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Healthcare-associated infection control

This section aims to publish studies looking at infection prevention and control in the healthcare setting and includes disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis, alongside hand hygiene, surveillance and other interventions.


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  1. While hospital-acquired influenza A results in an additional cost burden and considerable mortality in patients, its risk factors are unknown. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients vulnerable to...

    Authors: Kui Yang, Ni Zhang, Chunchen Gao, Hongyan Qin, Anhui Wang and Liqiang Song

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:863

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Typhoid fever causes global morbidity and mortality and is a significant health burden, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The direct fecal-oral route is the main transmission mode, but indirect...

    Authors: Eida Nurhadzira Muhammad, Mohd Hatta Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hazrin Hasim, Faizah Paiwai, Sayan Pan, Mohd Amierul Fikri Mahmud, Norzawati Yeop, Guat Hiong Tee, A’ Aishah Senin and Tahir Aris

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:843

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Surgical site infection (SSI) after colorectal surgery is a frequent complication associated with the increase in morbidity, medical expenses, and mortality. To date, there is no nationwide large-scale databas...

    Authors: Xufei Zhang, Zhiwei Wang, Jun Chen, Peige Wang, Suming Luo, Xinjian Xu, Wei Mai, Guangyi Li, Gefei Wang, Xiuwen Wu and Jianan Ren

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:837

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Respiratory infections are a serious threat to human health. So, rapid detection of all respiratory pathogens can facilitate prompt treatment and prevent the deterioration of respiratory disease. Previously pu...

    Authors: Keke Liu, Hongbo Jing, Ying Chen, Xin Zheng, Hua Jiang, Decong Kong, Yvling Zheng, Shuiping Chen, Peng Liu and Yongqiang Jiang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:820

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Covid-19 is causing a pandemic and forces physicians to restructure their work. We want to share our experience in the outpatient management of potentially-infected patients with special consideration of alter...

    Authors: Simon Wernhart, Tim-Henning Förster and Eberhard Weihe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:811

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics by physicians in the treatment of children is common in China. This study aimed to reveal the overall use of antibiotics to treat children hospitalized in four types of pediat...

    Authors: Jiang-Jiang Xu, Jie Gao, Jun-Hua Guo and Li-Li Song

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:804

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common healthcare infections. Common strategies aiming at controlling CDI include antibiotic stewardship, environmental decontamination, and improved ha...

    Authors: Brittany Stephenson, Cristina Lanzas, Suzanne Lenhart, Eduardo Ponce, Jason Bintz, Erik R. Dubberke and Judy Day

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:799

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2), the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), is a highly transmittable virus. Since the first person-to-person transmission of SAR...

    Authors: Simone Pernice, Paolo Castagno, Linda Marcotulli, Milena Maria Maule, Lorenzo Richiardi, Giovenale Moirano, Matteo Sereno, Francesca Cordero and Marco Beccuti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:798

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Antibiotic resistance is on the rise. A contributing factor to antibiotic resistance is the misuse of antibiotics in hospitals. The current use of antibiotics in ICUs in Malawi is not well documented and there...

    Authors: Raphael Kazidule Kayambankadzanja, Moses Lihaka, Andreas Barratt-Due, Mtisunge Kachingwe, Wezzie Kumwenda, Rebecca Lester, Sithembile Bilima, Jaran Eriksen and Tim Baker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:776

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Device-associated health care-associated infections (DA-HAIs) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients constitute a major therapeutic issue complicating the regular hospitalisation process and having influence on...

    Authors: Wieslawa Duszynska, Victor Daniel Rosenthal, Aleksander Szczesny, Katarzyna Zajaczkowska, Michal Fulek and Jacek Tomaszewski

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:761

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Workers and residents in Care Homes are considered at special risk for the acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection, due to the infectivity and high mortality rate in the case of residents, compared to other contai...

    Authors: Jorge Julio Cabrera Alvargonzalez, Sonia Rey Cao, Sonia Pérez Castro, Lucía Martinez Lamas, Olaia Cores Calvo, Julio Torres Piñon, Jacobo Porteiro Fresco, Julio Garcia Comesaña and Benito Regueiro Garcia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:745

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The pandemic of COVID-19 has occurred close on the heels of a global resurgence of measles. In 2019, an unprecedented epidemic of measles affected Samoa, requiring a state of emergency to be declared. Measles ...

