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Healthcare-associated infection control

Section edited by Holly Seale

This section aims to publish studies looking at infection prevention and control in the healthcare setting and includes disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis, alongside hand hygiene, surveillance and other interventions.


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  1. Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a main cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in humans. Several studies have been performed to reveal the prevalence rate of C. difficile in cats and dogs. However, litt...

    Authors: Yanxia Wei, Mingchuang Sun, Yuhan Zhang, Jing Gao, Fanyun Kong, Dianbin Liu, Hao Yu, Jinxin Du and Renxian Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:46

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The preventive effect of laminar air flow (LAF) on aspergillosis has been observed in patients with hematological malignancies. However, the short follow-up period limits the interpretation of study results.

    Authors: Makoto Iwasaki, Junya Kanda, Masakatsu Hishizawa, Toshiyuki Kitano, Tadakazu Kondo, Kouhei Yamashita and Akifumi Takaori-Kondo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:38

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Healthcare-associated infections have become a public health problem, creating a new burden on medical care in hospitals. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria poses a difficult task for physicians, wh...

    Authors: F. Cyr Doscoph Afle, Alidéhou Jerrold Agbankpe, Roch Christian Johnson, Olivia Houngbégnon, Sègbè Christophe Houssou and Honoré Sourou Bankole

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:28

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease caused by enteroviruses that has a severely impair for those high incidence countries such as China.The current study aimed to investigate the epide...

    Authors: JiFeng Liu, XiaoMei Xiang, ZhongShu Pu, Yong Long, Dan Xiao, WeiLu Zhang, Qian Li, XiTong Li, SiYao Li, ZhongJun Shao, XiaoLi Yang and YongMin Xiong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:19

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Timely initiation of antibiotics within one hour of prescription is one of the recommended antibiotic stewardship interventions when managing patients with pneumonia in the emergency department. Effective impl...

    Authors: Chimwemwe Tusekile Mula, Lyn Middleton, Nicola Human and Christine Varga

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:697

    Content type: Research article

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  6. The mortality following blood stream infection (BSI) and risk of subsequent BSI in relation to dialysis modality, vascular access, and other potential risk factors has received relatively little attention. Con...

    Authors: Karl Emil Nelveg-Kristensen, Gunnar Hellmund Laier and James Goya Heaf

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:688

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Health care associated infections (HAI) among adults admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) have been shown to increase length of stay, the cost of care, and in some cases increased the risk of hospital dea...

    Authors: Steven A. Frost, Yu Chin Hou, Lien Lombardo, Lauren Metcalfe, Joan M. Lynch, Leanne Hunt, Evan Alexandrou, Kathleen Brennan, David Sanchez, Anders Aneman and Martin Christensen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:679

    Content type: Debate

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  8. Environmental disinfection with continuously antimicrobial surfaces could offer superior control of surface bioburden. We sought to decide the efficacy of photocatalyst antimicrobial coating in reducing methic...

    Authors: Min Hyung Kim, Seong Gyu Lee, Ki Sook Kim, Yoon Ji Heo, Ji Eun Oh and Su Jin Jeong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:610

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Men with urinary retention secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are prone to genitourinary infections. Physicians should be aware of the current antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in this populati...

    Authors: Bartosz A. Dybowski, Piotr Zapała, Ewa Bres-Niewada, Łukasz Zapała, Nina Miązek-Zapała, Sławomir Poletajew, Grażyna Młynarczyk and Piotr Radziszewski

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:590

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Environmental cleaning practice plays an important role in reducing microbial contamination in hospital surfaces and contributes to prevent Healthcare Associated Infections. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) biolum...

    Authors: Tiziana Sanna, Laura Dallolio, Alessandra Raggi, Magda Mazzetti, Giovanni Lorusso, Angela Zanni, Patrizia Farruggia and Erica Leoni

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:583

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most frequent diseases encountered by humans worldwide. The presence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) harboring several virulence f...

    Authors: Yalda Malekzadegan, Reza Khashei, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie and Zahra Jahanabadi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:572

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported in clinical isolates obtained from various hospitals in Ethiopia. However, there is no data on the prevalence and antibiotic suscepti...

