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Healthcare-associated infection control

Section edited by Holly Seale

This section aims to publish studies looking at infection prevention and control in the healthcare setting and includes disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis, alongside hand hygiene, surveillance and other interventions.


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  1. Content type: Study protocol

    The epidemiology of ICU pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is not fully described, but is urgently needed to support the development of effective inte...

    Authors: Fleur P. Paling, Darren P. R. Troeman, Martin Wolkewitz, Rubana Kalyani, Daniël R. Prins, Susanne Weber, Christine Lammens, Leen Timbermont, Herman Goossens, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar, Frangiscos Sifakis, Marc J. M. Bonten and Jan A. J. W. Kluytmans

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:643

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Device-associated health care-associated infections (DA-HAI) pose a threat to patient safety, particularly in the intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of DA-HAIs, mortality an...

    Authors: Stelios Iordanou, Nicos Middleton, Elizabeth Papathanassoglou and Vasilios Raftopoulos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:607

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Reduction of accidental contamination of the near-patient environment has potential to reduce acquisition of healthcare-associated infection(s). Although medical gloves should be removed when soiled or touchin...

    Authors: S. Ali and A.P.R. Wilson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:574

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  4. Content type: Research article

    The Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy is developing a national antimicrobial stewardship registry. This registry will report both the quality of antibiotic use in hospitals in the Netherlands and the st...

    Authors: Marvin AH Berrevoets, Jaap ten Oever, Tom Sprong, Reinier M van Hest, Ingeborg Groothuis, Inger van Heijl, Jeroen A Schouten, Marlies E Hulscher and Bart-Jan Kullberg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:565

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Bacterial colonisation of the respiratory tract is commonly described and usually thought to be of no clinical significance. The aim of this study was to examine the presence and significance of bacteria and v...

    Authors: C. Raina MacIntyre, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Yi Zhang, Holly Seale, Peng Yang, Joshua Chen, Yang Pan, Daitao Zhang and Quanyi Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:553

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of behavior-based interventions are particularly vulnerable to post-randomization changes between study arms. We assess the impact of such a change in a large, multicenter s...

    Authors: Eric T. Lofgren

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:539

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  7. Content type: Research article

    When bacteria colony persist within a biofilm, suitable drugs are not yet available for the eradication of biofilm-producing bacteria. The aim of this study is to study the effect of magnetic nano-particles-in...

    Authors: Chih-Hsiang Fang, Pei-I Tsai, Shu-Wei Huang, Jui-Sheng Sun, Jenny Zwei-Chieng Chang, Hsin-Hsin Shen, San-Yuan Chen, Feng Huei Lin, Lih-Tao Hsu and Yen-Chun Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:516

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Infections with multi drug resistant (MDR) organisms are a major problem in intensive care units (ICUs). Proper infection control procedures are mandatory to combat the spread of resistant organisms within ICU...

    Authors: Kavinda Tissera, Veranja Liyanapathirana, Nilanthi Dissanayake, Vasanthi Pinto, Asela Ekanayake, Manjula Tennakoon, Dinuka Adasooriya and Dulmini Nanayakkara

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:490

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Data to date is far from sufficient to describe the recent epidemiology of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mainland China. This study aimed to estimate the overall incidence of VAP, with a special foc...

    Authors: Chengyi Ding, Yuelun Zhang, Zhirong Yang, Jing Wang, Aoming Jin, Weiwei Wang, Ru Chen and Siyan Zhan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:468

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  10. Content type: Research article

    There are substantial differences between the costs of medical masks and N95 respirators. Cost-effectiveness analysis is required to assist decision-makers evaluating alternative healthcare worker (HCW) mask/r...

    Authors: Shohini Mukerji, C. Raina MacIntyre, Holly Seale, Quanyi Wang, Peng Yang, Xiaoli Wang and Anthony T. Newall

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:464

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  11. Content type: Research article

    The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical characteristics and outcomes of peripheral vascular catheter-related bloodstream infections (PVC-BSIs) and determine the risk of severe complications or d...

    Authors: Akihiro Sato, Itaru Nakamura, Hiroaki Fujita, Ayaka Tsukimori, Takehito Kobayashi, Shinji Fukushima, Takeshi Fujii and Tetsuya Matsumoto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:434

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Healthcare workers in high tuberculosis burdened countries are occupationally exposed to the tuberculosis disease with uncomplicated and complicated tuberculosis on the increase among them. Most of them acquire M...

