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Healthcare-associated infection control

Section edited by Holly Seale

This section aims to publish studies looking at infection prevention and control in the healthcare setting and includes disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis, alongside hand hygiene, surveillance and other interventions.


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  1. Despite being largely preventable, surgical site infections (SSIs) are still one of the most frequent healthcare-associated infections. The presence of resistant pathogens can further augment their clinical an...

    Authors: Aiman El-Saed, Hanan H. Balkhy, Majid M. Alshamrani, Sameera Aljohani, Asim Alsaedi, Wafa Al Nasser, Ayman El Gammal, Saad A. Almohrij, Ziyad Alyousef, Sara Almunif and Mohammad Alzahrani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:275

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The public health response to Zika outbreak has mostly focused on epidemiological surveillance, vector control, and individual level preventative measures. This qualitative study employs a social-ecological fr...

    Authors: Ana Rosa Linde-Arias, Maria Roura and Eduardo Siqueira

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:263

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the efficacy and safety of targeted antibiotics for the treatment of culture-negative prosthetic joint infection based on metagenomic next-generation sequencing resu...

    Authors: Chaoxin Wang, Zida Huang, Wenbo Li, Xinyu Fang and Wenming Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:253

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Despite the considerable efforts made to address the issue of brucellosis worldwide, its prevalence in dairy products continues to be difficult to estimate and represents a key public health issue around the w...

    Authors: Peifeng Liang, Yuan Zhao, Jianhua Zhao, Dongfeng Pan and Zhongqin Guo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:249

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Tourniquets used for peripheral venous vascular access such as blood sampling are regularly contaminated in clinical routine. Although most contaminations are harmless, some pose a possible risk for infection....

    Authors: Marcus Grohmann, Lena Schomakers, Frank Wolschendorf, Janina Grosch, Susan Lindner and Anna Kristina Witte

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:247

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Infectious diarrhea can lead to a considerable global disease burden. Thus, the accurate prediction of an infectious diarrhea epidemic is crucial for public health authorities. This study was aimed at developi...

    Authors: Xinyu Fang, Wendong Liu, Jing Ai, Mike He, Ying Wu, Yingying Shi, Wenqi Shen and Changjun Bao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:222

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The goal of the study was to evaluate a potential role for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) genetic variability as biomarker in sepsis. In particular, we aimed to determine if single nucleotide polymorphism...

    Authors: Anca Meda Georgescu, Claudia Banescu, Razvan Azamfirei, Adina Hutanu, Valeriu Moldovan, Iudita Badea, Septimiu Voidazan, Minodora Dobreanu, Ioana Raluca Chirtes and Leonard Azamfirei

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:221

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The occurrence of segmental/lobar pattern pneumonia (S/L-PP) in children has recently increased. The pathogens of the disease may change for the misuse of antibiotics and the application of vaccines. Therefore...

    Authors: Yanxia Wang, Liji Ma, Ying Li, Yuyun Li, Yanfei Zheng and Xiaoyue Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:205

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Antibiotics are not indicated for treating acute bronchitis cases, yet up to 70% of adult acute bronchitis medical visits in the USA result in an antibiotic prescription. Reducing unnecessary antibiotic prescr...

    Authors: Valerie J. Morley, Emily P. C. Firgens, Rachel R. Vanderbilt, Yanmengqian Zhou, Michelle Zook, Andrew F. Read and Erina L. MacGeorge

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:177

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Diarrhea is responsible for 525,000 children under-five deaths and 1.7 billion cases globally and is the second leading cause of death among children under-five every year. It is a major public health problem ...

    Authors: Sisay Shine, Sindew Muhamud, Solomon Adanew, Alebachew Demelash and Makda Abate

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:174

    Content type: Research article

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  11. In this study, we evaluated the genetic relatedness of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KPN) isolates from an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in August 2017...

    Authors: Eun-Hwa Baek, Se-Eun Kim, Sunjoo Kim, Seungjun Lee, Oh-Hyun Cho, Sun In Hong, Jeong Hwan Shin and Inyeong Hwang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:166

    Content type: Research article

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  12. More and more azole-resistant strains emerged through the development of acquired resistance and an epidemiological shift towards inherently less susceptible species. The mechanisms of azoles resistance of Candid...

    Authors: Ming-rui Zhang, Fei Zhao, Shuang Wang, Sha Lv, Yan Mou, Chun-li Yao, Ying Zhou and Fu-qiu Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:126

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) are reported to be associated with enterovirus D68 infection. Though an increasing number of AFM cases were reported with EV-D68 infection in the US, few such cases have been found...

    Authors: Xiaoli Wang, Pengfei Zhang, Jie Li, Yanhui Chu, Zheng Li, Yang Yang, Fu Li, Shujuan Cui, Da Huo, Yu Wang and Quanyi Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:125

    Content type: Case report

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  14. The emergence of Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) poses a major public health problem since it was first reported. Although the rising rates of VRE infections are being reported elsewhere in the worldwide; ...

