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Bacterial and fungal diseases

Section edited by Ivan FN Hung, Jorge Garbino and Kelvin To

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of bacterial and fungal diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section includes studies relating to antibiotic resistance and healthcare-associated infections.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    This study aimed to analyze the clinical features, causative pathogens, neuro-imaging findings, and therapeutic outcomes of bacterial brain abscess in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) following rad...

    Authors: Peng-Hsiang Fang, Wei-Che Lin, Nai-Wen Tsai, Wen-Neng Chang, Chi-Ren Huang, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Tai-Lin Huang, Hsin-Ching Lin, Yu-Jun Lin, Ben-Chung Cheng, Ben Yu-Jih Su, Chia-Te Kung, Hung-Chen Wang and Cheng-Hsien Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:204

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Acinetobacter baumannii complex (ABC) has emerged as an important pathogen causing a variety of infections. Longitudinal multicenter surveillance data on ABC from different sources in Taiwan have not been publis...

    Authors: Shu-Chen Kuo, Shan-Chwen Chang, Hui-Ying Wang, Jui-Fen Lai, Pei-Chen Chen, Yih-Ru Shiau, I-Wen Huang and Tsai-Ling Yang Lauderdale

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:200

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  3. Content type: Research article

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of MR-proADM and PCT levels in febrile patients in the ED in comparison with a disease severity index score, the APACHE II score. We also evaluated the...

    Authors: Francesco Travaglino, Benedetta De Berardinis, Laura Magrini, Cristina Bongiovanni, Marcello Candelli, Nicolò Gentiloni Silveri, Jacopo Legramante, Alberto Galante, Gerardo Salerno, Patrizia Cardelli and Salvatore Di Somma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:184

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  4. Content type: Correspondence

    In several European Countries, by the end of 2012, CLSI guidelines will be replaced by EUCAST. We compared antimicrobial susceptibility results of a large number of respiratory pathogens using both EUCAST and ...

    Authors: Anna Marchese, Susanna Esposito, Ramona Barbieri, Matteo Bassetti and Eugenio Debbia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:181

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Switch therapy is a management approach combining early discontinuation of intravenous (IV) antibiotics, switch to oral antibiotics, and early hospital discharge. This analysis compares switch therapy using ti...

    Authors: Julio A Ramirez, Angel C Cooper, Timothy Wiemken, David Gardiner and Timothy Babinchak

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:159

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  6. Content type: Study protocol

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children, and may cause serious illness and recurrent symptoms. However, obtaining a urine sample from young children in primary care is challenging and not feasible ...

    Authors: Harriet Downing, Emma Thomas-Jones, Micaela Gal, Cherry-Ann Waldron, Jonathan Sterne, William Hollingworth, Kerenza Hood, Brendan Delaney, Paul Little, Robin Howe, Mandy Wootton, Alastair Macgowan, Christopher C Butler and Alastair D Hay

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:158

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  7. Content type: Study protocol

    The clinical effects of varying pharmacokinetic exposures of antibiotics (antibacterials and antifungals) on outcome in infected critically ill patients are poorly described. A large-scale multi-centre study (...

    Authors: Jason A Roberts, Jan J De Waele, George Dimopoulos, Despoina Koulenti, Claude Martin, Philippe Montravers, Jordi Rello, Andrew Rhodes, Therese Starr, Steven C Wallis and Jeffrey Lipman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:152

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  8. Content type: Research article

    The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli has been increased not only in the hospital but also in the community worldwide. This study was aimed to characterize ESBL- produc...

    Authors: Sun Hee Park, Ji-Hyun Byun, Su-Mi Choi, Dong-Gun Lee, Si-Hyun Kim, Jae-Cheol Kwon, Chulmin Park, Jung-Hyun Choi and Jin-Hong Yoo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:149

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Treatment of shigellosis in rabbits with butyrate reduces clinical severity and counteracts the downregulation of cathelicidin (CAP-18) in the large intestinal epithelia. Here, we aimed to evaluate whether but...