    Authors: Celso Belo and Saloshni Naidoo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:408

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  13. Content type: Research article

    We evaluated the effectiveness of targeted antimicrobial prophylaxis in transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUSP).

    Authors: Teresa R. Zembower, Kelly M. Maxwell, Robert B. Nadler, John Cashy, Marc H. Scheetz, Chao Qi and Anthony J. Schaeffer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:401

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Nano-scale dendrimers are synthetic macromolecules that frequently used in medical and health field. Traditional anibiotics are induce bacterial resistence so there is an urgent need for novel antibacterial dr...

    Authors: Mitra Gholami, Rashin Mohammadi, Mohsen Arzanlou, Fakhraddin Akbari Dourbash, Ebrahim Kouhsari, Gharib Majidi, Seyed Mohsen Mohseni and Shahram Nazari

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:395

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Patient screening at the time of hospital admission is not recommended as a routine practice, but may be an important strategy for containment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hospital settings. We sou...

    Authors: Sara Maghdoori and Seyed M. Moghadas

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:384

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  16. Content type: Research article

    The clonal spread of multiple drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging problem in China. We analysed the molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumanni isolates at three teaching hospitals and inve...

    Authors: Yu jun Li, Chu zhi Pan, Chang quan Fang, Zhu xiang Zhao, Hui ling Chen, Peng hao Guo and Zi wen Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:371

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are associated with high morbidity and mortality as well as increased medical costs. Cancer patients, who are often immunocompromised, are susceptible to CRBSI ...

    Authors: Pankaj G. Vashi, Natasha Virginkar, Brenten Popiel, Persis Edwin and Digant Gupta

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:372

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Due to the vulnerable nature of its patients, the wide use of invasive devices and broad-spectrum antimicrobials used, the intensive care unit (ICU) is often called the epicentre of infections. In the present ...

    Authors: Carmen Axente, Monica Licker, Roxana Moldovan, Elena Hogea, Delia Muntean, Florin Horhat, Ovidiu Bedreag, Dorel Sandesc, Marius Papurica, Dorina Dugaesescu, Mirela Voicu and Luminita Baditoiu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:358

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Chlorhexidine (CHG) penetrates poorly into skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the depth of CHG skin permeation from solutions containing either 2% (w/v) CHG and 70% (v/v) isopropyl alcohol (IPA) or 2%...

    Authors: A. L. Casey, T. J. Karpanen, B. R. Conway, T. Worthington, P. Nightingale, R. Waters and T. S. J. Elliott

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:350

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  20. Content type: TECHNICAL ADVANCE

    Over the past few decades, numerous forecasting methods have been proposed in the field of epidemic forecasting. Such methods can be classified into different categories such as deterministic vs. probabilistic...

    Authors: Farzaneh Sadat Tabataba, Prithwish Chakraborty, Naren Ramakrishnan, Srinivasan Venkatramanan, Jiangzhuo Chen, Bryan Lewis and Madhav Marathe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:345

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  21. Content type: Research article

    No guidelines exist on assessing ventilation through air changes per hour (ACH) using a vaneometer. The objective of the study was to evaluate the position and frequency for measuring air velocity using a vane...

    Authors: Miranda Brouwer, Achilles Katamba, Elly Tebasoboke Katabira and Frank van Leth

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:325

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  22. Content type: Research article

    The prophylactic use of antimicrobial agents to prevent infections in non-surgical situations has hardly been investigated. We investigate the extent, indications and appropriateness of antimicrobial prophylax...

    Authors: Jan W. T. Deelen, Caroline E. Visser, Jan M. Prins and Reinier M. van Hest

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:296

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Identification of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in faecal specimens is challenging. This fact is particularly critical because low-level carbapenem-resistant organisms such as IMP-producing CPE...

    Authors: Norihisa Yamamoto, Ryuji Kawahara, Yukihiro Akeda, Rathina Kumar Shanmugakani, Hisao Yoshida, Hideharu Hagiya, Naohiro Hara, Isao Nishi, Satomi Yukawa, Rumiko Asada, Yumi Sasaki, Kazuhiro Maeda, Noriko Sakamoto, Shigeyuki Hamada and Kazunori Tomono

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:229

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  24. Content type: Research article

    External and intraocular infections can lead to visual impairments, which is a major public health problem. Bacteria are the most frequent pathogens affecting ocular structures; the increasing rate of antimicr...

