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Healthcare-associated infection control

Section edited by Holly Seale

This section aims to publish studies looking at infection prevention and control in the healthcare setting and includes disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis, alongside hand hygiene, surveillance and other interventions.


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  1. Bloodstream infection is common in the UK and has significant mortality depending on the pathogen involved, site of infection and other patient factors. Healthcare staffing and ward activity may also impact on...

    Authors: Rebecca N. Evans, Katie Pike, Chris A. Rogers, Rosy Reynolds, Margaret Stoddart, Robin Howe, Mark Wilcox, Peter Wilson, F. Kate Gould and Alasdair MacGowan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:545

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Staphylococcus saccharolyticus is a rarely encountered coagulase-negative, which grows slowly and its strictly anaerobic staphylococcus from the skin. It is usually considered a contaminant, but some rare reports...

    Authors: Marie-Charlotte Trojani, Brigitte Lamy, Raymond Ruimy, Nicolas Amoretti, Karine Risso and Christian Roux

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:539

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Procalcitonin is an inflammatory biomarker that is sensitive for bacterial infections and a promising clinical decision aid in antimicrobial stewardship programs. However, there are few studies of physicians’ ...

    Authors: Ingrid Christensen, Jon Birger Haug, Dag Berild, Jørgen Vildershøj Bjørnholt and Lars-Petter Jelsness-Jørgensen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:515

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Indwelling central venous catheters (CVC) are used to provide long term hemodialysis. The commonest and the severe complication of CVC is the central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). This study ...

    Authors: J. A. A. S. Jayaweera and D. Sivakumar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:457

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Bacterial infections are the most frequent complications in patients with malignancy, and the epidemiology of nosocomial infections among cancer patients has changed over time. This study aimed to evaluate the...

    Authors: Ai-Min Jiang, Xin Shi, Na Liu, Huan Gao, Meng-Di Ren, Xiao-Qiang Zheng, Xiao Fu, Xuan Liang, Zhi-Ping Ruan, Yu Yao and Tao Tian

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:452

    Content type: Research article

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  6. The prevalence of healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) and rising levels of antimicrobial resistance places significant economic and public health burdens on modern healthcare systems. A group of highly drug r...

    Authors: Katharina L. Weber, Danielle S. LeSassier, Anthony D. Kappell, Kathleen Q. Schulte, Nicole Westfall, Nicolette C. Albright, Gene D. Godbold, Veena Palsikar, Carlos A. Acevedo, Krista L. Ternus and F. Curtis Hewitt

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:411

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Measles is a highly infectious viral disease. In August 2017, Lyantonde District, Uganda reported a measles outbreak to Uganda Ministry of Health. We investigated the outbreak to assess the scope, factors faci...

    Authors: Claire Biribawa, Joselyn Annet Atuhairwe, Lilian Bulage, Denis Othuba Okethwangu, Benon Kwesiga, Alex Riolexus Ario and Bao-Ping Zhu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:398

    Content type: Research article

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  8. In 2017, inhabitants along the border between French Guiana and Brazil were affected by a malaria outbreak primarily due to Plasmodium vivax (Pv). While malaria cases have steadily declined between 2005 and 2016 ...

    Authors: Emilie Mosnier, Isabelle Dusfour, Guillaume Lacour, Raphael Saldanha, Amandine Guidez, Margarete S. Gomes, Alice Sanna, Yanouk Epelboin, Johana Restrepo, Damien Davy, Magalie Demar, Félix Djossou, Maylis Douine, Vanessa Ardillon, Mathieu Nacher, Lise Musset…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:373

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Previous studies have proven that the closure of live poultry markets (LPMs) was an effective intervention to reduce human risk of avian influenza A (H7N9) infection, but evidence is limited on the impact of s...

    Authors: Ying Chen, Jian Cheng, Zhiwei Xu, Wenbiao Hu and Jiahai Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:369

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Substantial numbers of patients are now receiving either immunosuppressive therapies or chemotherapy. There are significant risks in such patients of developing opportunistic infections or re-activation of lat...

