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Healthcare-associated infection control

Section edited by Holly Seale

This section aims to publish studies looking at infection prevention and control in the healthcare setting and includes disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis, alongside hand hygiene, surveillance and other interventions.


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  1. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) increasingly threatens public health. Carbapenem-producing gram-negative bacteria (CPB) pose the biggest threat. The risk for CPB spread is heightened during the transfer of a CP...

    Authors: Eline van Dulm, Wendy van der Veldt, Katja Jansen-van der Meiden, Gerry van Renselaar, Lian Bovée, Jeanette Ros, Udi Davidovich and Yvonne van Duijnhoven

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1050

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa-related pneumonia is an ongoing healthcare challenge. Estimating its financial burden is complicated by the time-dependent nature of the disease.

    Authors: Klaus Kaier, Thomas Heister, Tim Götting, Martin Wolkewitz and Nico T. Mutters

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1028

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The presence of nosocomial pathogens in many intensive care units poses a threat to patients and public health worldwide. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important pathogen endemic in man...

    Authors: Farida Chamchod and Prasit Palittapongarnpim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1026

    Content type: Research Article

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  4. Acute diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children particularly in developing countries of Asia and Africa. The present study was conducted to detect the two most important pathogens, rotavi...

    Authors: Asma Sadiq, Habib Bokhari, Zobia Noreen, Rai Muhammad Asghar and Nazish Bostan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:978

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The current evidence of extra length of stay (LOS) attributable to healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) scarcely takes time-dependent bias into consideration. Plus, limited evidences were from developing cou...

    Authors: Qian Zhou, Lili Fan, Xiaoquan Lai, Li Tan and Xinping Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:975

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a serious infectious disease, which has become a public health problem. Previous studies have shown that temperature may influence the incidence of HFMD, but most only fo...

    Authors: Zece Xu, Wenqi Hu, Kedi Jiao, Ci Ren, Baofa Jiang and Wei Ma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:969

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Trachoma, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading infectious cause of blindness. It is transmitted via personal contact with infected ocular and nasal secretions by hands, fomites and eye- seeking flies. A...

    Authors: Endale WoldeKidan, Deresse Daka, Deresse Legesse, Tariku Laelago and Bealu Betebo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:886

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Antibiotic resistance is a leading cause of treatment failure in Helicobacter pylori infection. In Africa, there are very little data concerning the susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori isolates to antibiotics. ...

    Authors: Laure Brigitte Kouitcheu Mabeku, Bertrand Eyoum Bille, Cromwell Tepap Zemnou, Lionel Danny Tali Nguefack and Hubert Leundji

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:880

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Central venous catheters (CVCs) are necessary for critically ill patients, including those with hematological malignancies. However, CVC insertion is associated with inevitable risks for various adverse events...

    Authors: Osamu Imataki, Mami Shimatani, Yukiko Ohue and Makiko Uemura

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:857

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Acinetobacter baumannii is an increasingly worrying organism in the healthcare setting, due to its multidrug resistance and persistence. Prolonged hospitalisation, immunocompromised patients and excessive antibio...

    Authors: Leena Al-Hassan, Mai M. Zafer and Hadir El-Mahallawy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:829

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Although worldwide measles elimination achieved great progress for decades, outbreaks were still reported in certain countries. This study describes the epidemiologic features of a substantial measles outbreak...

    Authors: Zhen Li, Zheng Zhang, Fang Wang, Rui Wei, Jianhong Zhao and Fang Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:771

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a well-known, life-threatening disease that persists despite preventative measures and approved antibiotic therapies. This prospective observational study investigated ...

    Authors: Ekaterina Kabak, Jana Hudcova, Zoltán Magyarics, Lukas Stulik, Marie Goggin, Valéria Szijártó, Eszter Nagy and Chris Stevens

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:756

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Surgical site infections (SSI) are a common complication after a cesarean section (C-section) and mainly responsible for increased maternal mortality and morbidity, dissatisfaction of patients, longer hospital...

    Authors: Vjosa A. Zejnullahu, Rozalinda Isjanovska, Zana Sejfija and Valon A. Zejnullahu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:752

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Human brucellosis is endemic in China and commonly occurs through contact with infected animals from working with livestock or consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. Although rare, human-to-human, and po...

