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Bacterial and fungal diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of bacterial and fungal diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section includes studies relating to antibiotic resistance and healthcare-associated infections.

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  1. Staphylococcus aureus [methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible (MRSA/MSSA)] is a leading cause of infections in military personnel, but there are limited data regarding baseline colonization of individ...

    Authors: Todd J Vento, Tatjana P Calvano, David W Cole, Katrin Mende, Elizabeth A Rini, Charla C Tully, Michael L Landrum, Wendy Zera, Charles H Guymon, Xin Yu, Miriam L Beckius, Kristelle A Cheatle and Clinton K Murray

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:325

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis (CABM) continues to have a high mortality rate and often results in severe sequelae among survivors. Lately, an increased effort has been focused on describing the neuro...

    Authors: Jacob Bodilsen, Henrik Carl Schønheyder and Henrik Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:321

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:553

  3. The systemic surveillance of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (IRAB) from multicenters in Taiwan revealed the emergence of isolates with bla OXA-72. This study described their genetic makeup, mechanism ...

    Authors: Shu-Chen Kuo, Su-Pen Yang, Yi-Tzu Lee, Han-Chuan Chuang, Chien-Pei Chen, Chi-Ling Chang, Te-Li Chen, Po-Liang Lu, Po-Ren Hsueh and Chang-Phone Fung

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:319

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Rituximab (R) is a chimeric human-murine anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody used to treat B-cell lymphomas. Despite R remarkable activity against malignant cells, there are concerns that R may facilitate the occurr...

    Authors: Simone Lanini, Aoife C Molloy, Archibald G Prentice, Giuseppe Ippolito and Christopher C Kibbler

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:317

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Clostridium difficile infection poses a significant healthcare burden. However, the derivation of a simple, evidence based prediction rule to assist patient management has not yet been described.

    Authors: Emma Butt, Jane AH Foster, Edward Keedwell, Julia EA Bell, Richard W Titball, Aneel Bhangu, Stephen L Michell and Ray Sheridan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:316

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Clinically, recurrence and life-threatening complications are challenging problems for chronic suppurative osteomyelitis of the jaw (CSOJ), but there is no quantitative analysis or report about the causes of o...

    Authors: Lin Chen, Tangxin Li, Wei Jing, Wei Tang, Weidong Tian, Cai Li and Lei Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:313

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common bacterial cause of sore throat. School-age children bear the highest burden of GAS pharyngitis. Accurate diagnosis is difficult: the majority of sore throats are ...

    Authors: Eileen M Dunne, Julia L Marshall, Ciara A Baker, Jayne Manning, Gena Gonis, Margaret H Danchin, Pierre R Smeesters, Catherine Satzke and Andrew C Steer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:312

    Content type: Technical advance

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  8. It is unknown whether there are differences between bacteremia caused by carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) and carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter nosocomialis (CRAN). This study aims to investig...

    Authors: Ya-Sung Yang, Yi-Tzu Lee, Wen-Chiuan Tsai, Shu-Chen Kuo, Jun-Ren Sun, Chin-Hsuan Yang, Te-Li Chen, Jung-Chung Lin, Chang-Phone Fung and Feng-Yee Chang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:311

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Clostridium difficile is the major cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhoea with the potential risk of progressing to severe clinical outcomes including death. It is not unusual for Clostridium diffic...

    Authors: Orville D Heslop, Karen Roye-Green, Kathleen Coard and Michael R Mulvey

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:299

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) including Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infectious disease that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The patterns of aetiological pa...

    Authors: Kensuke Takahashi, Motoi Suzuki, Le Nhat Minh, Nguyen Hien Anh, Luu Thi Minh Huong, Tran Vo Vinh Son, Phan The Long, Nguyen Thi Thuy Ai, Le Huu Tho, Konosuke Morimoto, Paul E Kilgore, Dang Duc Anh, Koya Ariyoshi and Lay Myint Yoshida

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:296

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Dynamic transmission models are increasingly being used to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections (HCAI). However, there has been no recent comprehensive review of th...

    Authors: Esther van Kleef, Julie V Robotham, Mark Jit, Sarah R Deeny and William J Edmunds

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:294

    Content type: Research article

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  12. During a Legionnaires’ disease (LD) outbreak, combined epidemiological and environmental investigations were conducted to identify prevention recommendations for facilities where elderly residents live indepen...

    Authors: Benjamin J Silk, Jennifer L Foltz, Kompan Ngamsnga, Ellen Brown, Mary Grace Muñoz, Lee M Hampton, Kara Jacobs-Slifka, Natalia A Kozak, J Michael Underwood, John Krick, Tatiana Travis, Olivia Farrow, Barry S Fields, David Blythe and Lauri A Hicks

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:291

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for nonbacterial infections leads to increases in the costs of care, antibiotic resistance among bacteria, and adverse drug events. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are ...