    Authors: Rubhana Raqib, Protim Sarker, Akhirunnesa Mily, Nur Haque Alam, Abu Saleh Mohammed Arifuzzaman, Rokeya Sultana Rekha, Jan Andersson, Gudmundur H Gudmundsson, Alejandro Cravioto and Birgitta Agerberth

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:111

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  10. Content type: Research article

    To measure Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal colonization prevalence in household contacts of children with current community associated (CA)-MRSA infections (study group) in comparison wit...

    Authors: Yaseen Rafee, Nahed Abdel-Haq, Basim Asmar, Tanaz Salimnia, Celine Vidaillac Pharm, Michael J Rybak Pharm and Muhammad Amjad

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:45

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is associated with high morbidity and high mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patientsThe purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and ou...

    Authors: Chen-Yiu Hung, Kuo-Chin Kao, Po-Nan Wang, Han-Chung Hu, Meng-Jer Hsieh, Jui-Ying Fu, Chih-Hao Chang, Li-Fu Li, Chung-Chi Huang, Ying-Huang Tsai and Cheng-Ta Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:44

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Recent evidence indicates that Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, the most common of which are Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter baumannii, are frequent causes of hospital-acquired infection...

    Authors: Hakan Leblebicioglu, Nedim Cakir, Mustafa Celen, Halil Kurt, Hakan Baris and Joerg Laeuffer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:42

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Streptococcus pneumoniae are major causes of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM). Data regarding AOM are limited in Latin America. This is the first active surveillan...

    Authors: Laura Naranjo, Jose Antonio Suarez, Rodrigo DeAntonio, Francis Sanchez, Alberto Calvo, Enza Spadola, Nicolás Rodríguez, Omaira Andrade, Francisca Bertuglia, Nelly Márquez, Maria Mercedes Castrejon, Eduardo Ortega-Barria and Romulo E Colindres

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:40

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis in the developed world. Little is known about its epidemiology in the developing world, where the majority of deaths from neonatal infections...

    Authors: Claudia Turner, Paul Turner, Linda Po, Naw Maner, Aruni De Zoysa, Baharak Afshar, Androulla Efstratiou, Paul T Heath and François Nosten

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:34

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  15. Content type: Research article

    In Emergency and Medical Admission Departments (EDs and MADs), prompt recognition and appropriate infection control management of patients with Highly Infectious Diseases (HIDs, e.g. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers a...

    Authors: Francesco M Fusco, Stefan Schilling, Giuseppina De Iaco, Hans-Reinhard Brodt, Philippe Brouqui, Helena C Maltezou, Barbara Bannister, René Gottschalk, Gail Thomson, Vincenzo Puro and Giuseppe Ippolito

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:27

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Leptospirosis has recently been discussed as an emerging infectious disease in many contexts, including changes in environmental drivers of disease transmission and the emergence of serovars. In this paper, we...

    Authors: Colleen L Lau, Chris Skelly, Lee D Smythe, Scott B Craig and Philip Weinstein

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:19

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  17. Content type: Case report

    Bartonella henselae (B. henselae) is considered a rare cause of granulomatous hepatitis. Due to the fastidious growth characteristics of the bacteria, the limited sensitivity of histopathological stains, and the...

    Authors: Thomas R VanderHeyden, Sherri L Yong, Edward B Breitschwerdt, Ricardo G Maggi, Amanda R Mihalik, Jorge P Parada and Claus J Fimmel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:17

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is considered the most important cause of death from infectious disease in developed countries. Severity assessment scores partially address the difficulties in identifying h...

    Authors: Rodrigo M Narvaez-Rivera, Adrian Rendon, Mario C Salinas-Carmona and Adrian G Rosas-Taraco

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:15

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Severe Clostridium difficile toxin-induced enteritis is characterized by exuberant intestinal tissue inflammation, epithelial disruption and diarrhea. Adenosine, through its action on the adenosine A2A receptor, ...