    Authors: Guozhong Tian, Zhifei Zhan, Aimin Zhang, Hongyan Zhao, Xin Xia, Zixiang He, Bing Zhang, Menghua Zhao, Dongri Piao, Dianying Lu and Hai Jiang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:666

    Content type: Case report

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  15. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of infectious diseases and risk factors for one-year mortality in elderly emergency department (ED) patients.

    Authors: Maythita Ittisanyakorn, Sukkhum Ruchichanantakul, Alissara Vanichkulbodee and Jiraporn Sri-on

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:662

    Content type: Research article

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  16. This study aimed to evaluate the oral switch (OS) stewardship intervention in the intensive care unit (ICU).

    Authors: Juliano Gasparetto, Felipe Francisco Tuon, Dayana dos Santos Oliveira, Tiago Zequinao, Gabriel Rammert Pipolo, Gabriel Velloso Ribeiro, Paola Delai Benincá, June Alisson Westarb Cruz and Thyago Proenca Moraes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:650

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The aim of this study was to establish a set of assessment methods suitable for evaluating the complex indoor environment of hospital wards and to ascertain the composition of bacteria and microbial ecology of...

    Authors: Shao Ling and Liu Hui

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:646

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Escherichia coli lineage ST131 predominates across various spectra of extra-intestinal infections, including urinary tract infection (UTI). The distinctive resistance profile, diverse armamentarium of virulence f...

    Authors: Ihsan Ali, Zara Rafaque, Ibrar Ahmed, Faiza Tariq, Sarah E. Graham, Elizabeth Salzman, Betsy Foxman and Javid Iqbal Dasti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:620

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) is severe surgical infections which can occur following trauma or abdominal surgery. NSTIs secondary to gastrointestinal (GI) fistula is a rare but severe complication.

    Authors: Kun Guo, Wenbin Gong, Tao Zheng, Zhiwu Hong, Xiuwen Wu, Huajian Ren, Gefei Wang, Guosheng Gu, Peter Nthumba, Jianan Ren and Jieshou Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:597

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Hospital environment in patient care has been linked on healthcare-associated infections (HAI). No touch disinfection technologies that utilize pulsed xenon ultraviolet light has been recognized to prevent inf...

    Authors: José E. Villacís, Mario Lopez, Deborah Passey, Manuel Hernando Santillán, Germán Verdezoto, Freddy Trujillo, Gustavo Paredes, Carmen Alarcón, Ronny Horvath and Mark Stibich

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:575

    Content type: Research article

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  21. At the end of March 2018, a clustered outbreak of measles associated with health care workers occurred in northern Taiwan. Prior to this study, the policy for measles vaccination for physicians and nurses in M...

    Authors: Chang-Pan Liu, Hsi-Peng Lu and Tainyi Luor

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:551

    Content type: Research article

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  22. A nationwide investigation on the carriage proportion of H. influenzae among healthy populations is lacking in China. The purpose of the study was to review the prevalence of pharyngeal carriage of H. influenzae ...

    Authors: Peng Yang, Jieming Zhang and Anlin Peng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:547

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important pathogen that causes high mortality and morbidity in young infants. However, data on clinical manifestations between different GBS serotypes and correlation with mol...

    Authors: Yi Kao, Ming-Horng Tsai, Mei-Yin Lai, Shih-Ming Chu, Hsuan-Rong Huang, Ming-Chou Chiang, Ren-Huei Fu, Jang-Jih Lu and Jen-Fu Hsu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:538

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Medical masks are commonly used in health care settings to protect healthcare workers (HCWs) from respiratory and other infections. Airborne respiratory pathogens may settle on the surface of used masks layers...

    Authors: Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Sacha Stelzer-Braid, William Rawlinson, Giulietta Pontivivo, Quanyi Wang, Yang Pan, Daitao Zhang, Yi Zhang, Lili Li and C. Raina MacIntyre

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:491

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Fear of TB infection is rooted in historical and social memories of the disease, marked by stigma, segregation and exclusion. Healthcare workers (HCWs) face these same fears today, and even seek to hide their ...

