kathleen Brennan, David Sanchez, Anders Aneman and Martin Christensen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:679

    Content type: Debate

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  27. Environmental disinfection with continuously antimicrobial surfaces could offer superior control of surface bioburden. We sought to decide the efficacy of photocatalyst antimicrobial coating in reducing methic...

    Authors: Min Hyung Kim, Seong Gyu Lee, Ki Sook Kim, Yoon Ji Heo, Ji Eun Oh and Su Jin Jeong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:610

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Men with urinary retention secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are prone to genitourinary infections. Physicians should be aware of the current antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in this populati...

    Authors: Bartosz A. Dybowski, Piotr Zapała, Ewa Bres-Niewada, Łukasz Zapała, Nina Miązek-Zapała, Sławomir Poletajew, Grażyna Młynarczyk and Piotr Radziszewski

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:590

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Environmental cleaning practice plays an important role in reducing microbial contamination in hospital surfaces and contributes to prevent Healthcare Associated Infections. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) biolum...

    Authors: Tiziana Sanna, Laura Dallolio, Alessandra Raggi, Magda Mazzetti, Giovanni Lorusso, Angela Zanni, Patrizia Farruggia and Erica Leoni

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:583

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most frequent diseases encountered by humans worldwide. The presence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) harboring several virulence f...

    Authors: Yalda Malekzadegan, Reza Khashei, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie and Zahra Jahanabadi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:572

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported in clinical isolates obtained from various hospitals in Ethiopia. However, there is no data on the prevalence and antibiotic suscepti...

    Authors: Ahmed Zeynudin, Michael Pritsch, Sören Schubert, Maxim Messerer, Gabriele Liegl, Michael Hoelscher, Tefara Belachew and Andreas Wieser

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:524

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Clinical studies and mathematical simulation suggest that active surveillance with contact isolation is associated with reduced vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) prevalence compared to passive surveillanc...

    Authors: Agnes Loo Yee Cheah, Allen C. Cheng, Denis Spelman, Roger L. Nation, David C. M. Kong and Emma S. McBryde

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:511

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Healthcare-associated infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are associated with poor outcomes. However, the role of P. aeruginosa in surgical site infections after colorectal surgery has not been evaluated....

    Authors: A Gomila, J Carratalà, J M Badia, D Camprubí, M Piriz, E Shaw, V Diaz-Brito, E Espejo, C Nicolás, M Brugués, R Perez, A Lérida, A Castro, S Biondo, D Fraccalvieri, E Limón…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:507

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Healthcare exposure may increase drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization risk. Nascent antimicrobial stewardship efforts in low- and middle-income countries require setting-specific data. We aimed to ev...

    Authors: Renu Bharadwaj, Matthew L Robinson, Usha Balasubramanian, Vandana Kulkarni, Anju Kagal, Priyanka Raichur, Sandhya Khadse, Dileep Kadam, Chhaya Valvi, Aarti Kinikar, Savita Kanade, Nishi Suryavanshi, Ivan Marbaniang, George Nelson, Julia Johnson, Jonathan Zenilman…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:504

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii in China was mainly mediated by OXA-23-like carbapenemases, while OXA-24/40-like carbapenemases were rarely identified. OXA-72 is one variant of OXA-24/40-like car...

    Authors: Yong Chen, Yuying Yang, Lin Liu, Guangbin Qiu, Xuelin Han, Shuguang Tian, Jingya Zhao, Fangyan Chen, Hajo Grundmann, Haifeng Li, Jinke Sun and Li Han

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:491

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Three patients hospitalised in the coronary care unit of a general district hospital (England, UK) were tested positive for Panton-Valentine leucocidin methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation dur...

    Authors: Panagiotis Papastergiou and Eleni Tsiouli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:484

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Hepatitis B virus infection is a global health problem with the highest prevalence in East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of infected people, including healthcare workers are unaware of their status...