    Authors: Cirle Alcantara Warren, Gina M Calabrese, Yuesheng Li, Sean W Pawlowski, Robert A Figler, Jayson Rieger, Peter B Ernst, Joel Linden and Richard L Guerrant

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:13

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Leptospirosis has a varied clinical presentation with complications like myocarditis and acute renal failure. There are many predictors of severity and mortality including clinical and laboratory parameters. E...

    Authors: Dinesh LB Dassanayake, Harith Wimalaratna, Damith Nandadewa, Asanka Nugaliyadda, Champa N Ratnatunga and Suneth B Agampodi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:4

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  21. Content type: Research article

    In many Asian countries, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the second pathogen responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Yet, very little is known about KP etiology in ALRI in Cambodia, a country that has one of ...

    Authors: Blandine Rammaert, Sophie Goyet, Julien Beauté, Sopheak Hem, Vantha Te, Patrich Lorn Try, Charles Mayaud, Laurence Borand, Philippe Buchy, Bertrand Guillard and Sirenda Vong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:3

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  22. Content type: Research article

    The epidemiology of meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt is characterised by seasonality, localised epidemics and epidemic waves. To facilitate research and surveillance, we aimed to develop...

    Authors: Haoua Tall, Stéphane Hugonnet, Philippe Donnen, Michèle Dramaix-Wilmet, Ludovic Kambou, Frank Drabo and Judith E Mueller

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:2

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  23. Content type: Case report

    Cryptococcus species usually affect the central nervous system and lungs in immunocompromised hosts. Although the adrenal glands can be involved in disseminated cryptococcosis, primary adrenal insufficiency caus...

    Authors: Yayoi Matsuda, Hisaya Kawate, Yuka Okishige, Ichiro Abe, Masahiro Adachi, Keizo Ohnaka, Naoichi Satoh, Junichi Inokuchi, Katsunori Tatsugami, Seiji Naito, Masatoshi Nomura and Ryoichi Takayanagi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:340

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are often resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics. The research objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of polymera...

    Authors: Julie Polisena, Stella Chen, Karen Cimon, Sarah McGill, Kevin Forward and Michael Gardam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:336

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia remains a challenge. The emergence of MRSA strains with reduced vancomycin susceptibility complicates treatment.

    Authors: Hitoshi Honda, Christopher D Doern, Wm Michael-Dunne Jr and David K Warren

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:335

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-...

    Authors: Kathryn Hoffmann, Gernot Wagner, Petra Apfalter and Manfred Maier

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:330

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a major cause of hospitalization and mortality in HIV-infected African children. Microbiologic diagnosis relies predominantly on silver or immunofluorescent staining of a lower re...

    Authors: Catherine M Samuel, Andrew Whitelaw, Craig Corcoran, Brenda Morrow, Nei-Yuan Hsiao, Marco Zampoli and Heather J Zar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:329

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Rickettsioses are emerging infections in Sri Lanka as shown by the increase in the number of clinically diagnosed rickettsial patients being reported to the Epidemiology Unit, Sri Lanka. However, mapping the d...

    Authors: Veranja Chathurani Liyanapathirana and Vasanthi Thevanesam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:328

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Prior to the availability of generic third-generation cephalosporins, penicillins were widely used for treatment of pneumococcal meningitis in developing countries despite concerns about rising levels of penic...

    Authors: Edilane L Gouveia, Joice N Reis, Brendan Flannery, Soraia M Cordeiro, Josilene BT Lima, Ricardo M Pinheiro, Kátia Salgado, Ana Veronica Mascarenhas, M Gloria Carvalho, Bernard W Beall, Mitermayer G Reis and Albert I Ko

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:323

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Apoptosis of lymphocytes is considered a late sequelum in the sepsis cascade. The role of apoptosis of lymphocytes as a driver of final outcome was investigated.