    Authors: Mebrahtu Teweldemedhin, Muthupandian Saravanan, Araya Gebreyesus and Dawit Gebreegziabiher

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:207

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Preparedness is considered essential for healthcare organizations to respond effectively to outbreaks. In the current study we aim to capture the views of first responders on what they consider key recommendat...

    Authors: Evelien Belfroid, Aura Timen, Jim E. van Steenbergen, Anita Huis and Marlies E. J. L. Hulscher

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:195

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  26. Content type: Research article

    The focus of nursing home infection control procedures has been on decreasing transmission between healthcare workers and residents. Less evidence is available regarding whether decontamination of high-touch e...

    Authors: Christine R. Kovach, Yavuz Taneli, Tammy Neiman, Elaine M. Dyer, Alvin Jason A. Arzaga and Sheryl T Kelber

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:186

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Recent analysis of trends of non-invasive infections with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), of trends of MRSA infections in outpatient settings and of co-resistance profiles of MRSA isolates are...

    Authors: Jan Walter, Ines Noll, Marcel Feig, Bettina Weiss, Hermann Claus, Guido Werner, Tim Eckmanns, Julia Hermes and Muna Abu Sin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:169

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections are a serious concern for children admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Tracheal colonization with MDR Enterobacteriaceae predisposes to respiratory infec...

    Authors: Hanna Renk, Lenja Stoll, Felix Neunhoeffer, Florian Hölzl, Matthias Kumpf, Michael Hofbeck and Dominik Hartl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:163

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Surgical site infections are commonest nosocomial infections and responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality as well as increased hospitalizations and treatment cost related to surgical operations. Th...

    Authors: Tamrat Legesse Laloto, Desta Hiko Gemeda and Sadikalmahdi Hussen Abdella

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:119

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Nosocomial pneumonia has correlated to dental plaque and to oropharynx colonization in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. The interruption of this process, by preventing colonization of pathogenic bact...

    Authors: Claudia Fernanda de Lacerda Vidal, Aurora Karla de Lacerda Vidal, José Gildo de Moura Monteiro Jr., Aracele Cavalcanti, Ana Paula da Costa Henriques, Márcia Oliveira, Michele Godoy, Mirella Coutinho, Pollyanna Dutra Sobral, Claudia Ângela Vilela, Bárbara Gomes, Marta Amorim Leandro, Ulisses Montarroyos, Ricardo de Alencar Ximenes and Heloísa Ramos Lacerda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:112

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:173

  31. Content type: Research article

    To understand the relationship between the Staphylococcus aureus infection rate and the reasonable usage of antibiotics, which will help in the effective control of MRSA infection.

    Authors: Kaisen Chen, Yanfang Huang, Qiuyue Song, Chenhui Wu, Xiaowen Chen and Lingbing Zeng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:97

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Cleaning of environmental surfaces in hospitals is important for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other hospital-acquired infections transmitted by the contact route. Guidance...

    Authors: Hao Lei, Rachael M. Jones and Yuguo Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:85

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  33. Content type: Research article

    The emergence and spread of Carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli (CREC) is becoming a serious problem in Chinese hospitals, however, the data on this is scarce. Therefore, we investigate the risk factors for hea...

    Authors: Xiujuan Meng, Sidi Liu, Juping Duan, Xun Huang, Pengcheng Zhou, Xinrui Xiong, Ruie Gong, Ying Zhang, Yao Liu, Chenchao Fu, Chunhui Li and Anhua Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:82

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) of intensive care unit (ICU) patients has been shown to reduce healthcare-associated infections and colonization by multidrug resistant organisms. The objective...

    Authors: Jackson S. Musuuza, Tonya J. Roberts, Pascale Carayon and Nasia Safdar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:75

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  35. Content type: Study protocol

    Urinary and (peripheral and central) intravenous catheters are widely used in hospitalized patients. However, up to 56% of the catheters do not have an appropriate indication and some serious complications wit...

