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Healthcare-associated infection control

This section aims to publish studies looking at infection prevention and control in the healthcare setting and includes disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis, alongside hand hygiene, surveillance and other interventions.


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  1. During the last six decades, extensive use of antibiotics has selected resistant strains, increasing the rate of fatal infectious diseases, and exerting an economic burden on society. This situation is widely ...

    Authors: Hazrat Bilal, Muhammad Nadeem Khan, Tayyab Rehman, Muhammad Fazal Hameed and Xingyuan Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:244

    Content type: Research article

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  2. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological, microbiological, and molecular characteristics of an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Leclercia adecarboxylata in three hospitals associated with the unintended ...

    Authors: Elvira Garza-González, Paola Bocanegra-Ibarias, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Esteban González-Díaz, Jesús Silva-Sanchez, Ulises Garza-Ramos, Iván Fernando Contreras-Coronado-Tovar, José Ecil Santos-Hernández, David Gutiérrez-Bañuelos, Juan Pablo Mena-Ramirez, Saúl Ramírez-De-los-Santos, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz and Rayo Morfín-Otero

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:235

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The goals of the National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) of Japan include “implementing appropriate infection prevention and control” and “appropriate use of antimicrobials,” which are relevant ...

    Authors: Jung-ho Shin, Seiko Mizuno, Takuya Okuno, Hisashi Itoshima, Noriko Sasaki, Susumu Kunisawa, Mitsuo Kaku, Makiko Yoshida, Yoshiaki Gu, Daiichi Morii, Keigo Shibayama, Norio Ohmagari and Yuichi Imanaka

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:234

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The lab-confirmed interval is the date from lab confirmation in a core case (infector) to lab confirmation in a second case (infectee); however, its distribution and application are seldom reported. This study...

    Authors: Lihong Huang, Liangmin Wei, Yue Jiang and Lijuan Lin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:226

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are relevant in developing countries where frequencies can be at least 3 times higher than in developed countries. The purpose of this research was to describe the inter...

    Authors: Ladjane Santos Wolmer de Melo, Maria Verônica Monteiro de Abreu, Bernuarda Roberta de Oliveira Santos, Maria das Graças Washington Casimiro Carreteiro, Maria Fernanda Aparecida Moura de Souza, Maria Carolina Andrade Lins de Albuquerque, Claudia Fernanda de Lacerda Vidal and Heloisa Ramos Lacerda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:212

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Inconsistent hand hygiene puts people who inject drugs (PWID) at high risk of infectious diseases, in particular skin and soft tissue infections. In healthcare settings, handwashing with alcohol-based hand rub...

    Authors: Salim Mezaache, Laélia Briand-Madrid, Linda Rahni, Julien Poireau, Fiona Branchu, Khafil Moudachirou, Yourine Wendzinski, Patrizia Carrieri and Perrine Roux

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:211

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The association between blood culture status and mortality among sepsis patients remains controversial hence we conducted a tri-center retrospective cohort study to compare the early and late mortality of cult...

    Authors: Aibo Liu, Chia-Hung Yo, Lu Nie, Hua Yu, Kuihai Wu, Hoi Sin Tong, Tzu-Chun Hsu, Wan-Ting Hsu and Chien-Chang Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:182

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has recently shown to be one of the most important strains of bacteria and alert pathogens in Europe among Intensive Care Unit patients that provide serious therapeutic problems because of ...

    Authors: Agnieszka Litwin, Stanislaw Rojek, Waldemar Gozdzik and Wieslawa Duszynska

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:180

    Content type: Research article

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  9. In December 2019, a pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 emerged in Wuhan, China and has rapidly spread around the world since then. This study is to explore the patient characteristics and transmission chains of CO...

    Authors: Xuanchen Yan, Jianjian Wang, Jingwen Yao, Janne Estill, Shouyuan Wu, Jie Lu, Baoping Liang, Hongmin Li, Shengxin Tao, Huanli Bai, Hongliang Liu and Yaolong Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:146

    Content type: Research article

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  10. New coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a severe threat to human life and caused a global pandemic. The current research aimed to explore whether the search-engine query patterns could serve as a pot...

    Authors: Bizhi Tu, Laifu Wei, Yaya Jia and Jun Qian

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:98

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Inappropriate antibiotic use is linked to the spread of antimicrobial resistance worldwide, but there are limited systemic data on antibiotic utilization in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of thi...

