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Healthcare-associated infection control

This section aims to publish studies looking at infection prevention and control in the healthcare setting and includes disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis, alongside hand hygiene, surveillance and other interventions.


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  1. The elderly population in Hong Kong is rapidly growing, and the need for residential care homes (RCHs) is increasing. The risk of being infected with micro-organisms increases among the frail and the vulnerabl...

    Authors: Jessie Kit Ling Au, Lorna Kwai Ping Suen and Simon Ching Lam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:75

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Knowing the number of undetected cases of COVID-19 is important for a better understanding of the spread of the disease. This study analyses the temporal dynamic of detected vs. undetected cases to provide gui...

    Authors: C. Rippinger, M. Bicher, C. Urach, D. Brunmeir, N. Weibrecht, G. Zauner, G. Sroczynski, B. Jahn, N. Mühlberger, U. Siebert and N. Popper

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:70

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Testing is one of the most effective means to manage the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is an upper bound on daily testing volume because of limited healthcare staff and working hours, as well as different ...

    Authors: Yapeng Cui, Shunjiang Ni and Shifei Shen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:58

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Hand hygiene (HH) is the cornerstone of infection control, and the promotion of HH is the focus of the world. The study aims to compare the role of two different types of electronic hand hygiene monitoring sys...

    Authors: Xiao Zhong, Dong-Li Wang, Li-Hua Xiao, Lan-Fang Mo, Qing-Fei Wu, Yan-Wei Chen and Xiao-Feng Luo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:50

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Immunocompromised children and adults are at increased risk for severe disease and death following varicella zoster virus infection. Varicella zoster immune globulin (human) (VARIZIG) is recommended for post-e...

    Authors: Hayley Gans and Roy F. Chemaly

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:46

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF), a tropically neglected infectious disease caused by Nairovirus, is endemic in low middle-income countries like Pakistan. Emergency health care professionals (HCPs) are at ...

    Authors: Ali Ahmed, Muhammad Saqlain, Maria Tanveer, Azhar Hussain Tahir, Fakhar Ud-Din, Maryum Ibrar Shinwari, Gul Majid Khan and Naveed Anwer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:35

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem compromising the effective treatment of infectious diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO) is encouraging and promoting awareness creation among health ...

    Authors: Emelda E. Chukwu, David A. Oladele, Christian A. Enwuru, Peter L. Gogwan, Dennis Abuh, Rosemary A. Audu and Folasade T. Ogunsola

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:22

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) are among the leading causes of the postoperative complications. This study aimed at investigating the epidemiologic characteristics of orthopedic SSIs and estimating the under-...

    Authors: Niloufar Taherpour, Yadollah Mehrabi, Arash Seifi, Babak Eshrati and Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:3

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Intracranial infection after puncture of cerebral hematoma in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage is very common in the department of neurosurgery, yet the relevant risks remain unknown. We attempted to ana...

    Authors: Haijing Han, Yu Li, Li Liu, Ningning Liu, Ying Wang and Min Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:949

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Describing transmission dynamics of the outbreak and impact of intervention measures are critical to planning responses to future outbreaks and providing timely information to guide policy makers decision. We ...

    Authors: Khouloud Talmoudi, Mouna Safer, Hejer Letaief, Aicha Hchaichi, Chahida Harizi, Sonia Dhaouadi, Sondes Derouiche, Ilhem Bouaziz, Donia Gharbi, Nourhene Najar, Molka Osman, Ines Cherif, Rym Mlallekh, Oumaima Ben-Ayed, Yosr Ayedi, Leila Bouabid…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:914

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Following delivery by caesarean section, surgical site infection is the most common infectious complication. Despite a large number of caesarean sections performed at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, there was ...

    Authors: Daniel Bekele Ketema, Fasil Wagnew, Moges Agazhe Assemie, Aster Ferede, Alehegn Aderaw Alamneh, Cheru Tesema Leshargie, Getiye Dejenu Kibret, Pammla Petrucka, Animut Takele Telayneh and Animut Alebel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:902

    Content type: Research article

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  12. There is limited data to guide the prevention and management of surgical site infections (SSI) in low- and middle-income countries. We prospectively studied aetiological agents associated with SSI and their co...