    Authors: Stephen D Persell, Mark W Friedberg, Daniella Meeker, Jeffrey A Linder, Craig R Fox, Noah J Goldstein, Parth D Shah, Tara K Knight and Jason N Doctor

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:290

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. We conducted a prospective study to investigate the presence of microfungal contamination in the water supply system of the Oncology Paediatric Institute, São Paulo – Brazil after the occurrence of one invasive F...

    Authors: Sabrina Mesquita-Rocha, Patricio C Godoy-Martinez, Sarah S Gonçalves, Milton Daniel Urrutia, Fabianne Carlesse, Adriana Seber, Maria Aparecida Aguiar Silva, Antônio Sérgio Petrilli and Arnaldo L Colombo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:289

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Microvascular endothelial barrier dysfunction is the central enigma in spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses. Angiogenin (ANG) is one of the earliest identified angiogenic factors, of which some are relevant...

    Authors: Bin Gong, Yong Sun Lee, Inhan Lee, Thomas R Shelite, Nawapol Kunkeaw, Guang Xu, Kwanbok Lee, Sung Ho Jeon, Betty H Johnson, Qing Chang, Tuha Ha, Nicole L Mendell, Xiaodong Cheng, Donald H Bouyer, Paul J Boor, Thomas G Ksiazek…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:285

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Ambulatory consolidation chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is frequently associated with bloodstream infections but the spectrum of bacterial pathogens in this setting has not been well-described.

    Authors: Lalit Saini, Coleman Rostein, Eshetu G Atenafu and Joseph M Brandwein

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:284

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Acinetobacter baumannii is responsible for large epidemics in hospitals, where it can persist for long time on abiotic surfaces. This study investigated some virulence-related traits of epidemic A. baumannii str...

    Authors: Maria Giannouli, Luísa CS Antunes, Veronica Marchetti, Maria Triassi, Paolo Visca and Raffaele Zarrilli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:282

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Traditional inflammatory markers are generally unhelpful in discerning septic arthritis from inflammatory joint disease due to their lack of specificity. We wished to explore the discriminatory power of the no...

    Authors: Oddvar Oppegaard, Brita Skodvin, Anne-Kristine Halse and Nina Langeland

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:278

    Content type: Research article

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  19. This study was performed to compare the clinical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibilities of viridans streptococcal bacteremia (VSB) between febrile neutropenic adults and children with hematologic mali...

    Authors: Seung Beom Han, E Young Bae, Jae Wook Lee, Dong-Gun Lee, Nack-Gyun Chung, Dae-Chul Jeong, Bin Cho, Jin Han Kang and Hack-Ki Kim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:273

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Procalcitonin (PCT) is widely used in critically ill patients to diagnose clinically significant infection and sepsis. Aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of PCT in comparison to white blood...

    Authors: Christian G Cornelissen, Dirk A Frechen, Karin Schreiner, Nikolaus Marx and Stefan Krüger

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:272

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represents an important pathogen in healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). The concept of HCAP, though, may not perform well as a screening test for MRSA and ca...

    Authors: Andrew F Shorr, Daniela E Myers, David B Huang, Brian H Nathanson, Matthew F Emons and Marin H Kollef

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:268

    Content type: Research article

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  22. In the fields of traumatology and orthopaedics staphylococci are the most frequently isolated pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are known to be the major causative agents of osteomye...

    Authors: Carolin A Kreis, Michael J Raschke, Steffen B Roßlenbroich, Nancy Tholema-Hans, Bettina Löffler and Thomas Fuchs

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:267

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Chronic osteomyelitis due to direct bone trauma or vascular insufficiency is a frequent problem in orthopaedic surgery. In contrast, acute haematogenous osteomyelitis represents a rare entity that almost exclu...

    Authors: Peter M Prodinger, Hakan Pilge, Ingo J Banke, Dominik Bürklein, Reiner Gradinger, Thomas Miethke and Boris M Holzapfel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:266

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Fusobacterium species (spp.) bacteremia is uncommon and has been associated with a variety of clinical presentations. We conducted a retrospective, population based study to determine the relative proportion o...

    Authors: Kevin Afra, Kevin Laupland, Jenine Leal, Tracie Lloyd and Daniel Gregson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:264

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Livestock-Associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) belonging to ST398 lineage, common among pigs and other animals, emerged in Central and Northern Europe, becoming a new risk factor for MRSA among farm workers. Strains belo...

    Authors: Monica Monaco, Palmino Pedroni, Andrea Sanchini, Annalisa Bonomini, Annamaria Indelicato and Annalisa Pantosti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:258

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. This study was conducted to identify a desirable target DNA sequence for the diagnosis of aspergil...