    Authors: Chandini Raina MacIntyre, Valentina Costantino and David J. Heslop

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:735

    Content type: Research article

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  13. This study describes the disease burden, clinical characteristics, antibiotic management, impact of multidrug resistance and outcome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection (PABSI) among children admitted...

    Authors: Joycelyn Assimeng Dame, Natalie Beylis, James Nuttall and Brian Eley

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:729

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Healthcare workers (HCWs) face considerable mental and physical stress caring for patients with Covid-19. They are at higher risk of acquiring and transmitting this virus. This study aims to assess perception ...

    Authors: Mostafa A. Abolfotouh, Adel F. Almutairi, Ala’a A. BaniMustafa and Mohamed A. Hussein

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:719

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Since pneumonia caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, tremendous infected cases has risen all over the world attributed to its high transmissibility. We aimed...

    Authors: Zhong Zheng, Ke Wu, Zhixian Yao, Xinyi Zheng, Junhua Zheng and Jian Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:710

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacteria responsible for infections in immunocompromised patients and is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections particularly in intensive care and burn un...

    Authors: Marcin Brzozowski, Żaneta Krukowska, Katarzyna Galant, Joanna Jursa-Kulesza and Danuta Kosik-Bogacka

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:693

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Recombinant fusion protein ESAT6-CFP10 (EC) is a newly developed skin test reagent for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infection. In this study, we evaluated whether induration and erythema...

    Authors: Hui Zhang, Ling Wang, Feng Li, Shuihua Lu and Jielai Xia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:685

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The purpose of this case report was to report a case of Cryptococcus laurentii infection in the left knee of a previously healthy 29 year old male patient.

    Authors: Hetao Huang, Jianke Pan, Weiyi Yang, Jiongtong Lin, Yanhong Han, Kai Lan, Lingfeng Zeng, Guihong Liang and Jun Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:681

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Raoultella planticola(R.planticola) is a very rare opportunistic pathogen and sometimes even associated with fatal infection in pediatric cases. Recently,the emergence of carbapenem resistance strains are cons...

    Authors: Xianrui Chen, Shaoqing Guo, Dengli Liu and Meizhen Zhong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:676

    Content type: Case report

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  20. To identify factors predicting severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adolescent and adult patients with laboratory-positive (quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction) infection.

    Authors: Efrén Murillo-Zamora, Xóchitl Trujillo, Miguel Huerta, Mónica Ríos-Silva and Oliver Mendoza-Cano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:674

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) is divided in two distinct groups, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and non-ventilator-associated HAP (nvHAP). Although nvHAP occurs more frequently than VAP and results ...

    Authors: Aline Wolfensberger, Lauren Clack, von Felten Stefanie, Katharina Kusejko, Mirjam Faes Hesse, Werner Jakob, Dirk Saleschus, Marie-Theres Meier, Roger Kouyos, Leonhard Held and Hugo Sax

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:603

    Content type: Study protocol

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  22. Bloodstream infection is common in the UK and has significant mortality depending on the pathogen involved, site of infection and other patient factors. Healthcare staffing and ward activity may also impact on...

    Authors: Rebecca N. Evans, Katie Pike, Chris A. Rogers, Rosy Reynolds, Margaret Stoddart, Robin Howe, Mark Wilcox, Peter Wilson, F. Kate Gould and Alasdair MacGowan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:545

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Staphylococcus saccharolyticus is a rarely encountered coagulase-negative, which grows slowly and its strictly anaerobic staphylococcus from the skin. It is usually considered a contaminant, but some rare reports...

    Authors: Marie-Charlotte Trojani, Brigitte Lamy, Raymond Ruimy, Nicolas Amoretti, Karine Risso and Christian Roux

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:539

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Procalcitonin is an inflammatory biomarker that is sensitive for bacterial infections and a promising clinical decision aid in antimicrobial stewardship programs. However, there are few studies of physicians’ ...

    Authors: Ingrid Christensen, Jon Birger Haug, Dag Berild, Jørgen Vildershøj Bjørnholt and Lars-Petter Jelsness-Jørgensen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:515

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Indwelling central venous catheters (CVC) are used to provide long term hemodialysis. The commonest and the severe complication of CVC is the central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). This study ...