    Authors: Bart J. Laan, Ingrid J. B. Spijkerman, Mieke H. Godfried, Berend C. Pasmooij, Jolanda M. Maaskant, Marjon J. Borgert, Brent C. Opmeer, Margreet C. Vos and Suzanne E. Geerlings

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:53

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) comprise part of the normal vaginal microflora. Transfer from mother to neonate can occur during delivery resulting, sometimes, in neonatal bacterial disease...

    Authors: Ciara O’Connor, Roy K. Philip, John Kelleher, James Powell, Alan O’Gorman, Barbara Slevin, Neil Woodford, Jane F. Turton, Elaine McGrath, Cathriona Finnegan, Lorraine Power, Nuala H. O’Connell and Colum P. Dunne

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:16

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among hospital personnel is a common cause of hospital acquired infections. Emergence of drug resistant strains especially methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a serio...

    Authors: Nabil Abdullah El Aila, Nahed Ali Al Laham and Basim Mohammad Ayesh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:28

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is caused by MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV). More than 80% of reported cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia, with a mortality exceeding 50%. Health-care workers (HCWs) are a...

    Authors: Mostafa A. Abolfotouh, Ali A. AlQarni, Suliman M. Al-Ghamdi, Mahmoud Salam, Mohammed H. Al-Assiri and Hanan H. Balkhy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:4

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Antimicrobial resistance has been declared by the World Health Organization as a threat to the public health. The aim of this study was to analyze antimicrobial resistance patterns of the common pathogens occu...

    Authors: Nyambura Moremi, Heike Claus and Stephen E. Mshana

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:756

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that has become a major cause of concern, since it is a frequent cause of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The aim of the study was to describe the occ...

    Authors: Aida Bianco, Angela Quirino, Mariavalentina Giordano, Vito Marano, Claudia Rizzo, Maria Carla Liberto, Alfredo Focà and Maria Pavia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:747

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Expanding antimicrobial resistance patterns in the face of stagnant growth in novel antibiotic production underscores the importance of antibiotic stewardship in which de-escalation remains an integral compone...

    Authors: Peter Liu, Christopher Ohl, James Johnson, John Williamson, James Beardsley and Vera Luther

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:751

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  42. Content type: Research article

    During the last decades, healthcare-associated genotypes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (HA-MRSE) have been established as important opportunistic pathogens. However, data on potential reserv...

    Authors: Micael Widerström, Johan Wiström, Helén Edebro, Elisabeth Marklund, Mattias Backman, Per Lindqvist and Tor Monsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:743

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Bacteria that produce Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) are resistant to broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics. The objective of this study was to phenotypically and genotypically characterize the antibio...

    Authors: Patricia Cristina Saldanha Ribeiro, Andrea Souza Monteiro, Sirlei Garcia Marques, Sílvio Gomes Monteiro, Valério Monteiro-Neto, Martina Márcia Melo Coqueiro, Ana Cláudia Garcia Marques, Rosimary de Jesus Gomes Turri, Simone Gonçalves Santos and Maria Rosa Quaresma Bomfim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:737

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  44. Content type: Research article

    The central-line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are the most common healthcare-associated infections in childhood. Despite the international data available on healthcare-associated infections in se...

    Authors: Elisabetta Venturini, Carlotta Montagnani, Alessandra Benni, Sabrina Becciani, Klaus Peter Biermann, Salvatore De Masi, Elena Chiappini, Maurizio de Martino and Luisa Galli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:725

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  45. Content type: Research article

    China’s Ministry of Health (MOH) has established a policy about the antimicrobial stewardship. To date, the effects of this policy on multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) in critically ill patients are unknown.

    Authors: Xudong Ma, Jianfeng Xie, Yi Yang, Fengmei Guo, Zhiwei Gao, Hua Shao, Yingzi Huang, Congshan Yang and Haibo Qiu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:704

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  46. Content type: Research article

    The Emergency Department (ED) is a frequent site of antibiotic use; poor adherence with evidence-based guidelines and broad-spectrum antibiotic overuse is common. Our objective was to determine rates and predi...

    Authors: Catherine Zatorski, Mark Zocchi, Sara E. Cosgrove, Cynthia Rand, Gillian Brooks and Larissa May

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:638

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Despite the availability of TB infection control guidelines, and good levels of healthcare worker knowledge about infection control, often these measures are not well implemented. This study sought to determin...

    Authors: Michelle Engelbrecht, André Janse van Rensburg, Gladys Kigozi and HCJ (Dingie) van Rensburg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:633

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