    Authors: Antoinette A. A. Bediako-Bowan, Jørgen A. L. Kurtzhals, Kåre Mølbak, Appiah-Korang Labi, Enid Owusu and Mercy J. Newman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:890

    Content type: Research article

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  13. While hospital-acquired influenza A results in an additional cost burden and considerable mortality in patients, its risk factors are unknown. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients vulnerable to...

    Authors: Kui Yang, Ni Zhang, Chunchen Gao, Hongyan Qin, Anhui Wang and Liqiang Song

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:863

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Typhoid fever causes global morbidity and mortality and is a significant health burden, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The direct fecal-oral route is the main transmission mode, but indirect...

    Authors: Eida Nurhadzira Muhammad, Mohd Hatta Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hazrin Hasim, Faizah Paiwai, Sayan Pan, Mohd Amierul Fikri Mahmud, Norzawati Yeop, Guat Hiong Tee, A’ Aishah Senin and Tahir Aris

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:843

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Surgical site infection (SSI) after colorectal surgery is a frequent complication associated with the increase in morbidity, medical expenses, and mortality. To date, there is no nationwide large-scale databas...

    Authors: Xufei Zhang, Zhiwei Wang, Jun Chen, Peige Wang, Suming Luo, Xinjian Xu, Wei Mai, Guangyi Li, Gefei Wang, Xiuwen Wu and Jianan Ren

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:837

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Respiratory infections are a serious threat to human health. So, rapid detection of all respiratory pathogens can facilitate prompt treatment and prevent the deterioration of respiratory disease. Previously pu...

    Authors: Keke Liu, Hongbo Jing, Ying Chen, Xin Zheng, Hua Jiang, Decong Kong, Yvling Zheng, Shuiping Chen, Peng Liu and Yongqiang Jiang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:820

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Covid-19 is causing a pandemic and forces physicians to restructure their work. We want to share our experience in the outpatient management of potentially-infected patients with special consideration of alter...

    Authors: Simon Wernhart, Tim-Henning Förster and Eberhard Weihe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:811

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics by physicians in the treatment of children is common in China. This study aimed to reveal the overall use of antibiotics to treat children hospitalized in four types of pediat...

    Authors: Jiang-Jiang Xu, Jie Gao, Jun-Hua Guo and Li-Li Song

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:804

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common healthcare infections. Common strategies aiming at controlling CDI include antibiotic stewardship, environmental decontamination, and improved ha...

    Authors: Brittany Stephenson, Cristina Lanzas, Suzanne Lenhart, Eduardo Ponce, Jason Bintz, Erik R. Dubberke and Judy Day

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:799

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2), the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), is a highly transmittable virus. Since the first person-to-person transmission of SAR...

    Authors: Simone Pernice, Paolo Castagno, Linda Marcotulli, Milena Maria Maule, Lorenzo Richiardi, Giovenale Moirano, Matteo Sereno, Francesca Cordero and Marco Beccuti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:798

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Antibiotic resistance is on the rise. A contributing factor to antibiotic resistance is the misuse of antibiotics in hospitals. The current use of antibiotics in ICUs in Malawi is not well documented and there...

    Authors: Raphael Kazidule Kayambankadzanja, Moses Lihaka, Andreas Barratt-Due, Mtisunge Kachingwe, Wezzie Kumwenda, Rebecca Lester, Sithembile Bilima, Jaran Eriksen and Tim Baker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:776

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Device-associated health care-associated infections (DA-HAIs) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients constitute a major therapeutic issue complicating the regular hospitalisation process and having influence on...

    Authors: Wieslawa Duszynska, Victor Daniel Rosenthal, Aleksander Szczesny, Katarzyna Zajaczkowska, Michal Fulek and Jacek Tomaszewski

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:761

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Workers and residents in Care Homes are considered at special risk for the acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection, due to the infectivity and high mortality rate in the case of residents, compared to other contai...

    Authors: Jorge Julio Cabrera Alvargonzalez, Sonia Rey Cao, Sonia Pérez Castro, Lucía Martinez Lamas, Olaia Cores Calvo, Julio Torres Piñon, Jacobo Porteiro Fresco, Julio Garcia Comesaña and Benito Regueiro Garcia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:745

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The pandemic of COVID-19 has occurred close on the heels of a global resurgence of measles. In 2019, an unprecedented epidemic of measles affected Samoa, requiring a state of emergency to be declared. Measles ...

