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Bacterial and fungal diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of bacterial and fungal diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section includes studies relating to antibiotic resistance and healthcare-associated infections.

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  1. Exotoxins secreted from Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes act as superantigens that induce systemic release of inflammatory cytokines and are a common cause of toxic shock syndrome (TSS). However, l...

    Authors: Ken Goda, Tsuneaki Kenzaka, Masahiko Hoshijima, Akihiro Yachie and Hozuka Akita

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:19

    Content type: Case report

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  2. Epidemiological data of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales in Sub-Saharan Africa is still restricted, and in particular in Mozambique. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize extended-spectrum ...

    Authors: Calvina E. L. Estaleva, Tomas F. Zimba, John Osei Sekyere, Usha Govinden, Hafizah Y. Chenia, Gunnar S. Simonsen, Bjørg Haldorsen, Sabiha Y. Essack and Arnfinn Sundsfjord

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:16

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacae) is one of the commensal flora in the human intestinal tract and a prevalent nosocomial pathogen, which rarely causes infectious osteoarthritis in immunocompetent patients without...

    Authors: Jingjie Huang, Qiliang Xu, Fuyifei Liu, Hao Xiong and Junxing Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:13

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Campylobacter spp. infections are a globally important cause of enterocolitis, causing substantial morbidity. Capturing accurate information on hospitalisations is challenging and limited population-level data ex...

    Authors: Cameron R. M. Moffatt, Karina J. Kennedy, Linda Selvey and Martyn D. Kirk

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:10

    Content type: Research article

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  5. To determine the prevalence of enteric infections in Aboriginal children aged 0–2 years using conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques and to explore associations between the presence of pathogens and ...

    Authors: Sarah Hanieh, Siddhartha Mahanty, George Gurruwiwi, Therese Kearns, Roslyn Dhurrkay, Veronica Gondarra, Jenny Shield, Norbert Ryan, Francesca Azzato, Susan A. Ballard, Nicole Orlando, Sullen Nicholson, Katherine Gibney, Julie Brimblecombe, Wendy Page, Leonard C. Harrison…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:9

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Nocardiosis is an uncommon opportunistic infection seen in immunocompromised patients or those with a dysfunctional immune system. Nocardia asteroides infection in patients with Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) has ne...

    Authors: Ning Luo, Shifan Tan, Xiaocai Li, Si Liu, Shivank Singh, Mafeng Chen, Weiye Yang, Yanhong He, Chunna Chen and Min Liang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:8

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of invasive neonatal disease in the industrialized world. We aimed to genomically and phenotypically characterise invasive GBS isolates in Slovenia from 2001 to 20...

    Authors: Tina Perme, Daniel Golparian, Maja Bombek Ihan, Andrej Rojnik, Miha Lučovnik, Lilijana Kornhauser Cerar, Petja Fister, Jana Lozar Krivec, Štefan Grosek, Alojz Ihan, Samo Jeverica and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:958

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Filamentous basidiomycetes are mainly considered to be respiratory tract colonizers but the clinical significance of their isolation in a specimen is debatable. Hormographiella aspergillata was first reported as ...

    Authors: Maxime Moniot, Rose-Anne Lavergne, Thomas Morel, Romain Guieze, Florent Morio, Philippe Poirier and Céline Nourrisson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:945

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization (PNC) generally precedes pneumococcal disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of PNC and to identify the pneumococcal serotypes circulating a...

    Authors: Sophie Jullien, Ragunath Sharma, Mimi Lhamu Mynak, Desiree Henares, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro and Quique Bassat

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:940

    Content type: Research article

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  10. There are still controversies regarding the treatment and outcomes in culture-negative pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (PVO). The purpose of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial therapy, assessment ...

    Authors: Dongwoo Yu, Sang Woo Kim and Ikchan Jeon

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:939

    Content type: Research article

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  11. In spite of the evident general negative effects of armed conflict on countries’ health systems and populations’ health outcomes, little is known about similar impacts of conflicts on the spread of antimicrobi...

    Authors: Claudia Truppa and Mahmoud N. Abo-Shehada

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:936

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Bordetella bronchiseptica is a gram-negative, obligate aerobic coccobacillus known to cause disease in domesticated animals and pets. In humans, B. bronchiseptica commonly leads to respiratory infections like pne...

    Authors: Christopher Radcliffe, Audun Lier, Natnael Doilicho, Sunil Parikh and Firas Kaddouh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:922

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection (Kp-BSI) is a serious threat to pediatric patients. The objective of this study was to explore the risk factors, validate the prediction efficiency of pediatric Sequent...