    Authors: David R. Chadwick, Laila Sayeed, Matthew Rose, Emily Budd, Mo Mohammed, Sarah Harrison, Jaskiran Azad and Jamie Maddox

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:359

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has an increasing pediatric prevalence worldwide. However, molecular characteristics of C. difficile in Chinese children with acute gastroenteritis have not been reported.

    Authors: Huiqun Shuai, Qiao Bian, Yun Luo, Xiaohong Zhou, Xiaojun Song, Julian Ye, Qinghong Huang, Zhaoyang Peng, Jun Wu, Jianmin Jiang and Dazhi Jin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:343

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Peer education has become a strategy for health promotion among high-risk groups for HIV infection worldwide. However, the extent to which peer education could have an impact on HIV prevention or the long-term...

    Authors: Jiayu He, Ying Wang, Zhicheng Du, Jing Liao, Na He and Yuantao Hao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:338

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) represent a serious burden to individual safety and healthcare sustainability. Identifying which patients, procedures and settings are most at risk would offer a signifi...

    Authors: Luca Pirisi, Federico Pennestrì, Marco Viganò and Giuseppe Banfi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:337

    Content type: Research article

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  14. T2Bacteria assay uses T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR) technology for the rapid diagnosis of bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs). This FDA cleared technology can detect 5 of the most prevalent pathogens causin...

    Authors: Markos Kalligeros, Ioannis M. Zacharioudakis, Giannoula S. Tansarli, Katerina Tori, Fadi Shehadeh and Eleftherios Mylonakis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:326

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The study aimed to investigate the predictive value of the quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) for clinical outcomes in emergency patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

    Authors: Xiangqun Zhang, Bo Liu, Yugeng Liu, Lijuan Ma and Hong Zeng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:316

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Gram-positive spectrum antibiotics such as vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, and linezolid are frequently used in empirical treatment combinations in critically ill patients. Such inappropriate and unnecess...

    Authors: Hasan Selçuk Özger, Dolunay Merve Fakıoğlu, Kübra Erbay, Aslınur Albayrak and Kenan Hızel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:289

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), especially hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (HA-CDI), continues to be a public health problem and has aroused great concern worldwide for years. This study ...

    Authors: Wei Dai, Tianxiang Yang, Li Yan, Siqiang Niu, Chuanming Zhang, Jide Sun, Zhu Wang and Yun Xia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:277

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Despite being largely preventable, surgical site infections (SSIs) are still one of the most frequent healthcare-associated infections. The presence of resistant pathogens can further augment their clinical an...

    Authors: Aiman El-Saed, Hanan H. Balkhy, Majid M. Alshamrani, Sameera Aljohani, Asim Alsaedi, Wafa Al Nasser, Ayman El Gammal, Saad A. Almohrij, Ziyad Alyousef, Sara Almunif and Mohammad Alzahrani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:275

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The public health response to Zika outbreak has mostly focused on epidemiological surveillance, vector control, and individual level preventative measures. This qualitative study employs a social-ecological fr...

    Authors: Ana Rosa Linde-Arias, Maria Roura and Eduardo Siqueira

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:263

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the efficacy and safety of targeted antibiotics for the treatment of culture-negative prosthetic joint infection based on metagenomic next-generation sequencing resu...

    Authors: Chaoxin Wang, Zida Huang, Wenbo Li, Xinyu Fang and Wenming Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:253

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Despite the considerable efforts made to address the issue of brucellosis worldwide, its prevalence in dairy products continues to be difficult to estimate and represents a key public health issue around the w...

    Authors: Peifeng Liang, Yuan Zhao, Jianhua Zhao, Dongfeng Pan and Zhongqin Guo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:249

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Tourniquets used for peripheral venous vascular access such as blood sampling are regularly contaminated in clinical routine. Although most contaminations are harmless, some pose a possible risk for infection....

    Authors: Marcus Grohmann, Lena Schomakers, Frank Wolschendorf, Janina Grosch, Susan Lindner and Anna Kristina Witte

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:247

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Infectious diarrhea can lead to a considerable global disease burden. Thus, the accurate prediction of an infectious diarrhea epidemic is crucial for public health authorities. This study was aimed at developi...