    Authors: Ahmed Zeynudin, Michael Pritsch, Sören Schubert, Maxim Messerer, Gabriele Liegl, Michael Hoelscher, Tefara Belachew and Andreas Wieser

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:524

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Clinical studies and mathematical simulation suggest that active surveillance with contact isolation is associated with reduced vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) prevalence compared to passive surveillanc...

    Authors: Agnes Loo Yee Cheah, Allen C. Cheng, Denis Spelman, Roger L. Nation, David C. M. Kong and Emma S. McBryde

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:511

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Healthcare-associated infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are associated with poor outcomes. However, the role of P. aeruginosa in surgical site infections after colorectal surgery has not been evaluated....

    Authors: A Gomila, J Carratalà, J M Badia, D Camprubí, M Piriz, E Shaw, V Diaz-Brito, E Espejo, C Nicolás, M Brugués, R Perez, A Lérida, A Castro, S Biondo, D Fraccalvieri, E Limón…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:507

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Healthcare exposure may increase drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization risk. Nascent antimicrobial stewardship efforts in low- and middle-income countries require setting-specific data. We aimed to ev...

    Authors: Renu Bharadwaj, Matthew L Robinson, Usha Balasubramanian, Vandana Kulkarni, Anju Kagal, Priyanka Raichur, Sandhya Khadse, Dileep Kadam, Chhaya Valvi, Aarti Kinikar, Savita Kanade, Nishi Suryavanshi, Ivan Marbaniang, George Nelson, Julia Johnson, Jonathan Zenilman…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:504

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii in China was mainly mediated by OXA-23-like carbapenemases, while OXA-24/40-like carbapenemases were rarely identified. OXA-72 is one variant of OXA-24/40-like car...

    Authors: Yong Chen, Yuying Yang, Lin Liu, Guangbin Qiu, Xuelin Han, Shuguang Tian, Jingya Zhao, Fangyan Chen, Hajo Grundmann, Haifeng Li, Jinke Sun and Li Han

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:491

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Three patients hospitalised in the coronary care unit of a general district hospital (England, UK) were tested positive for Panton-Valentine leucocidin methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation dur...

    Authors: Panagiotis Papastergiou and Eleni Tsiouli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:484

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Hepatitis B virus infection is a global health problem with the highest prevalence in East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of infected people, including healthcare workers are unaware of their status...

    Authors: Elichilia R. Shao, Innocent B. Mboya, Daniel W. Gunda, Flora G. Ruhangisa, Elizabeth M. Temu, Mercy L. Nkwama, Jeremia J. Pyuza, Kajiru G. Kilonzo, Furaha S. Lyamuya and Venance P. Maro

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:474

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The extent to which reproductive tract infections (RTIs) are associated with poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM) practices has not been extensively studied. We aimed to determine whether poor menstrual hyg...

    Authors: Belen Torondel, Shalini Sinha, Jyoti Ranjan Mohanty, Tapoja Swain, Pranati Sahoo, Bijaya Panda, Arati Nayak, Mary Bara, Bibiana Bilung, Oliver Cumming, Pinaki Panigrahi and Padmalaya Das

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:473

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a viral disease caused by human enteroviruses. Although HFMD reinfection is common, studies investigating this phenomenon are insufficient.

    Authors: Chao Shi, Juan Liu, Ping Shi, Hong Ji, Yuan Shen and Yan-Hua Qian

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:472

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common condition with high mortality, morbidity and healthcare costs. This study aimed to determine whether clinical pathway (CP) implementation in different hospitals i...

    Authors: Liping Zhu, Jie Bai, Yongcong Chen and Di Xue

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:471

    Content type: Research article

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  22. To prevent cross infection the surgical team perform preoperative hand disinfection before dressed in surgical gowns and gloves. Preoperative hand disinfection does not make hands sterile and the surgical glov...

