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Bacterial and fungal diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of bacterial and fungal diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section includes studies relating to antibiotic resistance and healthcare-associated infections.

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  1. Information about the clinical and microbiological characteristics of IMP-producing Enterobacterales has been limited. Here, we describe an institutional outbreak of IMP-producing Enterobacter cloacae complex (EC...

    Authors: Sohei Harada, Kotaro Aoki, Daisuke Ohkushi, Koh Okamoto, Kazumi Takehana, Tomomi Akatsuchi, Keito Ida, Daigo Shoji, Yoshikazu Ishii, Yohei Doi, Kyoji Moriya and Brian Hayama

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:289

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are novel hypoglycemic agents which reduce reabsorption of glucose at the renal proximal tubule, resulting in significant glycosuria and increased risk of gen...

    Authors: Caroline Bartolo, Victoria Hall, N. Deborah Friedman, Chloe Lanyon, Andrew Fuller, C. Orla Morrissey and Eugene Athan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:284

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Brazil has a high leprosy burden and poor treatment outcomes (TOs), manifesting in high relapse rates. Pernambuco, an impoverished Brazilian state suffering notable geographical health inequalities, has ‘hyperend...

    Authors: Divya Khanna, Gilles de Wildt, Luiz Antonio Miranda de Souza Duarte Filho, Mitali Bajaj, Jo Freda Lai, Esme Gardiner, Andrea Maia Fernandes de Araújo Fonseca, Antje Lindenmeyer and Patrícia Sammarco Rosa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:282

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare autosomal dominant disease associated with neurological complications, including cerebral abscesses (CA). They tend to be unique, supratentorial and lobar....

    Authors: Xavier A. Santander, Anwar Saab, Juan Manuel Revuelta-Barbero and Elena Múñez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:277

    Content type: Case report

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  5. Tetanus is a rare, vaccine-preventable but extremely serious disease. We investigated the recent trend of the clinical outcomes and medical costs for inpatients with tetanus in South Korea over 10 years.

    Authors: Sohyun Bae, Minsik Go, Yoonjung Kim, Soyoon Hwang, Shin-Woo Kim, Ki Tae Kwon, Sook-In Jung and Hyun-Ha Chang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:247

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a Gram-negative capnophilic rod and part of dogs/cats’ normal oral flora. It can be transmitted by bites, scratches, or even by contact of saliva with injured skin. Asplenic patients ...

    Authors: Simon A. Amacher, Kirstine K. Søgaard, Coralie Nkoulou, Raoul Sutter, Maja Weisser, Sandra S. Zingg, Adrian Egli, Alexa Hollinger and Martin Siegemund

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:231

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has emerged as a global threat to healthcare resulting in an increase in morbidity and mortality. Neonatal sepsis is ranked as the third highest cause of neonatal demise globally...

    Authors: Dharshni Pillay, Lerusha Naidoo, Khine Swe Swe-Han and Yesholata Mahabeer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:225

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The clinical profiles and outcomes of cryptococcal meningitis have been shown to vary depending on the underlying condition. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical characteristics and outcomes in pa...

    Authors: Hang Li, Xiaojing Li, Lei Zhang, Wenjie Fang, Keming Zhang, Amir Arastehfar, Macit Ilkit, Dongying Hu, Xianzhen Chen, Huiwei Wang, Liyan Ling, Jianjun Lin, Bin Xu, Wanqing Liao, Weihua Pan and Qilong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:224

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is diagnosed combining urinary symptoms with demonstration of urine culture growth above a given threshold. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of Urine Flow Cytometry ...

    Authors: Christian Gehringer, Axel Regeniter, Katharina Rentsch, Sarah Tschudin-Sutter, Stefano Bassetti and Adrian Egli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:209

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. In Mexico, the disease is rarely diagnosed in humans and there is no evidence of simultaneous environmental isolation of the pathogen. Her...

    Authors: Gerardo Alvarez-Hernandez, Denica Cruz-Loustaunau, J. Antonio Ibarra, Adela Rascon-Alcantar, Jesús Contreras-Soto, Georgina Meza-Radilla, Alfredo G. Torres and Paulina Estrada-de los Santos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:204

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Scrub typhus is a largely ignored tropical disease and a leading cause of undifferentiated febrile illness in the areas of tsutsugamushi triangle caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. It is frequently diagnosed in So...

    Authors: Meghnath Dhimal, Shyam Prakash Dumre, Guna Nidhi Sharma, Pratik Khanal, Kamal Ranabhat, Lalan Prasad Shah, Bibek Kumar Lal, Runa Jha, Bishnu Prasad Upadhyaya, Bhim Acharya, Sanjaya Kumar Shrestha, Silas A. Davidson, Piyada Charoensinphon and Khem B. Karki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:193

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Developing disease risk maps for priority endemic and episodic diseases is becoming increasingly important for more effective disease management, particularly in resource limited countries. For endemic and eas...

    Authors: Leonard M. Nderitu, John Gachohi, Frederick Otieno, Eddy G. Mogoa, Mathew Muturi, Athman Mwatondo, Eric M. Osoro, Isaac Ngere, Peninah M. Munyua, Harry Oyas, Obadiah Njagi, Eric Lofgren, Thomas Marsh, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Bernard Bett and M. Kariuki Njenga

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:191

    Content type: Research article

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  13. PCRs targeting 16S ribosomal DNA (16S PCR) followed by Sanger’s sequencing can identify bacteria from normally sterile sites and complement standard analyzes, but they are expensive. We conducted a retrospecti...