    Authors: Helen L. Zhang, Champica Bodinayake, Gaya B. Wijayaratne, Pasangi Jayatissa, D. L. Bhagya Piyasiri, Ruvini Kurukulasooriya, Tianchen Sheng, Ajith Nagahawatte, Christopher Woods and L. Gayani Tillekeratne

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:97

    Content type: Research article

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  12. To determine the phenotype, molecular characterisation and risk factors of postoperative meningitis induced by Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE) in China.

    Authors: Guanghui Zheng, Yanfei Cao, Chunhong Liu, Lingye Qian, Yumeng Cai, Miaomiao Cui, Huiting Sun, Lv Hong, Jun Yuan, Lina Zhang and Guojun Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:85

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The elderly population in Hong Kong is rapidly growing, and the need for residential care homes (RCHs) is increasing. The risk of being infected with micro-organisms increases among the frail and the vulnerabl...

    Authors: Jessie Kit Ling Au, Lorna Kwai Ping Suen and Simon Ching Lam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:75

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Knowing the number of undetected cases of COVID-19 is important for a better understanding of the spread of the disease. This study analyses the temporal dynamic of detected vs. undetected cases to provide gui...

    Authors: C. Rippinger, M. Bicher, C. Urach, D. Brunmeir, N. Weibrecht, G. Zauner, G. Sroczynski, B. Jahn, N. Mühlberger, U. Siebert and N. Popper

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:70

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Testing is one of the most effective means to manage the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is an upper bound on daily testing volume because of limited healthcare staff and working hours, as well as different ...

    Authors: Yapeng Cui, Shunjiang Ni and Shifei Shen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:58

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Hand hygiene (HH) is the cornerstone of infection control, and the promotion of HH is the focus of the world. The study aims to compare the role of two different types of electronic hand hygiene monitoring sys...

    Authors: Xiao Zhong, Dong-Li Wang, Li-Hua Xiao, Lan-Fang Mo, Qing-Fei Wu, Yan-Wei Chen and Xiao-Feng Luo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:50

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Immunocompromised children and adults are at increased risk for severe disease and death following varicella zoster virus infection. Varicella zoster immune globulin (human) (VARIZIG) is recommended for post-e...

    Authors: Hayley Gans and Roy F. Chemaly

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:46

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF), a tropically neglected infectious disease caused by Nairovirus, is endemic in low middle-income countries like Pakistan. Emergency health care professionals (HCPs) are at ...

    Authors: Ali Ahmed, Muhammad Saqlain, Maria Tanveer, Azhar Hussain Tahir, Fakhar Ud-Din, Maryum Ibrar Shinwari, Gul Majid Khan and Naveed Anwer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:35

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem compromising the effective treatment of infectious diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO) is encouraging and promoting awareness creation among health ...

    Authors: Emelda E. Chukwu, David A. Oladele, Christian A. Enwuru, Peter L. Gogwan, Dennis Abuh, Rosemary A. Audu and Folasade T. Ogunsola

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:22

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) are among the leading causes of the postoperative complications. This study aimed at investigating the epidemiologic characteristics of orthopedic SSIs and estimating the under-...

    Authors: Niloufar Taherpour, Yadollah Mehrabi, Arash Seifi, Babak Eshrati and Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:3

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Intracranial infection after puncture of cerebral hematoma in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage is very common in the department of neurosurgery, yet the relevant risks remain unknown. We attempted to ana...

    Authors: Haijing Han, Yu Li, Li Liu, Ningning Liu, Ying Wang and Min Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:949

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Describing transmission dynamics of the outbreak and impact of intervention measures are critical to planning responses to future outbreaks and providing timely information to guide policy makers decision. We ...

    Authors: Khouloud Talmoudi, Mouna Safer, Hejer Letaief, Aicha Hchaichi, Chahida Harizi, Sonia Dhaouadi, Sondes Derouiche, Ilhem Bouaziz, Donia Gharbi, Nourhene Najar, Molka Osman, Ines Cherif, Rym Mlallekh, Oumaima Ben-Ayed, Yosr Ayedi, Leila Bouabid…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:914

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Following delivery by caesarean section, surgical site infection is the most common infectious complication. Despite a large number of caesarean sections performed at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, there was ...