    Authors: Michelle Engelbrecht, Asta Rau, Gladys Kigozi, André Janse van Rensburg, Edwin Wouters, Nina Sommerland, Caroline Masquillier and Kerry Uebel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:475

    Content type: Research article

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  26. In China, high prevalence of risky sexual behaviours and inequity in health services lead to situations in which migrant men who have sex with men face higher risk of contracting the human immunodeficiency vir...

    Authors: Ying Wang, Mengmeng Jia, Dong Yuan, Ajuan Liang, Zhiruo Zhang, Xueqin Jiang, Yi Chen, Huiyao Zhu, Mengyun Luo, Zezhou Wang and Yong Cai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:462

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Detailed knowledge about viral respiratory disease transmission dynamics within healthcare institutions is essential for effective infection control policy and practice. In the quest to study viral transmissio...

    Authors: Hila Schwarz, Jürg Böni, Roger D. Kouyos, Teja Turk, Edouard Battegay, Malcolm Kohler, Rouven Müller, Heidi Petry, Hugo Sax, Rainer Weber, Allison McGeer, Alexandra Trkola and Stefan P. Kuster

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:446

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluated the role of Chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing for prophylaxis of central venous catheter (CVC) related complications, but the results remained inconsisten...

    Authors: Li Wei, Yan Li, Xiaoyan Li, Lanzheng Bian, Zunjia Wen and Mei Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:429

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing of hospitalized patients may have benefit in reducing hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (HABSIs). However, the magnitude of effect, implementation fidelity, and pat...

    Authors: Jackson S. Musuuza, Pramod K. Guru, John C. O’Horo, Connie M. Bongiorno, Marc A. Korobkin, Ronald E. Gangnon and Nasia Safdar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:416

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Colorectal surgery is associated with high rates of surgical site infection (SSI). We investigated SSI in radical resection of colon or rectal carcinoma and its epidemiological distribution in 26 hospitals in ...

    Authors: Mingmei Du, Bowei Liu, Meng Li, Jingui Cao, Ding Liu, Zhigang Wang, Qiongshu Wang, Pengyun Xiao, Xinling Zhang, Yanxin Gao, Hua Zeng, Jing Yang, Xiaoli Xu, Yi Huang, Qun Zhang, Bo Zhang…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:411

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Overcrowding, reduced nurse to patient ratio, limited distance between incubators and absence of microbiological surveillance have been shown to promote spread of multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms (M...

    Authors: Doris Fischer, Rolf L. Schlößer, Volkhard A. J. Kempf, Thomas A. Wichelhaus, Thomas Klingebiel, Sabine Philippi, Linda Falgenhauer, Can Imirzalioglu, Udo Dahl, Christian Brandt and Claudia Reinheimer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:357

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Cleaning and disinfection processes must be improved so that there is a reduction in environmental contamination of frequent-contact surfaces. The objective of this study was to evaluate cleaning and disinfect...

    Authors: Mara Cristina Ribeiro Furlan, Adriano Menis Ferreira, Larissa da Silva Barcelos, Marcelo Alessandro Rigotti, Alvaro Francisco Lopes de Sousa, Aires Garcia dos Santos Junior, Denise de Andrade, Margarete Teresa Gottardo de Almeida and Mayckel da Silva Barreto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:355

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Although prior hospitalization (PH) has been considered as a risk factor for infection with potentially drug-resistant (PDR) pathogens in patients admitted with pneumonia, the evidence is limited. We aimed to ...

    Authors: Jae-Uk Song, Yee Hyung Kim, Mi Yeon Lee and Jonghoo Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:349

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Antimicrobial overuse and misuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics increases the risk for antimicrobial resistance. Investigating unwarranted variation in antibiotic prescription has therefore gained global priority.

    Authors: Pia Kjær Kristensen, Søren Paaske Johnsen and Reimar Wernich Thomsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:337

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Various integrated care models have been used to improve treatment completion of medications for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB), and Human immuno...

    Authors: Jørn Henrik Vold, Christer Aas, Rafael Alexander Leiva, Peter Vickerman, Fatemeh Chalabianloo, Else-Marie Løberg, Kjell Arne Johansson and Lars Thore Fadnes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:306

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Post-operative infections are frequent after radical cystectomy with urinary diversion surgery (UDS). Reduction of post-operative infections necessitates appropriate peri-operative antimicrobial prophylaxis ta...