    Authors: Shuang Li, Jingxian Liu, Feng Chen, Kang Cai, Jintong Tan, Wei Xie, Rong Qian, Xiaoqin Liu, Wenhong Zhang, Huimin Du, Ying Liu and Lisu Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:916

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The spleen contains immune cells and exhibits a pattern of infarction different from other organs; as such, splenic infarction (SI) may provide important clues to infection. However, the nature of the relation...

    Authors: Jae Hyoung Im, Moon-Hyun Chung, Hye-Jin Lee, Hea Yoon Kwon, Ji Hyeon Baek, Ji-Hun Jang and Jin-Soo Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:915

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The objective of this study was to evaluate the virulence of P. aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) strains (cases) in terms of biofilm production and other phenotypic and genotypic virulence factors...

    Authors: Beatriz Alonso, Laia Fernández-Barat, Enea Gino Di Domenico, Mercedes Marín, Emilia Cercenado, Irene Merino, Manuela de Pablos, Patricia Muñoz and María Guembe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:909

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:951

  16. Diarrhoea, affecting children in developing countries, is mainly caused by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC). This study principally aimed to determine the prevalence of DEC pathotypes and Extended-spectrum β-...

    Authors: Rasha M. M. Khairy, Zahra Atef Fathy, Doaa Mohamed Mahrous, Ebtisam S. Mohamed and Soha S. Abdelrahim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:908

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Corynebacterium diphtheriae (C. diphtheriae) infections, usually related to upper airways involvement, could be highly invasive. Especially in developing countries, non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae strains are now em...

    Authors: Antonio de Santis, Rinaldo Focaccia Siciliano, Roney Orismar Sampaio, Masahiko Akamine, Elinthon T. Veronese, Francisco Monteiro de Almeida Magalhaes, Maria Rita Elmor Araújo, Flavia Rossi, Marcelo M. C. Magri, Ana Catharina Nastri, Tarso A. D. Accorsi, Vitor E. E. Rosa, David Provenzale Titinger, Guilherme S. Spina and Flavio Tarasoutchi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:907

    Content type: Case report

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  18. The diagnosis of non-malarial aetiologies, which now represent the majority of febrile illnesses, has remained problematic in settings with limited laboratory capacity. We aimed to describe common aetiologies ...

    Authors: Techalew Shimelis, Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Fitsum W/Gebriel, John A. Crump, Gill Schierhout, Sabine Dittrich, John M Kaldor and Susana Vaz Nery

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:903

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) presents heterogeneously, owing to the differences in underlying host conditions and immune responses. Although Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is important in recognizing S. au...

    Authors: Nak-Hyun Kim, Ji Yeon Sung, Yoon Jung Choi, Su-Jin Choi, Soyeon Ahn, Eunjeong Ji, Moonsuk Kim, Chung Jong Kim, Kyoung-Ho Song, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Wan Beom Park, Eu Suk Kim, Kyoung Un Park, Nam-Joong Kim, Myoung-don Oh and Hong Bin Kim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:901

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Cellulosimicrobium cellulans is a gram-positive filamentous bacterium found primarily in soil and sewage that rarely causes human infection, especially in previously healthy adults, but when it does, it often ind...

    Authors: Huifang Zhang, Chunyan He, Rui Tian and Ruilan Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:893

    Content type: Case report

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  21. A pneumatocele is a transient thin-walled lesion and rare complication in adult pneumonia.

    Authors: Masahiro Sano, Aya Shimamoto, Nozomi Ueki, Motohiro Sekino, Hiroshi Nakaoka, Masahiro Takaki, Yoshiro Yamashita, Takeshi Tanaka, Konosuke Morimoto, Katsunori Yanagihara, Masahiro Nakashima, Kazuto Ashizawa and Koya Ariyoshi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:892

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Streptococcus suis meningoencephalitis is a zoonotic disease that mostly infects slaughterhouse workers. Rapid diagnosis of Streptococcus suis meningoencephalitis is critical for effective clinical management ...

    Authors: Xiaobo Zhang, Zhaoping Wu and Kai Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:884

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Disseminated Nocardia infection is a disease that is easily overlooked in patients with lesions occupying the intracranial space complicated with coma. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial.

    Authors: Mei-Hong Yu, Xiao-Xin Wu, Chun-Lei Chen, Song-Jia Tang, Jian-Di Jin, Cheng-Li Zhong, Jing Fu, Jie-Qin Shi and Lan-Juan Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:856

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Helicobacter cinaedi is rarely identified as a cause of infected aneurysms; however, the number of reported cases has been increasing over several decades, especially in Japan. We report three cases of aortic ane...