    Authors: Addisu Melese, Chalachew Genet and Tesfaye Andualem

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:124

    Content type: Research article

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  15. We analyzed the results of a 3-year surveillance study on the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of healthcare associated-infections (HAIs) in elderly inpatients in a large tertiary hospital in China.

    Authors: Xia Zhao, Lihong Wang, Nan Wei, Jingli Zhang, Wenhui Ma, Huijie Zhao and Xu Han

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:121

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Previous publications indicated an emerging issue with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), particularly skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), in Indigenous communities in ...

    Authors: Dahn Jeong, Ha Nhan Thi Nguyen, Mark Tyndall and Yoko S. Schreiber

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:118

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Severe febrile illness without a known source (SFWS) is a challenge for clinicians when deciding how to manage a patient, particularly given the wide spectrum of potential aetiologies that contribute to fever....

    Authors: Jennifer Osborn, Teri Roberts, Ethan Guillen, Oscar Bernal, Paul Roddy, Stefano Ongarello, Armand Sprecher, Anne-Laure Page, Isabela Ribeiro, Erwan Piriou, Abiy Tamrat, Roberto de la Tour, V. Bhargavi Rao, Laurence Flevaud, Tomas Jensen, Lachlan McIver…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:117

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Normothermic and hypothermic oxygenated perfusion for donation after circulatory death in kidney transplantation are becoming popular in Italy, with the purpose of reducing the risk of primary non function and...

    Authors: Matteo Ravaioli, Valeria Corradetti, Matteo Renzulli, Giuliana Germinario, Lorenzo Maroni, Federica Odaldi, Guido Fallani, Anna Paola Pezzuto, Daniele Parlanti, Raffaele Bova, Claudia Bini, Gaetano La Manna and Giorgia Comai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:115

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Surgical site infections (SSI) are the most common health care associated infections in German acute hospitals and can result in prolonged hospital stays, increased use of antibiotics and utilisation of care. Sta...

    Authors: Antonia Bauer, Martin Grünewald, Hans Eberhardt, Rieke Schulz, Peter Martus, Bernd Brüggenjürgen, Stefanie Joos and Heidrun Sturm

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:95

    Content type: Study protocol

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  20. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major causes of nosocomial infections globally. They are the current World Health Organization critical priority pathogens for res...

    Authors: Hilina Motbainor, Fetlework Bereded and Wondemagegn Mulu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:92

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections have become a global health threat. Controlling CRE transmission in hospitals is increasingly dependent on the use of disinfectants to restrict the risk of...

    Authors: Yili Chen, Kang Liao, Yongxin Huang, Penghao Guo, Han Huang, Zhongwen Wu and Min Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:88

    Content type: Research article

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  22. No-touch environmental disinfection using ultraviolet devices has been highlighted in the past several years to control the transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). However, its effectiveness in ...

    Authors: Keita Morikane, Shoko Suzuki, Jun Yoshioka, Jun Yakuwa, Masaki Nakane and Kenji Nemoto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:82

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) represent one of the leading issues to patient safety as well as a significant economic burden. Similarly, Antimicrobial Use (AMU) and Resistance (AMR) represent a growi...

    Authors: Paola Antonioli, Niccolò Bolognesi, Giorgia Valpiani, Chiara Morotti, Daniele Bernardini, Francesca Bravi, Eugenio Di Ruscio, Armando Stefanati and Giovanni Gabutti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:75

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a significant cause of morbidity and in-hospital mortality, and readmission rates are rising for older persons (> 65 years). Optimized treatment and nursing care will...

    Authors: Signe Eekholm, Gerd Ahlström, Jimmie Kristensson and Tove Lindhardt

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:73

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Hospital infection control requires timely detection and identification of organisms, and their antimicrobial susceptibility. We describe a hybrid modeling approach to evaluate whole genome sequencing of patho...

    Authors: Thomas M. Elliott, Xing J. Lee, Anna Foeglein, Patrick N. Harris and Louisa G. Gordon

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:72

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Faecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is currently the most effective treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). However, up to 20% of patients experience further recurrences after single F...

    Authors: M. Kachlíková, P. Sabaka, A. Koščálová, M. Bendžala, Z. Dovalová and I. Stankovič

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:52

    Content type: Research article

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  27. With the increase of awareness of mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP), we found thrombosis in severe MPP (SMPP) was not rare. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical characteristics, treatment, and...

    Authors: Jinrong Liu, Ruxuan He, Runhui Wu, Bei Wang, Hui Xu, Yue Zhang, Huimin Li and Shunying Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:51

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Patients with asplenia have a significantly increased lifelong risk of severe invasive infections, particular post-splenectomy sepsis (PSS). Clear preventive measures have been described in the literature, but...

    Authors: Marianne Bayrhuber, Natascha Anka, Johannes Camp, Manuela Glattacker, Erik Farin and Siegbert Rieg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:41

    Content type: Study protocol

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  29. Diarrhoea remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa. Of the three East African countries, Uganda has the worst mortality rate in children < 5 years, with ...