    Authors: E. Kolwijck, A. E. M. Seegers, S. C. M. Tops, A. G. van der Heijden, J. P. M. Sedelaar and J. ten Oever

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:303

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Surgical site infection (SSI) is the foremost infection in the overall patient population, affecting up to 66% of operated patients and with a frequency up to nine times more than in developed countries. This ...

    Authors: Bruke B. Billoro, Mengistu H. Nunemo and Seid E. Gelan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:298

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Diarrhoea remains an important cause of childhood mortality in Nigeria, with Rotavirus and Cryptosporidium reported to have the highest contribution. However, high use of antibiotics for treatment of paediatric d...

    Authors: Akinwale M. Efunshile, Obumneme Ezeanosike, Chukwuemeka Chijioke Nwangwu, Brigitte König, Pikka Jokelainen and Lucy J. Robertson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:275

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Knowledge transfer of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) involves the dissemination of created/acquired information on MERS-CoV in hospitals, making this information accessible to all heal...

    Authors: Meshal Aldohyan, Nedal Al-Rawashdeh, Farouk M. Sakr, Saeed Rahman, Ali I. Alfarhan and Mahmoud Salam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:273

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Enterococcus faecium is ranked worldwide as one of the top ten pathogens identified in healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and is classified as one of the high priority pathogens for research and development o...

    Authors: Nancy Carolina Corredor, Carolina López, Paula Andrea Aguilera, Lina María Prieto, Giovanni Rodríguez-Leguizamón, Aura Lucía Leal, María Victoria Ovalle-Guerro, Juan Mauricio Pardo-Oviedo, Claudia Elena Chica and Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:258

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Brucella is high-consequence pathogen and one of the most common seen laboratory- acquired infection pathogens. Quick and accurate detection of the pathogen will be of great important to reducing laboratory- acqu...

    Authors: Junfei Guo, Weiming Lai, Biting Li, Lingling Tang, Yongbing Wu, Yasha Luo, Chengyi Liu, Weiming Lu and Xiaoping Mu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:240

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Self-protective behaviors of social distancing and vaccination uptake vary by demographics and affect the transmission dynamics of influenza in the United States. By incorporating the socio-behavioral differen...

    Authors: Meghendra Singh, Prasenjit Sarkhel, Gloria J. Kang, Achla Marathe, Kevin Boyle, Pamela Murray-Tuite, Kaja M. Abbas and Samarth Swarup

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:221

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Central Line-Associated BloodStream Infections (CLABSIs) are emerging challenge in Respiratory semi-Intensive Care Units (RICUs). We evaluated efficacy of educational interventions on rate of CLABSIs and effec...

    Authors: Riccardo Inchingolo, Giuliana Pasciuto, Daniele Magnini, Manuela Cavalletti, Giancarlo Scoppettuolo, Giuliano Montemurro, Andrea Smargiassi, Riccardo Torelli, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Teresa Spanu, Giuseppe Maria Corbo and Luca Richeldi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:215

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Healthcare-associated infection (HAI) is a major public health problem. As a form of prevention and control, preparations of chlorhexidine are used extensively; however, the reduction of susceptibility to chlo...

    Authors: Bruna Costa Moura do Vale, Acácia Gentil Nogueira, Thiago André Cidral, Maria Carolina Soares Lopes and Maria Celeste Nunes de Melo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:199

    Content type: Research article

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  45. A novel method, termed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), was developed by Notomi et al. (2000). Individually published results have been reported that this technology has been successfully applied...

    Authors: Zi-Hong Cai, Yuan-Yuan Dai, Lin-Yan Huang, Wen-Sheng Zhang and Xu-Guang Guo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:173

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with several extragastric conditions including dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to investigate additional metabolic parameters associated with H. p...

    Authors: Miao-Miao Zhao, Jeremy Krebs, Xi Cao, Jing Cui, Dong-Ning Chen, Yu Li, Lin Hua, Jim Mann and Jin-Kui Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:157

    Content type: Research article

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  47. To determine the epidemiology and risk factors for nosocomial infection (NI) in the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) of a teaching hospital in Northwest China.

    Authors: Linchuan Wang, Kai-Ha Zhou, Wei Chen, Yan Yu and Si-Fang Feng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:145

    Content type: Research article

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