    Authors: Takahiro Matsuo, Nobuyoshi Mori, Atsushi Mizuno, Aki Sakurai, Fujimi Kawai, Jay Starkey, Daisuke Ohkushi, Kohei Abe, Manabu Yamasaki, Joji Ito, Kunihiko Yoshino, Yumiko Mikami, Yuki Uehara and Keiichi Furukawa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:854

    Content type: Case report

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  25. Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) serotypes, sequence types, and antimicrobial resistance profile vary across different geographic locations affecting disease patterns in newborns. These diffe...

    Authors: Musa Mohammed Ali, Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel, Daniel Asrat, Demissie Assegu Fenta, Bernard Beall, Stephanie Schrag and Lesley McGee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:848

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and insufficient antifungal regimens are the two main factors result to unsatisfactory outcomes in non-HIV cryptococcal meningitis (CM) patients. In this study, we try to dis...

    Authors: Min Li, Jia Liu, Xuhui Deng, Qingzhou Gan, Yijie Wang, Xiaofeng Xu, Ying Jiang and Fuhua Peng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:844

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is estimated to affect 1 in 3 women globally and is associated with obstetric and gynaecological sequelae. Current recommended therapies have good short-term efficacy but 1 in 2 women ...

    Authors: Lenka A. Vodstrcil, Erica L. Plummer, Michelle Doyle, Christopher K. Fairley, Colette McGuiness, Deborah Bateson, Jane S. Hocking, Matthew G. Law, Kathy Petoumenos, Basil Donovan, Eric P. F. Chow and Catriona S. Bradshaw

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:834

    Content type: Study protocol

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  28. Alcaligenes faecalis is usually causes opportunistic infections in humans. Alcaligenes faecalis infection is often difficult to treat due to its increased resistance to several antibiotics. The results from a cli...

    Authors: Chienhsiu Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:833

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infection caused by anaerobic pseudofilamentous bacteria or fungi. It is commonly prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries. Men are more susceptible to t...

    Authors: Arezki Izri, Mohanad Aljundi, Typhaine Billard-Pomares, Youssouf Fofana, Anthony Marteau, Theo Ghelfenstein Ferreira, Sophie Brun, Frederic Caux and Mohammad Akhoundi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:829

    Content type: Case report

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  30. Candida auris is a new pathogen called “superbug fungus” which caused panic worldwide. There are no large-scale epidemiology studies by now, therefore a systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to deter...

    Authors: Jingjing Chen, Sufei Tian, Xiaoxu Han, Yunzhuo Chu, Qihui Wang, Baosen Zhou and Hong Shang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:827

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. To date, there have been no reported cases of A. phagocytophilum infection found in both the biting ti...

    Authors: Seung Hun Lee, Na-Ri Shin, Choon-Mee Kim, Sungdo Park, Na Ra Yun, Dong-Min Kim and Dong Sik Jung

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:826

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Plague, a fatal disease caused by the bacillus, Yersinia pestis, still affects resources-limited countries. Information on antibody response to plague infection in human is scarce. Anti-F1 Ig G are among the know...

    Authors: Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana, Alice Lantoniaina Iharisoa, Lila Rahalison, Marie Laurette Ralimanantsoa, Maherisoa Ratsitorahina, Rado J. L. Rakotonanahary, Elisabeth Carniel, Christian Demeure and Minoarisoa Rajerison

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:822

    Content type: Technical advance

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  33. Although Moraxella catarrhalis (M. catarrhalis) is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), studies investigating clinical manifestations of CAP due to M. catarrhalis (MC-CAP) in adults are limited. ...

    Authors: Jun Hirai, Takeshi Kinjo, Tomomi Koga, Shusaku Haranaga, Eiji Motonaga and Jiro Fujita

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:821

    Content type: Research article

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  34. In Finland, the routine surveillance of Lyme borreliosis (LB) is laboratory-based. In addition, we have well established national health care registers where countrywide data from patient visits in public heal...

    Authors: Eeva Feuth, Mikko Virtanen, Otto Helve, Jukka Hytönen and Jussi Sane

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:819

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Gastrointestinal (GI) mucormycosis is a rare and often deadly form of mucormycosis. Delayed diagnosis can lead to an increased risk of death. Here, we report a case of GI mucormycosis following streptococcal t...

    Authors: Thanaboon Yinadsawaphan, Popchai Ngamskulrungroj, Wipapat Chalermwai, Wutthiseth Dhitinanmuang and Nasikarn Angkasekwinai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:817

    Content type: Case report

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  36. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus varies depending on the healthcare facility, region and country. To understand its genetic diversity, transmission, dissemination, epidemiology and evolution in a particula...

    Authors: Ashika Singh-Moodley, Michelle Lowe, Ruth Mogokotleng and Olga Perovic

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:816

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women are usually managed in primary care with antibiotics. However, many women seem to prefer to handle UTI symptoms with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ...