    Authors: Yan Li, Li Gao, Yi Ding, Yuanyuan Xu, Minhang Zhou, Wenrong Huang, Yu Jing, Honghua Li, Lili Wang and Li Yu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:255

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The yeast Candida is one of the most frequent pathogens isolated from bloodstream infections and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Problems with clinical and microbiological diagnosis of inv...

    Authors: Fang-qiu Li, Chun-fang Ma, Li-ning Shi, Jing-fen Lu, Ying Wang, Mei Huang and Qian-qian Kong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:253

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are commonly occurring infections with wide-ranging clinical manifestations, from mild to life-threatening. There are few population-based studies of SSTIs in the period...

    Authors: Gary Thomas Ray, Jose Antonio Suaya and Roger Baxter

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:252

    Content type: Research article

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  29. 16S rRNA methylase-producing Gram-negative bacteria are highly resistant to all clinically important aminoglycosides. We analyzed clinical strains of 16S rRNA methylase-producing Acinetobactor baumannii and Pseud...

    Authors: Tatsuya Tada, Tohru Miyoshi-Akiyama, Yasuyuki Kato, Norio Ohmagari, Nozomi Takeshita, Nguyen Viet Hung, Doan Mai Phuong, Truong Anh Thu, Nguyen Gia Binh, Nguyen Quoc Anh, Tran Thi Thanh Nga, Pham Hong Truong, Phan Thi Xuan, Le Thi Anh Thu, Nguyen Truong Son and Teruo Kirikae

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:251

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Hand hygiene compliance is generally assessed by observation of adherence to the “WHO five moments” using numbers of opportunities as the denominator. The quality of the activity is usually not monitored since...

    Authors: László Szilágyi, Tamás Haidegger, Ákos Lehotsky, Melinda Nagy, Erik-Artur Csonka, Xiuying Sun, Kooi Li Ooi and Dale Fisher

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:249

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The incidence of fungaemia has been increasing worldwide. It is important to distinguish non-Candida fungaemia from candidaemia because of their different antifungal susceptibilities. The aims of this study were ...

    Authors: Masaki Yamamoto, Shunji Takakura, Gou Hotta, Yasufumi Matsumura, Aki Matsushima, Miki Nagao, Yutaka Ito and Satoshi Ichiyama

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:247

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Fluoroquinolones are used with increasing frequency in children with a major risk of increasing the emergence of FQ resistance. FQ use has expanded off-label for primary antibacterial prophylaxis or treatment ...

    Authors: Zhi-Tao Yang, Jean-Ralph Zahar, Fréderic Méchaï, Martine Postaire, Stéphane Blanot, Sarah Balfagon-Viel, Xavier Nassif and Olivier Lortholary

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:245

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common pathogen in medical device-associated infections and have an ability to form adherent slime. We aimed to study the effects of icaA and icaD genes on the slime formation of

    Authors: Shusheng Zhou, Xiaoguang Chao, Mingming Fei, Yuanyuan Dai and Bao Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:242

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Foodborne Yersinia enterocolitica infections continue to be a public health problem in many countries. Consumption of raw or undercooked pork is the main risk factor for yersiniosis in Germany. Small children are...

    Authors: Bettina M Rosner, Dirk Werber, Michael Höhle and Klaus Stark

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:236

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Beside high mortality, acute bacterial meningitis may lead to a high frequency of neuropsychological sequelae. The Sahelian countries belonging to the meningitis belt experience approximately 50% of the mening...

    Authors: Jean-François Jusot, Zilahatou Tohon, Abdoul Aziz Yazi and Jean-Marc Collard

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:228

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) nasal colonization plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of staphylococcal infections and SA eradication from the nares has proven to be effective in reducing endogenous infections...

    Authors: Gowrishankar Muthukrishnan, Ryan P Lamers, Austin Ellis, Vanathy Paramanandam, Alana B Persaud, Sergio Tafur, Christopher L Parkinson and Alexander M Cole

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:221

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Candidemia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, particularly in Asia. Anidulafungin has been reported to be an effective treatment for candidemia in Western populations, ...

    Authors: Piroon Mootsikapun, Po-Ren Hsueh, Deepak Talwar, Vilma M Co, Viraj Rajadhyaksha and Moh-Lim Ong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:219

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Pulmonary actinomycosis is a chronic pulmonary infection caused by Actinomyces. Both improving oral hygiene and early application of antibiotics to the case of suspicious pulmonary infections result in changes in...