    Authors: Xinyu Fang, Wendong Liu, Jing Ai, Mike He, Ying Wu, Yingying Shi, Wenqi Shen and Changjun Bao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:222

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The goal of the study was to evaluate a potential role for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) genetic variability as biomarker in sepsis. In particular, we aimed to determine if single nucleotide polymorphism...

    Authors: Anca Meda Georgescu, Claudia Banescu, Razvan Azamfirei, Adina Hutanu, Valeriu Moldovan, Iudita Badea, Septimiu Voidazan, Minodora Dobreanu, Ioana Raluca Chirtes and Leonard Azamfirei

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:221

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The occurrence of segmental/lobar pattern pneumonia (S/L-PP) in children has recently increased. The pathogens of the disease may change for the misuse of antibiotics and the application of vaccines. Therefore...

    Authors: Yanxia Wang, Liji Ma, Ying Li, Yuyun Li, Yanfei Zheng and Xiaoyue Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:205

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Antibiotics are not indicated for treating acute bronchitis cases, yet up to 70% of adult acute bronchitis medical visits in the USA result in an antibiotic prescription. Reducing unnecessary antibiotic prescr...

    Authors: Valerie J. Morley, Emily P. C. Firgens, Rachel R. Vanderbilt, Yanmengqian Zhou, Michelle Zook, Andrew F. Read and Erina L. MacGeorge

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:177

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Diarrhea is responsible for 525,000 children under-five deaths and 1.7 billion cases globally and is the second leading cause of death among children under-five every year. It is a major public health problem ...

    Authors: Sisay Shine, Sindew Muhamud, Solomon Adanew, Alebachew Demelash and Makda Abate

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:174

    Content type: Research article

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  28. In this study, we evaluated the genetic relatedness of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KPN) isolates from an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in August 2017...

    Authors: Eun-Hwa Baek, Se-Eun Kim, Sunjoo Kim, Seungjun Lee, Oh-Hyun Cho, Sun In Hong, Jeong Hwan Shin and Inyeong Hwang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:166

    Content type: Research article

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  29. More and more azole-resistant strains emerged through the development of acquired resistance and an epidemiological shift towards inherently less susceptible species. The mechanisms of azoles resistance of Candid...

    Authors: Ming-rui Zhang, Fei Zhao, Shuang Wang, Sha Lv, Yan Mou, Chun-li Yao, Ying Zhou and Fu-qiu Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:126

    Content type: Case report

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  30. Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) are reported to be associated with enterovirus D68 infection. Though an increasing number of AFM cases were reported with EV-D68 infection in the US, few such cases have been found...

    Authors: Xiaoli Wang, Pengfei Zhang, Jie Li, Yanhui Chu, Zheng Li, Yang Yang, Fu Li, Shujuan Cui, Da Huo, Yu Wang and Quanyi Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:125

    Content type: Case report

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  31. The emergence of Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) poses a major public health problem since it was first reported. Although the rising rates of VRE infections are being reported elsewhere in the worldwide; ...

    Authors: Addisu Melese, Chalachew Genet and Tesfaye Andualem

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:124

    Content type: Research article

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  32. We analyzed the results of a 3-year surveillance study on the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of healthcare associated-infections (HAIs) in elderly inpatients in a large tertiary hospital in China.

    Authors: Xia Zhao, Lihong Wang, Nan Wei, Jingli Zhang, Wenhui Ma, Huijie Zhao and Xu Han

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:121

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Previous publications indicated an emerging issue with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), particularly skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), in Indigenous communities in ...

    Authors: Dahn Jeong, Ha Nhan Thi Nguyen, Mark Tyndall and Yoko S. Schreiber

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:118

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Severe febrile illness without a known source (SFWS) is a challenge for clinicians when deciding how to manage a patient, particularly given the wide spectrum of potential aetiologies that contribute to fever....

    Authors: Jennifer Osborn, Teri Roberts, Ethan Guillen, Oscar Bernal, Paul Roddy, Stefano Ongarello, Armand Sprecher, Anne-Laure Page, Isabela Ribeiro, Erwan Piriou, Abiy Tamrat, Roberto de la Tour, V. Bhargavi Rao, Laurence Flevaud, Tomas Jensen, Lachlan McIver…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:117

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Normothermic and hypothermic oxygenated perfusion for donation after circulatory death in kidney transplantation are becoming popular in Italy, with the purpose of reducing the risk of primary non function and...