    Authors: Daniel Bekele Ketema, Fasil Wagnew, Moges Agazhe Assemie, Aster Ferede, Alehegn Aderaw Alamneh, Cheru Tesema Leshargie, Getiye Dejenu Kibret, Pammla Petrucka, Animut Takele Telayneh and Animut Alebel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:902

    Content type: Research article

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  24. There is limited data to guide the prevention and management of surgical site infections (SSI) in low- and middle-income countries. We prospectively studied aetiological agents associated with SSI and their co...

    Authors: Antoinette A. A. Bediako-Bowan, Jørgen A. L. Kurtzhals, Kåre Mølbak, Appiah-Korang Labi, Enid Owusu and Mercy J. Newman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:890

    Content type: Research article

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  25. While hospital-acquired influenza A results in an additional cost burden and considerable mortality in patients, its risk factors are unknown. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients vulnerable to...

    Authors: Kui Yang, Ni Zhang, Chunchen Gao, Hongyan Qin, Anhui Wang and Liqiang Song

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:863

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Typhoid fever causes global morbidity and mortality and is a significant health burden, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The direct fecal-oral route is the main transmission mode, but indirect...

    Authors: Eida Nurhadzira Muhammad, Mohd Hatta Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hazrin Hasim, Faizah Paiwai, Sayan Pan, Mohd Amierul Fikri Mahmud, Norzawati Yeop, Guat Hiong Tee, A’ Aishah Senin and Tahir Aris

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:843

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Surgical site infection (SSI) after colorectal surgery is a frequent complication associated with the increase in morbidity, medical expenses, and mortality. To date, there is no nationwide large-scale databas...

    Authors: Xufei Zhang, Zhiwei Wang, Jun Chen, Peige Wang, Suming Luo, Xinjian Xu, Wei Mai, Guangyi Li, Gefei Wang, Xiuwen Wu and Jianan Ren

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:837

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Respiratory infections are a serious threat to human health. So, rapid detection of all respiratory pathogens can facilitate prompt treatment and prevent the deterioration of respiratory disease. Previously pu...

    Authors: Keke Liu, Hongbo Jing, Ying Chen, Xin Zheng, Hua Jiang, Decong Kong, Yvling Zheng, Shuiping Chen, Peng Liu and Yongqiang Jiang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:820

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Covid-19 is causing a pandemic and forces physicians to restructure their work. We want to share our experience in the outpatient management of potentially-infected patients with special consideration of alter...

    Authors: Simon Wernhart, Tim-Henning Förster and Eberhard Weihe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:811

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics by physicians in the treatment of children is common in China. This study aimed to reveal the overall use of antibiotics to treat children hospitalized in four types of pediat...

    Authors: Jiang-Jiang Xu, Jie Gao, Jun-Hua Guo and Li-Li Song

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:804

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common healthcare infections. Common strategies aiming at controlling CDI include antibiotic stewardship, environmental decontamination, and improved ha...

    Authors: Brittany Stephenson, Cristina Lanzas, Suzanne Lenhart, Eduardo Ponce, Jason Bintz, Erik R. Dubberke and Judy Day

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:799

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2), the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), is a highly transmittable virus. Since the first person-to-person transmission of SAR...

    Authors: Simone Pernice, Paolo Castagno, Linda Marcotulli, Milena Maria Maule, Lorenzo Richiardi, Giovenale Moirano, Matteo Sereno, Francesca Cordero and Marco Beccuti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:798

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Antibiotic resistance is on the rise. A contributing factor to antibiotic resistance is the misuse of antibiotics in hospitals. The current use of antibiotics in ICUs in Malawi is not well documented and there...

    Authors: Raphael Kazidule Kayambankadzanja, Moses Lihaka, Andreas Barratt-Due, Mtisunge Kachingwe, Wezzie Kumwenda, Rebecca Lester, Sithembile Bilima, Jaran Eriksen and Tim Baker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:776

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Device-associated health care-associated infections (DA-HAIs) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients constitute a major therapeutic issue complicating the regular hospitalisation process and having influence on...

    Authors: Wieslawa Duszynska, Victor Daniel Rosenthal, Aleksander Szczesny, Katarzyna Zajaczkowska, Michal Fulek and Jacek Tomaszewski

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:761

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Workers and residents in Care Homes are considered at special risk for the acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection, due to the infectivity and high mortality rate in the case of residents, compared to other contai...

    Authors: Jorge Julio Cabrera Alvargonzalez, Sonia Rey Cao, Sonia Pérez Castro, Lucía Martinez Lamas, Olaia Cores Calvo, Julio Torres Piñon, Jacobo Porteiro Fresco, Julio Garcia Comesaña and Benito Regueiro Garcia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:745

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The pandemic of COVID-19 has occurred close on the heels of a global resurgence of measles. In 2019, an unprecedented epidemic of measles affected Samoa, requiring a state of emergency to be declared. Measles ...