    Authors: Camilla Wistrand, Bo Söderquist, Karin Falk-Brynhildsen and Ulrica Nilsson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:466

    Content type: Research article

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  23. HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China is rising rapidly, and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) is associated with HIV transmission. Recent research has shown that associations between ...

    Authors: Xin Wang, Zezhou Wang, Xueqin Jiang, Rui Li, Ying Wang, Gang Xu, Huachun Zou and Yong Cai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:465

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in North America and Europe. The aim of this study was to identify epidemiologically-confirmed cases of community-acquired (CA)-CD...

    Authors: Christina S. Thornton, Joseph E. Rubin, Alexander L. Greninger, Gisele Peirano, Charles Y. Chiu and Dylan R. Pillai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:443

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular epidemiology of carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae(CNSE) isolated in the Eastern region of Heilongjiang Province, China, and the mechanism of car...

    Authors: Xue Gong, Jisheng Zhang, Shanshan Su, Yanjun Fu, Mingjia Bao, Yong Wang and Xiaoli Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:417

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections are among the most common urological infections world-wide. Bacterial biofilms and encrustation cause significant complications in patients with urinary catheters. ...

    Authors: Kedar Diwakar Mandakhalikar, Rong Wang, Juwita N. Rahmat, Edmund Chiong, Koon Gee Neoh and Paul A. Tambyah

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:370

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Observation and feedback are core strategies of hand hygiene (HH) improvement. Direct overt observation is currently the gold standard method. Observation bias, also known as the Hawthorne effect, is a major d...

    Authors: Kuan-Sheng Wu, Susan Shin-Jung Lee, Jui-Kuang Chen, Yao-Shen Chen, Hung-Chin Tsai, Yueh-Ju Chen, Yu-Hsiu Huang and Huey-Shyan Lin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:369

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is considered highly prevalent in West Africa. However, major gaps in surveillance exist in Sierra Leone. Although healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk for HBV infection, little i...

    Authors: Yu-Ling Qin, Bo Li, Yue-Su Zhou, Xin Zhang, Lei Li, Bing Song, Peng Liu, Yue Yuan, Zhong-Peng Zhao, Jun Jiao, Jing Li, Yi Sun, Stephen Sevalie, Joseph E. Kanu, Ya-Jun Song, Jia-Fu Jiang…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:315

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Globally, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a complex public problem, which is mainly fuelled by inappropriate use of antimicrobials. Rational use of antimicrobials is the main strategy for the prevention of A...

    Authors: Mohammed Assen Seid and Mohammed Seid Hussen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:312

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICUs). The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology and microbiology of VAP in Polish ICUs from 2...

    Authors: Michał Wałaszek, Anna Różańska, Marta Zofia Wałaszek and Jadwiga Wójkowska-Mach

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:308

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a world health problem with an estimated 257 million chronically infected people. Indonesia, with 7.1% prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), is classified as a...

    Authors: Teguh Wijayadi, Rizalinda Sjahril, Turyadi, Susan I. Ie, Ridha Wahyuni, Ilhamjaya Pattelongi, M. Nasrum Massi, Irawan Yusuf and David H Muljono

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:279

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are a major source of sepsis in modern intensive care medicine. Some years ago bundle interventions have been introduced to reduce CLABSI. The use of che...

    Authors: Dominic Wichmann, Cristina E. Belmar Campos, Stephan Ehrhardt, Timo Kock, Claudia Weber, Holger Rohde and Stefan Kluge

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:267

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Appropriate antibiotic use has become an important issue. However, collecting data on the use of all antibiotics in a hospital is difficult without an advanced computerized system and dedicated staff. This pap...

    Authors: Bongyoung Kim, Hyeonjun Hwang, Jieun Kim, Myoung-jae Lee and Hyunjoo Pai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:247

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The Israeli Ministry of Health (MoH) encountered two substantial outbreaks during the past decade: the H1N1 swine flu outbreak during 2009–2010 and the silent polio outbreak during 2013. Although both outbreak...