    Authors: Stephen Omona, Geoffrey M. Malinga, Robert Opoke, Geoffrey Openy and Robert Opiro

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:37

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Linezolid is an alternative treatment option for infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria including vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Some countries report an increasing number of isolates wi...

    Authors: Guido Werner, Carola Fleige, Ingo Klare, Robert E. Weber and Jennifer K. Bender

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1078

    Content type: Technical advance

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  31. Since 2011, there has been an increase in the incidence of scarlet fever across China. The main objective of this study was to depict the spatiotemporal epidemiological characteristics of the incidence of scar...

    Authors: Huijie Chen, Ye Chen, Baijun Sun, Lihai Wen and Xiangdong An

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1074

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SMA) is present in hospital environments and has been one of the pathogens that cause nosocomial contamination and infections. To investigate the occurrence of Stenotrophomonas malto...

    Authors: Bende Liu and Shenglan Tong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1072

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) increasingly threatens public health. Carbapenem-producing gram-negative bacteria (CPB) pose the biggest threat. The risk for CPB spread is heightened during the transfer of a CP...

    Authors: Eline van Dulm, Wendy van der Veldt, Katja Jansen-van der Meiden, Gerry van Renselaar, Lian Bovée, Jeanette Ros, Udi Davidovich and Yvonne van Duijnhoven

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1050

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:70

  34. Pseudomonas aeruginosa-related pneumonia is an ongoing healthcare challenge. Estimating its financial burden is complicated by the time-dependent nature of the disease.

    Authors: Klaus Kaier, Thomas Heister, Tim Götting, Martin Wolkewitz and Nico T. Mutters

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1028

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The presence of nosocomial pathogens in many intensive care units poses a threat to patients and public health worldwide. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important pathogen endemic in man...

    Authors: Farida Chamchod and Prasit Palittapongarnpim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:1026

    Content type: Research Article

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  36. Acute diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children particularly in developing countries of Asia and Africa. The present study was conducted to detect the two most important pathogens, rotavi...

    Authors: Asma Sadiq, Habib Bokhari, Zobia Noreen, Rai Muhammad Asghar and Nazish Bostan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:978

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The current evidence of extra length of stay (LOS) attributable to healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) scarcely takes time-dependent bias into consideration. Plus, limited evidences were from developing cou...

    Authors: Qian Zhou, Lili Fan, Xiaoquan Lai, Li Tan and Xinping Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:975

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a serious infectious disease, which has become a public health problem. Previous studies have shown that temperature may influence the incidence of HFMD, but most only fo...

    Authors: Zece Xu, Wenqi Hu, Kedi Jiao, Ci Ren, Baofa Jiang and Wei Ma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:969

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Trachoma, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading infectious cause of blindness. It is transmitted via personal contact with infected ocular and nasal secretions by hands, fomites and eye- seeking flies. A...

    Authors: Endale WoldeKidan, Deresse Daka, Deresse Legesse, Tariku Laelago and Bealu Betebo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:886

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Antibiotic resistance is a leading cause of treatment failure in Helicobacter pylori infection. In Africa, there are very little data concerning the susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori isolates to antibiotics. ...

    Authors: Laure Brigitte Kouitcheu Mabeku, Bertrand Eyoum Bille, Cromwell Tepap Zemnou, Lionel Danny Tali Nguefack and Hubert Leundji

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:880

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Central venous catheters (CVCs) are necessary for critically ill patients, including those with hematological malignancies. However, CVC insertion is associated with inevitable risks for various adverse events...

    Authors: Osamu Imataki, Mami Shimatani, Yukiko Ohue and Makiko Uemura

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:857

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Acinetobacter baumannii is an increasingly worrying organism in the healthcare setting, due to its multidrug resistance and persistence. Prolonged hospitalisation, immunocompromised patients and excessive antibio...

    Authors: Leena Al-Hassan, Mai M. Zafer and Hadir El-Mahallawy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:829

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Although worldwide measles elimination achieved great progress for decades, outbreaks were still reported in certain countries. This study describes the epidemiologic features of a substantial measles outbreak...

    Authors: Zhen Li, Zheng Zhang, Fang Wang, Rui Wei, Jianhong Zhao and Fang Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:771

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a well-known, life-threatening disease that persists despite preventative measures and approved antibiotic therapies. This prospective observational study investigated ...

    Authors: Ekaterina Kabak, Jana Hudcova, Zoltán Magyarics, Lukas Stulik, Marie Goggin, Valéria Szijártó, Eszter Nagy and Chris Stevens

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:756

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Surgical site infections (SSI) are a common complication after a cesarean section (C-section) and mainly responsible for increased maternal mortality and morbidity, dissatisfaction of patients, longer hospital...

    Authors: Vjosa A. Zejnullahu, Rozalinda Isjanovska, Zana Sejfija and Valon A. Zejnullahu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:752

    Content type: Research article

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