    Authors: J. A. A. S. Jayaweera and D. Sivakumar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:457

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Bacterial infections are the most frequent complications in patients with malignancy, and the epidemiology of nosocomial infections among cancer patients has changed over time. This study aimed to evaluate the...

    Authors: Ai-Min Jiang, Xin Shi, Na Liu, Huan Gao, Meng-Di Ren, Xiao-Qiang Zheng, Xiao Fu, Xuan Liang, Zhi-Ping Ruan, Yu Yao and Tao Tian

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:452

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The prevalence of healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) and rising levels of antimicrobial resistance places significant economic and public health burdens on modern healthcare systems. A group of highly drug r...

    Authors: Katharina L. Weber, Danielle S. LeSassier, Anthony D. Kappell, Kathleen Q. Schulte, Nicole Westfall, Nicolette C. Albright, Gene D. Godbold, Veena Palsikar, Carlos A. Acevedo, Krista L. Ternus and F. Curtis Hewitt

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:411

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Measles is a highly infectious viral disease. In August 2017, Lyantonde District, Uganda reported a measles outbreak to Uganda Ministry of Health. We investigated the outbreak to assess the scope, factors faci...

    Authors: Claire Biribawa, Joselyn Annet Atuhairwe, Lilian Bulage, Denis Othuba Okethwangu, Benon Kwesiga, Alex Riolexus Ario and Bao-Ping Zhu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:398

    Content type: Research article

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  29. In 2017, inhabitants along the border between French Guiana and Brazil were affected by a malaria outbreak primarily due to Plasmodium vivax (Pv). While malaria cases have steadily declined between 2005 and 2016 ...

    Authors: Emilie Mosnier, Isabelle Dusfour, Guillaume Lacour, Raphael Saldanha, Amandine Guidez, Margarete S. Gomes, Alice Sanna, Yanouk Epelboin, Johana Restrepo, Damien Davy, Magalie Demar, Félix Djossou, Maylis Douine, Vanessa Ardillon, Mathieu Nacher, Lise Musset…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:373

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Previous studies have proven that the closure of live poultry markets (LPMs) was an effective intervention to reduce human risk of avian influenza A (H7N9) infection, but evidence is limited on the impact of s...

    Authors: Ying Chen, Jian Cheng, Zhiwei Xu, Wenbiao Hu and Jiahai Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:369

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Substantial numbers of patients are now receiving either immunosuppressive therapies or chemotherapy. There are significant risks in such patients of developing opportunistic infections or re-activation of lat...

    Authors: David R. Chadwick, Laila Sayeed, Matthew Rose, Emily Budd, Mo Mohammed, Sarah Harrison, Jaskiran Azad and Jamie Maddox

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:359

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has an increasing pediatric prevalence worldwide. However, molecular characteristics of C. difficile in Chinese children with acute gastroenteritis have not been reported.

    Authors: Huiqun Shuai, Qiao Bian, Yun Luo, Xiaohong Zhou, Xiaojun Song, Julian Ye, Qinghong Huang, Zhaoyang Peng, Jun Wu, Jianmin Jiang and Dazhi Jin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:343

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Peer education has become a strategy for health promotion among high-risk groups for HIV infection worldwide. However, the extent to which peer education could have an impact on HIV prevention or the long-term...

    Authors: Jiayu He, Ying Wang, Zhicheng Du, Jing Liao, Na He and Yuantao Hao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:338

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) represent a serious burden to individual safety and healthcare sustainability. Identifying which patients, procedures and settings are most at risk would offer a signifi...

    Authors: Luca Pirisi, Federico Pennestrì, Marco Viganò and Giuseppe Banfi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:337

    Content type: Research article

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  35. T2Bacteria assay uses T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR) technology for the rapid diagnosis of bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs). This FDA cleared technology can detect 5 of the most prevalent pathogens causin...

    Authors: Markos Kalligeros, Ioannis M. Zacharioudakis, Giannoula S. Tansarli, Katerina Tori, Fadi Shehadeh and Eleftherios Mylonakis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:326

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The study aimed to investigate the predictive value of the quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) for clinical outcomes in emergency patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

    Authors: Xiangqun Zhang, Bo Liu, Yugeng Liu, Lijuan Ma and Hong Zeng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:316

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Gram-positive spectrum antibiotics such as vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, and linezolid are frequently used in empirical treatment combinations in critically ill patients. Such inappropriate and unnecess...