    Authors: Stefanos Atmatzidis, Ioannis M Koutelidakis, Grigorios Chatzimavroudis, Antigone Kotsaki, Konstantinos Louis, Aikaterini Pistiki, Athina Savva, Anastasia Antonopoulou, Konstantinos Atmatzidis and Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:321

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Antibiotic resistance has necessitated fluoroquinolone use but little is known about the selective forces and resistance trajectory in malaria-endemic settings, where selection from the antimalarial chloroquin...

    Authors: Adebayo Lamikanra, Jennifer L Crowe, Rebeccah S Lijek, Babatunde W Odetoyin, John Wain, A Oladipo Aboderin and Iruka N Okeke

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:312

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Current knowledge on the exact ligand causing expression of TREM-1 on neutrophils and monocytes is limited. The present study aimed at the role of underlying infection and of the causative pathogen in the expr...

    Authors: Thekla Poukoulidou, Aikaterini Spyridaki, Ira Mihailidou, Petros Kopterides, Aikaterini Pistiki, Zoi Alexiou, Michael Chrisofos, Ioanna Dimopoulou, Panagiotis Drimoussis, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Ioannis Koutelidakis, Androniki Marioli, Anna Mega, Stylianos E Orfanos, Maria Theodorakopoulou, Christos Tsironis…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:309

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Bronchiectasis is frequently associated (up to 30%) with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases and leads to lower respiratory tract infections. Data are lacking on the risk of lower respiratory tract infecti...

    Authors: Guillaume Geri, Sabrina Dadoun, Tach Bui, Nuria Del Castillo Pinol, Simon Paternotte, Maxime Dougados and Laure Gossec

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:304

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Meningitis is notoriously difficult to diagnose in infancy because its clinical features are non-specific. World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines suggest several indicative signs, based on limited data. We...

    Authors: Michael K Mwaniki, Alison W Talbert, Patricia Njuguna, Mike English, Eugene Were, Brett S Lowe, Charles R Newton and James A Berkley

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:301

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  35. Content type: Research article

    The immature granulocyte count has been reported to be a marker of infection and sepsis. The difference in leukocyte subfractions (delta neutrophil index, DNI) in ADVIA 2120 reflects the fraction of circulatin...

    Authors: Byung Hoon Park, Young Ae Kang, Moo Suk Park, Won Jai Jung, Su Hwan Lee, Sang Kook Lee, Song Yee Kim, Se Kyu Kim, Joon Chang, Ji Ye Jung and Young Sam Kim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:299

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a prevalent pathogen of necrotizing fasciitis (NF) in Taiwan. A four-year NF cases and clinical and genetic differences between hospital acquired ...

    Authors: Chih-Hsuan Changchien, Ying-Ying Chen, Shu-Wun Chen, Wan-Lin Chen, Jwu-Guh Tsay and Chishih Chu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:297

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  37. Content type: Case report

    The incidence rate of Nocardia keratitis is increasing, with new species identified thanks to molecular methods. We herein report a case of Nocardia transvalensis keratitis, illustrating this emerging pathology a...

    Authors: Elodie Trichet, Stéphan Cohen-Bacrie, John Conrath, Michel Drancourt and Louis Hoffart

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:296

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) is the most common infectious disease among travellers. In the Netherlands, stand-by or prophylactic antibiotics are not routinely prescribed to travellers. This study prospectively ...

    Authors: Sanne-Meike Belderok, Anneke van den Hoek, Joan A Kint, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff and Gerard JB Sonder

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:295

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Subculturing has been extensively used to attenuate human pathogens. In this work we studied the effect of continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 on virulence in a murine model.