    Authors: Chandini Raina MacIntyre, Valentina Costantino and David J. Heslop

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:735

    Content type: Research article

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  25. This study describes the disease burden, clinical characteristics, antibiotic management, impact of multidrug resistance and outcome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection (PABSI) among children admitted...

    Authors: Joycelyn Assimeng Dame, Natalie Beylis, James Nuttall and Brian Eley

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:729

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Healthcare workers (HCWs) face considerable mental and physical stress caring for patients with Covid-19. They are at higher risk of acquiring and transmitting this virus. This study aims to assess perception ...

    Authors: Mostafa A. Abolfotouh, Adel F. Almutairi, Ala’a A. BaniMustafa and Mohamed A. Hussein

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:719

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Since pneumonia caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, tremendous infected cases has risen all over the world attributed to its high transmissibility. We aimed...

    Authors: Zhong Zheng, Ke Wu, Zhixian Yao, Xinyi Zheng, Junhua Zheng and Jian Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:710

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacteria responsible for infections in immunocompromised patients and is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections particularly in intensive care and burn un...

    Authors: Marcin Brzozowski, Żaneta Krukowska, Katarzyna Galant, Joanna Jursa-Kulesza and Danuta Kosik-Bogacka

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:693

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Recombinant fusion protein ESAT6-CFP10 (EC) is a newly developed skin test reagent for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infection. In this study, we evaluated whether induration and erythema...

    Authors: Hui Zhang, Ling Wang, Feng Li, Shuihua Lu and Jielai Xia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:685

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The purpose of this case report was to report a case of Cryptococcus laurentii infection in the left knee of a previously healthy 29 year old male patient.

    Authors: Hetao Huang, Jianke Pan, Weiyi Yang, Jiongtong Lin, Yanhong Han, Kai Lan, Lingfeng Zeng, Guihong Liang and Jun Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:681

    Content type: Case report

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  31. Raoultella planticola(R.planticola) is a very rare opportunistic pathogen and sometimes even associated with fatal infection in pediatric cases. Recently,the emergence of carbapenem resistance strains are cons...

    Authors: Xianrui Chen, Shaoqing Guo, Dengli Liu and Meizhen Zhong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:676

    Content type: Case report

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  32. To identify factors predicting severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adolescent and adult patients with laboratory-positive (quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction) infection.

    Authors: Efrén Murillo-Zamora, Xóchitl Trujillo, Miguel Huerta, Mónica Ríos-Silva and Oliver Mendoza-Cano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:674

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) is divided in two distinct groups, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and non-ventilator-associated HAP (nvHAP). Although nvHAP occurs more frequently than VAP and results ...

    Authors: Aline Wolfensberger, Lauren Clack, von Felten Stefanie, Katharina Kusejko, Mirjam Faes Hesse, Werner Jakob, Dirk Saleschus, Marie-Theres Meier, Roger Kouyos, Leonhard Held and Hugo Sax

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:603

    Content type: Study protocol

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  34. Bloodstream infection is common in the UK and has significant mortality depending on the pathogen involved, site of infection and other patient factors. Healthcare staffing and ward activity may also impact on...

    Authors: Rebecca N. Evans, Katie Pike, Chris A. Rogers, Rosy Reynolds, Margaret Stoddart, Robin Howe, Mark Wilcox, Peter Wilson, F. Kate Gould and Alasdair MacGowan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:545

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Staphylococcus saccharolyticus is a rarely encountered coagulase-negative, which grows slowly and its strictly anaerobic staphylococcus from the skin. It is usually considered a contaminant, but some rare reports...

    Authors: Marie-Charlotte Trojani, Brigitte Lamy, Raymond Ruimy, Nicolas Amoretti, Karine Risso and Christian Roux

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:539

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Procalcitonin is an inflammatory biomarker that is sensitive for bacterial infections and a promising clinical decision aid in antimicrobial stewardship programs. However, there are few studies of physicians’ ...

    Authors: Ingrid Christensen, Jon Birger Haug, Dag Berild, Jørgen Vildershøj Bjørnholt and Lars-Petter Jelsness-Jørgensen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:515

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Indwelling central venous catheters (CVC) are used to provide long term hemodialysis. The commonest and the severe complication of CVC is the central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). This study ...