    Authors: Ildikó Gágyor, Stephanie Strube-Plaschke, Katrin Rentzsch and Wolfgang Himmel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:813

    Content type: Research article

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  38. To verify whether a daily service of Infectious Diseases consultation (ID-cons) is more effective than a weekly service in reducing antibiotic (ATB) consumption without worsening of clinical outcomes.

    Authors: Andrea Cona, Lidia Gazzola, Ottavia Viganò, Teresa Bini, Giulia Carla Marchetti and Antonella d’Arminio Monforte

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:812

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The purpose of this study was to explore the clinical features, risk factors, and outcomes of mixed Candida albicans/bacterial bloodstream infections (mixed-CA/B-BSIs) compared with monomicrobial Candida albicans

    Authors: Li Zhong, Shufang Zhang, Kankai Tang, Feifei Zhou, Cheng Zheng, Kai Zhang, Jiachang Cai, Hongwei Zhou, Yesong Wang, Baoping Tian, Zhaocai Zhang, Wei Cui, Zhaohui Dong and Gensheng Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:810

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Talaromyces marneffei infection is an important opportunistic infection associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, it is unusual in patients with non-AIDS and other non-immunosuppressed ...

    Authors: Donghe Chen, Chengdong Chang, Ming Chen, Yafei Zhang, Xin Zhao, Tingting Zhang, Zhen Wang, Jing Yan, Huanyan Zhu, Lin Zheng and Kui Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:800

    Content type: Case report

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  41. It is important to understand clinical features of bacteremic urinary tract infection (bUTI), because bUTI is a serious infection that requires prompt diagnosis and antibiotic therapy. Escherichia coli is the mos...

    Authors: Anthony D. Bai, Michael J. Bonares, Samuel Thrall, Chaim M. Bell and Andrew M. Morris

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:781

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Orbital mucormycosis is a rare but potentially severe and troublesome invasive fungal infection that could be occurred even in healthy individuals. The initial clinical presentation is similar to bacterial pre...

    Authors: Ali Amanati, Hamide Barzegar, Gholamreza Pouladfar, Anahita Sanaei Dashti, Mohamad Bagher Abtahi, Bijan Khademi, Mohammad Javad Ashraf, Parisa Badiee, Seyedeh Sedigheh Hamzavi and Ali Kashkooe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:770

    Content type: Case report

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  43. Ureaplasma urealyticum is an intra-cellular bacterium frequently found colonizing the genital tract. Known complications include localized infections, which can result in premature deliveries. Septic arthritis du...

    Authors: Jaad Mahlouly, Loic Lhopitallier, Véronique Suttels, Linda Mueller, Diane Wernly, Olivier Borens and Sylvain Steinmetz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:767

    Content type: Case report

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  44. A lower level of consciousness is a common presentation in critical care, with many different causes and contributory factors, of which more than one may be present concurrently.

    Authors: Chung Li, Ming-Yieh Peng, Chia-Hui Chang, Yuan-Yu Hsu, Min-Shiau Hsieh, Shinn-Kuang Lin, Yi-Hsin Lee and Mei-Chen Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:763

    Content type: Case report

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  45. Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is commonly associated with outcomes like recurrence and readmission. The effect of social determinants of health, such as ‘neighborhood’ socioeconomic disadvantage, on a ...

    Authors: Elizabeth Scaria, W. Ryan Powell, Jen Birstler, Oguzhan Alagoz, Daniel Shirley, Amy J. H. Kind and Nasia Safdar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:762

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Saksenaea species (spp.) are uncommon causes of mucormycosis but are emerging pathogens mostly associated with trauma and soil contamination often in immunocompetent hosts. Due to lack of sporulation in the labor...

    Authors: N. Davidson, K. Campbell, F. Foroughi, V. Tayal, S. Lynar, L. C. Crawford, S. E. Kidd, R. Baird, J. Davies and E. M. Meumann

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:755

    Content type: Case report

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  47. Two months after the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, tens of thousands of hospitalized patients had recovered, and little is known about the follow-up of the recovered patients.

    Authors: Tie-Jun Shui, Chao Li, Hong-bing Liu, Xiaohua Chen and Bi-ke Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:749

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Cholera remains a major global health challenge. Uvira, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), has had endemic cholera since the 1970’s and has been implicated as a possible point of origin for nationa...

    Authors: Camille Williams, Oliver Cumming, Lynn Grignard, Baron Bashige Rumedeka, Jaime Mufitini Saidi, Daniel Grint, Chris Drakeley and Aurelie Jeandron

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:741

    Content type: Research article

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