    Authors: So Ri Kim, Lae Young Jung, In-Jae Oh, Young-Chul Kim, Kyeong-Cheol Shin, Min Ki Lee, Sei-Hoon Yang, Hee Sun Park, Mi-Kyung Kim, Jin Young Kwak, Soo-Jung Um, Seung Won Ra, Woo Jin Kim, Seungsoo Kim, Eu-Gene Choi and Yong Chul Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:216

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Thailand occur most frequently in healthcare facilities. However, reports of community-associated MRSA are limited.

    Authors: Aroonlug Lulitanond, Teruyo Ito, Shanshuang Li, Xiao Han, Xiao Xue Ma, Chulapan Engchanil, Aroonwadee Chanawong, Chotechana Wilailuckana, Netchanok Jiwakanon and Keiichi Hiramatsu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:214

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Escherichia coli is a common cause of asymptomatic and symptomatic bacteriuria in hospitalized patients. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is frequently treated with antibiotics without a clear indication. Our goal...

    Authors: Jonas Marschall, Marilyn L Piccirillo, Betsy Foxman, Lixin Zhang, David K Warren and Jeffrey P Henderson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:213

    Content type: Research article

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  41. In Canada, surveillance systems have highlighted the increasing trend of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) human infections. Our study objectives were to evaluate the epidemiology of S. Ent...

    Authors: Csaba Varga, David L Pearl, Scott A McEwen, Jan M Sargeant, Frank Pollari and Michele T Guerin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:212

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Bacteria and fungi are believed to influence mucosal inflammation in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). However their presence and relationship to disease is debated. This study used multiple detection methods to c...

    Authors: Sam Boase, Andrew Foreman, Edward Cleland, Lorwai Tan, Rachel Melton-Kreft, Harshita Pant, Fen Z Hu, Garth D Ehrlich and Peter-John Wormald

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:210

    Content type: Research article

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  43. The relationship between inducible nitric oxide synthatase activity and disease severity in leptospirosis is unclear. Nitric oxide is converted to nitrites and nitrates, thus nitrite and nitrate levels (NOx) in s...

    Authors: Thilini Kalugalage, Chaturaka Rodrigo, Thamal Vithanage, Pranitha Somaratne, H Janaka De Silva, Shiroma Handunnetti and Senaka Rajapakse

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:206

    Content type: Research article

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  44. The relative contribution of long term care facilities (LTCFs) and hospitals in the transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is unknown.

    Authors: Vincent CC Cheng, Josepha WM Tai, Zoie SY Wong, Jonathan HK Chen, Kris BQ Pan, Yizhen Hai, Wing-Chun Ng, Denise MK Chow, Miranda CY Yau, Jasper FW Chan, Sally CY Wong, Herman Tse, Sophia SC Chan, Kwok-Leung Tsui, Felix HW Chan, Pak-Leung Ho…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:205

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a broad spectrum of illnesses ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infections to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Quantitative data on the burden of pneumococcal disease,...

    Authors: Joon Young Song, Jun Yong Choi, Jin Soo Lee, In-Gyu Bae, Young Keun Kim, Jang Wook Sohn, Yu Mi Jo, Won Suk Choi, Jacob Lee, Kyung Hwa Park, Woo Joo Kim and Hee Jin Cheong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:202

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Commensal Escherichia coli are a prominent reservoir of genes coding for antibiotic resistance and also responsible for endogenous infections in pregnant women. We studied the factors in pregnant women associated...

    Authors: Ashish Pathak, Salesh P Chandran, Kalpana Mahadik, Ragini Macaden and Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:199

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Little is known about the clinical presentation and outcome of pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) without positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures. We investigated the prognostic imp...

    Authors: Marlene Skovgaard, Henrik C Schønheyder, Thomas Benfield, Rikke B Nielsen, Jenny D Knudsen, Jette Bangsborg, Christian Østergaard, Hans-Christian Slotved, Helle Bossen Konradsen, Lotte Lambertsen and Reimar W Thomsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:197

    Content type: Research article

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  48. The present study was performed to assess the prognosis of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for community acquired pneumonia (CAP) after implementation of new processes of care.

    Authors: Hugues Georges, Cécile Journaux, Patrick Devos, Serge Alfandari, Pierre Yves Delannoy, Agnès Meybeck, Arnaud Chiche, Nicolas Boussekey and Olivier Leroy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:196

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in clinical practice and empirical treatment is largely employed due to predictability of pathogens. However, variations in antibiotic sensitivity patterns do occur, a...

    Authors: Charles O Odongo, Denis A Anywar, Kenneth Luryamamoi and Pancras Odongo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:193

    Content type: Research article

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  50. The Taiwan area comprises the main island of Taiwan and several small islands located off the coast of the Southern China. The eastern two-thirds of Taiwan are characterized by rugged mountains covered with tr...

    Authors: Pui-Jen Tsai and Hsi-Chyi Yeh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:191

    Content type: Research article

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