    Authors: Janeth A Almaguer-Chávez, Oliverio Welsh, Hector G Lozano-Garza, Salvador Said-Fernández, Víktor J Romero-Díaz, Jorge Ocampo-Candiani and Lucio Vera-Cabrera

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:290

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Actinobaculum schaalii is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic coccoid rod, classified as a new genus in 1997. It grows slowly and therefore is easily overgrown by other pathogens, which are often found concom...

    Authors: Sarah Tschudin-Sutter, Reno Frei, Maja Weisser, Daniel Goldenberger and Andreas F Widmer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:289

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Upper and lower respiratory tract infections (RTIs) account for a substantial portion of outpatient antibiotic utilization. However, the pharmacodynamic activity of commonly used oral antibiotic regimens has n...

    Authors: Carlos RV Kiffer and Antonio CC Pignatari

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:286

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Pleural infection is a common clinical problem. Its successful treatment depends on rapid diagnosis and early initiation of antibiotics. The measurement of soluble triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cell...

    Authors: Hanssa Summah, Li-Li Tao, Ying-Gang Zhu, Hong-Ni Jiang and Jie-Ming Qu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:280

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  43. Content type: Research article

    The high prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has led clinicians to select antibiotics that have coverage against MRSA, usually vancomycin, for empiric therapy for suspected staphylococcal infecti...

    Authors: Marin L Schweizer, Jon P Furuno, Anthony D Harris, J Kristie Johnson, Michelle D Shardell, Jessina C McGregor, Kerri A Thom, Sara E Cosgrove, George Sakoulas and Eli N Perencevich

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:279

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Information is sparse regarding the association between international travel and hospitalization with non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion, risk factors and o...

    Authors: Kristoffer Koch, Brian Kristensen, Hanne M Holt, Steen Ethelberg, Kåre Mølbak and Henrik C Schønheyder

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:277

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) is the cause of severe gastrointestinal infection especially among infants. Between 10 and 20 cases are reported annually to the National Infectious Disease Register (NIDR) in Finland...

    Authors: Katri Jalava, Jukka Ollgren, Marjut Eklund, Anja Siitonen and Markku Kuusi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:275

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Studies of recent hospital outbreaks caused by multiresistant P.aeruginosa (MRPA) have often failed to identify a specific environmental reservoir. We describe an outbreak due to a single clone of multiresistant ...

    Authors: Cristina Suarez, Carmen Peña, Olga Arch, M Angeles Dominguez, Fe Tubau, Carlos Juan, Laura Gavaldá, Mercedes Sora, Antonio Oliver, Miquel Pujol and Javier Ariza

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:272

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Candida albicans is the most common cause of candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis. Systemic infections due to C. albicans exhibit good susceptibility to fluconazole and echinocandins. However, the ...

    Authors: Annette C Reboli, Andrew F Shorr, Coleman Rotstein, Peter G Pappas, Daniel H Kett, Haran T Schlamm, Arlene L Reisman, Pinaki Biswas and Thomas J Walsh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:261

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Risk factors and outcomes in hematological patients who acquire invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS) are infrequently reported in the modern medical era.

    Authors: Chien-Yuan Chen, Wang-Huei Sheng, Aristine Cheng, Yee-Chun Chen, Woei Tsay, Jih-Luh Tang, Shang-Yi Huang, Shan-Chwen Chang and Hwei-Fang Tien

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:250

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  49. Content type: Research article

    The region around Chandigarh in India has witnessed a resurgence of cholera. However, isolation of V. cholerae O1 from the environment is infrequent. Therefore, to study whether environmental nonO1-nonO139 isolat...

    Authors: Arti Mishra, Neelam Taneja, Ram K Sharma, Rahul Kumar, Naresh C Sharma and Meera Sharma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:249

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  50. Content type: Research article

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a human-specific pathogen that causes typhoid fever, and remains a global health problem especially in developing countries. Its pathogenesis is complex and host r...

    Authors: Sok Kean Khoo, David Petillo, Mrutyunjaya Parida, Aik Choon Tan, James H Resau and Stephen K Obaro

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:241

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