    Authors: Hasan Selçuk Özger, Dolunay Merve Fakıoğlu, Kübra Erbay, Aslınur Albayrak and Kenan Hızel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:289

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), especially hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (HA-CDI), continues to be a public health problem and has aroused great concern worldwide for years. This study ...

    Authors: Wei Dai, Tianxiang Yang, Li Yan, Siqiang Niu, Chuanming Zhang, Jide Sun, Zhu Wang and Yun Xia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:277

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Despite being largely preventable, surgical site infections (SSIs) are still one of the most frequent healthcare-associated infections. The presence of resistant pathogens can further augment their clinical an...

    Authors: Aiman El-Saed, Hanan H. Balkhy, Majid M. Alshamrani, Sameera Aljohani, Asim Alsaedi, Wafa Al Nasser, Ayman El Gammal, Saad A. Almohrij, Ziyad Alyousef, Sara Almunif and Mohammad Alzahrani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:275

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The public health response to Zika outbreak has mostly focused on epidemiological surveillance, vector control, and individual level preventative measures. This qualitative study employs a social-ecological fr...

    Authors: Ana Rosa Linde-Arias, Maria Roura and Eduardo Siqueira

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:263

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the efficacy and safety of targeted antibiotics for the treatment of culture-negative prosthetic joint infection based on metagenomic next-generation sequencing resu...

    Authors: Chaoxin Wang, Zida Huang, Wenbo Li, Xinyu Fang and Wenming Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:253

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Despite the considerable efforts made to address the issue of brucellosis worldwide, its prevalence in dairy products continues to be difficult to estimate and represents a key public health issue around the w...

    Authors: Peifeng Liang, Yuan Zhao, Jianhua Zhao, Dongfeng Pan and Zhongqin Guo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:249

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Tourniquets used for peripheral venous vascular access such as blood sampling are regularly contaminated in clinical routine. Although most contaminations are harmless, some pose a possible risk for infection....

    Authors: Marcus Grohmann, Lena Schomakers, Frank Wolschendorf, Janina Grosch, Susan Lindner and Anna Kristina Witte

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:247

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Infectious diarrhea can lead to a considerable global disease burden. Thus, the accurate prediction of an infectious diarrhea epidemic is crucial for public health authorities. This study was aimed at developi...

    Authors: Xinyu Fang, Wendong Liu, Jing Ai, Mike He, Ying Wu, Yingying Shi, Wenqi Shen and Changjun Bao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:222

    Content type: Research article

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  45. The goal of the study was to evaluate a potential role for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) genetic variability as biomarker in sepsis. In particular, we aimed to determine if single nucleotide polymorphism...

    Authors: Anca Meda Georgescu, Claudia Banescu, Razvan Azamfirei, Adina Hutanu, Valeriu Moldovan, Iudita Badea, Septimiu Voidazan, Minodora Dobreanu, Ioana Raluca Chirtes and Leonard Azamfirei

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:221

    Content type: Research article

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  46. The occurrence of segmental/lobar pattern pneumonia (S/L-PP) in children has recently increased. The pathogens of the disease may change for the misuse of antibiotics and the application of vaccines. Therefore...

    Authors: Yanxia Wang, Liji Ma, Ying Li, Yuyun Li, Yanfei Zheng and Xiaoyue Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:205

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Antibiotics are not indicated for treating acute bronchitis cases, yet up to 70% of adult acute bronchitis medical visits in the USA result in an antibiotic prescription. Reducing unnecessary antibiotic prescr...

    Authors: Valerie J. Morley, Emily P. C. Firgens, Rachel R. Vanderbilt, Yanmengqian Zhou, Michelle Zook, Andrew F. Read and Erina L. MacGeorge

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:177

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Diarrhea is responsible for 525,000 children under-five deaths and 1.7 billion cases globally and is the second leading cause of death among children under-five every year. It is a major public health problem ...

    Authors: Sisay Shine, Sindew Muhamud, Solomon Adanew, Alebachew Demelash and Makda Abate

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:174

    Content type: Research article

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