    Authors: J. A. A. S. Jayaweera and D. Sivakumar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:457

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Bacterial infections are the most frequent complications in patients with malignancy, and the epidemiology of nosocomial infections among cancer patients has changed over time. This study aimed to evaluate the...

    Authors: Ai-Min Jiang, Xin Shi, Na Liu, Huan Gao, Meng-Di Ren, Xiao-Qiang Zheng, Xiao Fu, Xuan Liang, Zhi-Ping Ruan, Yu Yao and Tao Tian

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:452

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The prevalence of healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) and rising levels of antimicrobial resistance places significant economic and public health burdens on modern healthcare systems. A group of highly drug r...

    Authors: Katharina L. Weber, Danielle S. LeSassier, Anthony D. Kappell, Kathleen Q. Schulte, Nicole Westfall, Nicolette C. Albright, Gene D. Godbold, Veena Palsikar, Carlos A. Acevedo, Krista L. Ternus and F. Curtis Hewitt

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:411

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Measles is a highly infectious viral disease. In August 2017, Lyantonde District, Uganda reported a measles outbreak to Uganda Ministry of Health. We investigated the outbreak to assess the scope, factors faci...

    Authors: Claire Biribawa, Joselyn Annet Atuhairwe, Lilian Bulage, Denis Othuba Okethwangu, Benon Kwesiga, Alex Riolexus Ario and Bao-Ping Zhu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:398

    Content type: Research article

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  41. In 2017, inhabitants along the border between French Guiana and Brazil were affected by a malaria outbreak primarily due to Plasmodium vivax (Pv). While malaria cases have steadily declined between 2005 and 2016 ...

    Authors: Emilie Mosnier, Isabelle Dusfour, Guillaume Lacour, Raphael Saldanha, Amandine Guidez, Margarete S. Gomes, Alice Sanna, Yanouk Epelboin, Johana Restrepo, Damien Davy, Magalie Demar, Félix Djossou, Maylis Douine, Vanessa Ardillon, Mathieu Nacher, Lise Musset…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:373

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Previous studies have proven that the closure of live poultry markets (LPMs) was an effective intervention to reduce human risk of avian influenza A (H7N9) infection, but evidence is limited on the impact of s...

    Authors: Ying Chen, Jian Cheng, Zhiwei Xu, Wenbiao Hu and Jiahai Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:369

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Substantial numbers of patients are now receiving either immunosuppressive therapies or chemotherapy. There are significant risks in such patients of developing opportunistic infections or re-activation of lat...

    Authors: David R. Chadwick, Laila Sayeed, Matthew Rose, Emily Budd, Mo Mohammed, Sarah Harrison, Jaskiran Azad and Jamie Maddox

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:359

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has an increasing pediatric prevalence worldwide. However, molecular characteristics of C. difficile in Chinese children with acute gastroenteritis have not been reported.

    Authors: Huiqun Shuai, Qiao Bian, Yun Luo, Xiaohong Zhou, Xiaojun Song, Julian Ye, Qinghong Huang, Zhaoyang Peng, Jun Wu, Jianmin Jiang and Dazhi Jin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:343

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Peer education has become a strategy for health promotion among high-risk groups for HIV infection worldwide. However, the extent to which peer education could have an impact on HIV prevention or the long-term...

    Authors: Jiayu He, Ying Wang, Zhicheng Du, Jing Liao, Na He and Yuantao Hao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:338

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) represent a serious burden to individual safety and healthcare sustainability. Identifying which patients, procedures and settings are most at risk would offer a signifi...

    Authors: Luca Pirisi, Federico Pennestrì, Marco Viganò and Giuseppe Banfi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:337

    Content type: Research article

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  47. T2Bacteria assay uses T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR) technology for the rapid diagnosis of bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs). This FDA cleared technology can detect 5 of the most prevalent pathogens causin...

    Authors: Markos Kalligeros, Ioannis M. Zacharioudakis, Giannoula S. Tansarli, Katerina Tori, Fadi Shehadeh and Eleftherios Mylonakis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:326

    Content type: Research article

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  48. The study aimed to investigate the predictive value of the quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) for clinical outcomes in emergency patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

    Authors: Xiangqun Zhang, Bo Liu, Yugeng Liu, Lijuan Ma and Hong Zeng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:316

    Content type: Research article

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