    Authors: Chandini Raina MacIntyre, Valentina Costantino and David J. Heslop

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:735

    Content type: Research article

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  37. This study describes the disease burden, clinical characteristics, antibiotic management, impact of multidrug resistance and outcome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection (PABSI) among children admitted...

    Authors: Joycelyn Assimeng Dame, Natalie Beylis, James Nuttall and Brian Eley

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:729

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Healthcare workers (HCWs) face considerable mental and physical stress caring for patients with Covid-19. They are at higher risk of acquiring and transmitting this virus. This study aims to assess perception ...

    Authors: Mostafa A. Abolfotouh, Adel F. Almutairi, Ala’a A. BaniMustafa and Mohamed A. Hussein

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:719

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Since pneumonia caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, tremendous infected cases has risen all over the world attributed to its high transmissibility. We aimed...

    Authors: Zhong Zheng, Ke Wu, Zhixian Yao, Xinyi Zheng, Junhua Zheng and Jian Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:710

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacteria responsible for infections in immunocompromised patients and is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections particularly in intensive care and burn un...

    Authors: Marcin Brzozowski, Żaneta Krukowska, Katarzyna Galant, Joanna Jursa-Kulesza and Danuta Kosik-Bogacka

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:693

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Recombinant fusion protein ESAT6-CFP10 (EC) is a newly developed skin test reagent for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infection. In this study, we evaluated whether induration and erythema...

    Authors: Hui Zhang, Ling Wang, Feng Li, Shuihua Lu and Jielai Xia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:685

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The purpose of this case report was to report a case of Cryptococcus laurentii infection in the left knee of a previously healthy 29 year old male patient.

    Authors: Hetao Huang, Jianke Pan, Weiyi Yang, Jiongtong Lin, Yanhong Han, Kai Lan, Lingfeng Zeng, Guihong Liang and Jun Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:681

    Content type: Case report

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  43. Raoultella planticola(R.planticola) is a very rare opportunistic pathogen and sometimes even associated with fatal infection in pediatric cases. Recently,the emergence of carbapenem resistance strains are cons...

    Authors: Xianrui Chen, Shaoqing Guo, Dengli Liu and Meizhen Zhong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:676

    Content type: Case report

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  44. To identify factors predicting severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adolescent and adult patients with laboratory-positive (quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction) infection.

    Authors: Efrén Murillo-Zamora, Xóchitl Trujillo, Miguel Huerta, Mónica Ríos-Silva and Oliver Mendoza-Cano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:674

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) is divided in two distinct groups, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and non-ventilator-associated HAP (nvHAP). Although nvHAP occurs more frequently than VAP and results ...

    Authors: Aline Wolfensberger, Lauren Clack, Stefanie von Felten, Katharina Kusejko, Mirjam Faes Hesse, Werner Jakob, Dirk Saleschus, Marie-Theres Meier, Roger Kouyos, Leonhard Held and Hugo Sax

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:603

    Content type: Study protocol

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:115

  46. Bloodstream infection is common in the UK and has significant mortality depending on the pathogen involved, site of infection and other patient factors. Healthcare staffing and ward activity may also impact on...

    Authors: Rebecca N. Evans, Katie Pike, Chris A. Rogers, Rosy Reynolds, Margaret Stoddart, Robin Howe, Mark Wilcox, Peter Wilson, F. Kate Gould and Alasdair MacGowan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:545

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Staphylococcus saccharolyticus is a rarely encountered coagulase-negative, which grows slowly and its strictly anaerobic staphylococcus from the skin. It is usually considered a contaminant, but some rare reports...

    Authors: Marie-Charlotte Trojani, Brigitte Lamy, Raymond Ruimy, Nicolas Amoretti, Karine Risso and Christian Roux

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:539

    Content type: Case report

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  48. Procalcitonin is an inflammatory biomarker that is sensitive for bacterial infections and a promising clinical decision aid in antimicrobial stewardship programs. However, there are few studies of physicians’ ...

    Authors: Ingrid Christensen, Jon Birger Haug, Dag Berild, Jørgen Vildershøj Bjørnholt and Lars-Petter Jelsness-Jørgensen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:515

    Content type: Research article

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