    Authors: Matteo Ravaioli, Valeria Corradetti, Matteo Renzulli, Giuliana Germinario, Lorenzo Maroni, Federica Odaldi, Guido Fallani, Anna Paola Pezzuto, Daniele Parlanti, Raffaele Bova, Claudia Bini, Gaetano La Manna and Giorgia Comai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:115

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Surgical site infections (SSI) are the most common health care associated infections in German acute hospitals and can result in prolonged hospital stays, increased use of antibiotics and utilisation of care. Sta...

    Authors: Antonia Bauer, Martin Grünewald, Hans Eberhardt, Rieke Schulz, Peter Martus, Bernd Brüggenjürgen, Stefanie Joos and Heidrun Sturm

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:95

    Content type: Study protocol

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  37. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major causes of nosocomial infections globally. They are the current World Health Organization critical priority pathogens for res...

    Authors: Hilina Motbainor, Fetlework Bereded and Wondemagegn Mulu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:92

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections have become a global health threat. Controlling CRE transmission in hospitals is increasingly dependent on the use of disinfectants to restrict the risk of...

    Authors: Yili Chen, Kang Liao, Yongxin Huang, Penghao Guo, Han Huang, Zhongwen Wu and Min Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:88

    Content type: Research article

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  39. No-touch environmental disinfection using ultraviolet devices has been highlighted in the past several years to control the transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). However, its effectiveness in ...

    Authors: Keita Morikane, Shoko Suzuki, Jun Yoshioka, Jun Yakuwa, Masaki Nakane and Kenji Nemoto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:82

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) represent one of the leading issues to patient safety as well as a significant economic burden. Similarly, Antimicrobial Use (AMU) and Resistance (AMR) represent a growi...

    Authors: Paola Antonioli, Niccolò Bolognesi, Giorgia Valpiani, Chiara Morotti, Daniele Bernardini, Francesca Bravi, Eugenio Di Ruscio, Armando Stefanati and Giovanni Gabutti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:75

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a significant cause of morbidity and in-hospital mortality, and readmission rates are rising for older persons (> 65 years). Optimized treatment and nursing care will...

    Authors: Signe Eekholm, Gerd Ahlström, Jimmie Kristensson and Tove Lindhardt

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:73

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Hospital infection control requires timely detection and identification of organisms, and their antimicrobial susceptibility. We describe a hybrid modeling approach to evaluate whole genome sequencing of patho...

    Authors: Thomas M. Elliott, Xing J. Lee, Anna Foeglein, Patrick N. Harris and Louisa G. Gordon

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:72

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Faecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is currently the most effective treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). However, up to 20% of patients experience further recurrences after single F...

    Authors: M. Kachlíková, P. Sabaka, A. Koščálová, M. Bendžala, Z. Dovalová and I. Stankovič

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:52

    Content type: Research article

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  44. With the increase of awareness of mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP), we found thrombosis in severe MPP (SMPP) was not rare. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical characteristics, treatment, and...

    Authors: Jinrong Liu, Ruxuan He, Runhui Wu, Bei Wang, Hui Xu, Yue Zhang, Huimin Li and Shunying Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:51

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Patients with asplenia have a significantly increased lifelong risk of severe invasive infections, particular post-splenectomy sepsis (PSS). Clear preventive measures have been described in the literature, but...

    Authors: Marianne Bayrhuber, Natascha Anka, Johannes Camp, Manuela Glattacker, Erik Farin and Siegbert Rieg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:41

    Content type: Study protocol

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  46. Diarrhoea remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa. Of the three East African countries, Uganda has the worst mortality rate in children < 5 years, with ...

    Authors: Stephen Omona, Geoffrey M. Malinga, Robert Opoke, Geoffrey Openy and Robert Opiro

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:37

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Linezolid is an alternative treatment option for infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria including vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Some countries report an increasing number of isolates wi...

    Authors: Guido Werner, Carola Fleige, Ingo Klare, Robert E. Weber and Jennifer K. Bender

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1078

    Content type: Technical advance

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