    Authors: Iftach Sagy, Paula Feder-Bubis, Victor Novack, Tal Peleg-Sagy and Dan Greenberg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:241

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) interventions largely target inpatient antimicrobial prescribing. Literature on appropriateness of antimicrobials prescribed at the interface between hospital and the community ...

    Authors: R. Chavada, J. Davey, L. O’Connor and D. Tong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:225

    Content type: Research article

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  36. This study investigates the barriers and facilitators of the use of antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections by general practitioners (GPs) in Germany.

    Authors: Florian Salm, Sandra Schneider, Katja Schmücker, Inga Petruschke, Tobias S. Kramer, Regina Hanke, Christin Schröder, Christoph Heintze, Ulrich Schwantes, Petra Gastmeier and Jochen Gensichen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:208

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The nexus between resistance determinants, plasmid type, and clonality appears to play a crucial role in the dissemination and survival of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP). The incidence of infec...

    Authors: Taher uz Zaman, Maha Alrodayyan, Maha Albladi, Mohammed Aldrees, Mohammed Ismail Siddique, Sameera Aljohani and Hanan H. Balkhy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:205

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Non-hospital residential facilities are important reservoirs for MRSA transmission. However, conclusions and public health implications drawn from the many mathematical models depicting nosocomial MRSA transmi...

    Authors: Kin On Kwok, Jonathan M. Read, Arthur Tang, Hong Chen, Steven Riley and Kai Man Kam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:188

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Nosocomial, or healthcare-associated infections (HAI), exact a high medical and financial toll on patients, healthcare workers, caretakers, and the health system. Interpersonal contact patterns play a large ro...

    Authors: Krista M. English, Joanne M. Langley, Allison McGeer, Nathaniel Hupert, Raymond Tellier, Bonnie Henry, Scott A. Halperin, Lynn Johnston and Babak Pourbohloul

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:184

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Infection by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Colonization by S. aureus increases the risk of infection. Little is known about decolonization strategies for S. aureus

    Authors: Shoshannah Eggers, Anna K. Barker, Susan Valentine, Timothy Hess, Megan Duster and Nasia Safdar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:129

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Medical laboratory staff are a high-risk population for colonization of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) due to direct and dense contact with the pathogens; however, there is limited information about this colon...

    Authors: Xiaoying Xie, Xinlu Dai, Lijia Ni, Baiji Chen, Zhaofan Luo, Yandan Yao, Xiquan Wu, Hongyu Li and Songyin Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:122

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Hand hygiene compliance is the basis of infection control programs. In developing countries models to improve hand hygiene compliance to reduce healthcare acquired infections are required. The aim of this stud...

    Authors: Hang Thi Phan, Hang Thi Thuy Tran, Hanh Thi My Tran, Anh Pham Phuong Dinh, Ha Thanh Ngo, Jenny Theorell-Haglow and Christopher J. Gordon

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:116

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Expressed human milk (EHM) feed preparation areas represent a potential source of unintentional nosocomial infection. Daily disinfection of environmental surfaces remains an essential intervention to mitigate ...

    Authors: Ricky Dippenaar and Johan Smith

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:91

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Nosocomial infections are a major setback in the healthcare delivery system especially in developing countries due to the limited resources. The roles played by medical care equipment and work surfaces in the ...

    Authors: Ivan Sserwadda, Mathew Lukenge, Bashir Mwambi, Gerald Mboowa, Apollo Walusimbi and Farouk Segujja

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:68

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Within the frame of National Epidemiological Surveillance System, family physicians have an obligation to report infections and suspicions cases.

    Authors: Katalin Vraukó, Zoltán Jancsó, László Kalabay, Andrea Lukács, Gabriella Maráczi, Lajos Mester, Anna Nánási, József Rinfel, Tamás Sárosi, Ferenc Tamás, Albert Varga, József Vitrai and Imre Rurik

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:45

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to be a leading problem in health care facilities worldwide.

    Authors: Nori Yoshioka, Matsuo Deguchi, Hideharu Hagiya, Hisao Yoshida, Norihisa Yamamoto, Shoji Hashimoto, Yukihiro Akeda and Kazunori Tomono

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:19

    Content type: Research article

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