    Authors: Elichilia R. Shao, Innocent B. Mboya, Daniel W. Gunda, Flora G. Ruhangisa, Elizabeth M. Temu, Mercy L. Nkwama, Jeremia J. Pyuza, Kajiru G. Kilonzo, Furaha S. Lyamuya and Venance P. Maro

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:474

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The extent to which reproductive tract infections (RTIs) are associated with poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM) practices has not been extensively studied. We aimed to determine whether poor menstrual hyg...

    Authors: Belen Torondel, Shalini Sinha, Jyoti Ranjan Mohanty, Tapoja Swain, Pranati Sahoo, Bijaya Panda, Arati Nayak, Mary Bara, Bibiana Bilung, Oliver Cumming, Pinaki Panigrahi and Padmalaya Das

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:473

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a viral disease caused by human enteroviruses. Although HFMD reinfection is common, studies investigating this phenomenon are insufficient.

    Authors: Chao Shi, Juan Liu, Ping Shi, Hong Ji, Yuan Shen and Yan-Hua Qian

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:472

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common condition with high mortality, morbidity and healthcare costs. This study aimed to determine whether clinical pathway (CP) implementation in different hospitals i...

    Authors: Liping Zhu, Jie Bai, Yongcong Chen and Di Xue

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:471

    Content type: Research article

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  41. To prevent cross infection the surgical team perform preoperative hand disinfection before dressed in surgical gowns and gloves. Preoperative hand disinfection does not make hands sterile and the surgical glov...

    Authors: Camilla Wistrand, Bo Söderquist, Karin Falk-Brynhildsen and Ulrica Nilsson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:466

    Content type: Research article

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  42. HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China is rising rapidly, and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) is associated with HIV transmission. Recent research has shown that associations between ...

    Authors: Xin Wang, Zezhou Wang, Xueqin Jiang, Rui Li, Ying Wang, Gang Xu, Huachun Zou and Yong Cai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:465

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in North America and Europe. The aim of this study was to identify epidemiologically-confirmed cases of community-acquired (CA)-CD...

    Authors: Christina S. Thornton, Joseph E. Rubin, Alexander L. Greninger, Gisele Peirano, Charles Y. Chiu and Dylan R. Pillai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:443

    Content type: Research article

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  44. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular epidemiology of carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae(CNSE) isolated in the Eastern region of Heilongjiang Province, China, and the mechanism of car...

    Authors: Xue Gong, Jisheng Zhang, Shanshan Su, Yanjun Fu, Mingjia Bao, Yong Wang and Xiaoli Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:417

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections are among the most common urological infections world-wide. Bacterial biofilms and encrustation cause significant complications in patients with urinary catheters. ...

    Authors: Kedar Diwakar Mandakhalikar, Rong Wang, Juwita N. Rahmat, Edmund Chiong, Koon Gee Neoh and Paul A. Tambyah

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:370

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Observation and feedback are core strategies of hand hygiene (HH) improvement. Direct overt observation is currently the gold standard method. Observation bias, also known as the Hawthorne effect, is a major d...

    Authors: Kuan-Sheng Wu, Susan Shin-Jung Lee, Jui-Kuang Chen, Yao-Shen Chen, Hung-Chin Tsai, Yueh-Ju Chen, Yu-Hsiu Huang and Huey-Shyan Lin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:369

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is considered highly prevalent in West Africa. However, major gaps in surveillance exist in Sierra Leone. Although healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk for HBV infection, little i...

    Authors: Yu-Ling Qin, Bo Li, Yue-Su Zhou, Xin Zhang, Lei Li, Bing Song, Peng Liu, Yue Yuan, Zhong-Peng Zhao, Jun Jiao, Jing Li, Yi Sun, Stephen Sevalie, Joseph E. Kanu, Ya-Jun Song, Jia-Fu Jiang…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:315

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Globally, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a complex public problem, which is mainly fuelled by inappropriate use of antimicrobials. Rational use of antimicrobials is the main strategy for the prevention of A...

    Authors: Mohammed Assen Seid and Mohammed Seid Hussen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:312

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICUs). The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology and microbiology of VAP in Polish ICUs from 2...

    Authors: Michał Wałaszek, Anna Różańska, Marta Zofia Wałaszek and Jadwiga Wójkowska-Mach

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:308

    Content type: Research article

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