    Authors: Axel Ursenbach, Frédéric Schramm, François Séverac, Yves Hansmann, Nicolas Lefebvre, Yvon Ruch and Xavier Argemi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:190

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:276

  14. Upper urinary tract infection (UTI) or pyelonephritis may increase the pathogenesis rate and risk of severe complications in children due to kidney atrophy.

    Authors: Daryoosh Fahimi, Leila Khedmat, Azadeh Afshin, Zahra Noparast, Maryam Jafaripor, Effat Hosseinali Beigi, Maryam Ghodsi, Anahita Izadi and Sayed Yousef Mojtahedi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:189

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Positive blood cultures showing Gram positive cocci in clusters signifies either Staphylococcus aureus or the less-virulent coagulase-negative staphylococci. Rapid identification and methicillin susceptibility de...

    Authors: Kessendri Reddy and Andrew Whitelaw

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:177

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Prosthetic joint infections (PJI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality burden worldwide. While surgical management is well defined, rifampicin (RIF) dose remains controversial. The aim of our study was...

    Authors: M. Tonnelier, A. Bouras, C. Joseph, Y. El Samad, B. Brunschweiler, J.-L. Schmit, C. Mabille and J-P Lanoix

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:174

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Blood cultures are one of the most important tests performed by microbiology laboratories. Many hospitals, particularly in low and middle-income countries, lack either microbiology services or staff to provide...

    Authors: Clare L. Ling, Tamalee Roberts, Sona Soeng, Tomas-Paul Cusack, David A. B. Dance, Sue J. Lee, Thomas A. N. Reed, Pattaraporn Hinfonthong, Somsavanh Sihalath, Amphone Sengduangphachanh, Wanitda Watthanaworawit, Tri Wangrangsimakul, Paul N. Newton, Francois H. Nosten, Paul Turner and Elizabeth A. Ashley

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:173

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) is common among hospitalized patients. Though carbapenems are an effective treatment in the face of rising resistance, overuse drives carbapenem resistance (CR). We h...

    Authors: Marya D. Zilberberg, Brian H. Nathanson, Kate Sulham and Andrew F. Shorr

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:159

    Content type: Research article

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  19. This systematic review and meta-analysis explored the relationship between vancomycin (VCM) monitoring strategies and VCM effectiveness and safety.

    Authors: Moeko Tsutsuura, Hiromu Moriyama, Nana Kojima, Yuki Mizukami, Sho Tashiro, Sumika Osa, Yuki Enoki, Kazuaki Taguchi, Kazutaka Oda, Satoshi Fujii, Yoshiko Takahashi, Yukihiro Hamada, Toshimi Kimura, Yoshio Takesue and Kazuaki Matsumoto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:153

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have continually grown as a global public health threat, with significant mortality rates observed across the world. We examined the clinical ...

    Authors: Adhiratha Boonyasiri, Elita Jauneikaite, Lauren M. Brinkac, Chris Greco, Kanokorn Lerdlamyong, Teerawit Tangkoskul, Kevin Nguyen, Visanu Thamlikitkul and Derrick E. Fouts

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:142

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The use of complement inhibition is well established for complement mediated thrombotic microangiopathy, but its role in secondary forms of thrombotic microangiopathy is debated. We here present a case of thro...

    Authors: Magnus Holter Bjørkto, Andreas Barratt-Due, Ingvild Nordøy, Christina Dörje, Eivind Galteland, Andreas Lind, Abdulkarim Hilli, Pål Aukrust and Geir Mjøen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:137

    Content type: Case report

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  22. To observe the effect of corticosteroids in the treatment of children with refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (RMPP) under different doses, to summarize the clinical features of children treated with g...

    Authors: Zhenli Zhu, Tongqiang Zhang, Wei Guo, Yaoyao Ling, Jiao Tian and Yongsheng Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:126

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Streptococcus agalacticae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is one of the most important causative agents of serious infections among neonates. This study was carried out to identify antibiotic resistance and virulenc...

    Authors: Raymond Mudzana, Rooyen T. Mavenyengwa and Muchaneta Gudza-Mugabe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:125

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Prolonged myelosuppression following CD19-directed CAR T-cell transfusion represents an important, yet underreported, adverse event. The resulting neutropenia and multifactorial immunosuppression can facilitat...

    Authors: Kai Rejeski, Wolfgang G. Kunz, Martina Rudelius, Veit Bücklein, Viktoria Blumenberg, Christian Schmidt, Philipp Karschnia, Florian Schöberl, Konstantin Dimitriadis, Louisa von Baumgarten, Joachim Stemmler, Oliver Weigert, Martin Dreyling, Michael von Bergwelt-Baildon and Marion Subklewe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:121

    Content type: Case report

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  25. The burden of cardiovascular (CV) complications in patients hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still uncertain. Available studies used different designs and different criteria to define CV ...

    Authors: Filippo Pieralli, Vieri Vannucchi, Carlo Nozzoli, Giuseppe Augello, Francesco Dentali, Giulia De Marzi, Generoso Uomo, Filippo Risaliti, Laura Morbidoni, Antonino Mazzone, Claudio Santini, Daniela Tirotta, Francesco Corradi, Riccardo Gerloni, Paola Gnerre, Gualberto Gussoni…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:116

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:195

  26. Diarrhoea is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in children under five years old. In Kenya, it has a 21% case fatality with Enteropathogenic E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp.

    Authors: Ongwae H. Zachariah, Mwamburi A. Lizzy, Kakai Rose and Mutuku M. Angela

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:109

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in human worldwide. The aim of study was to assess the distribution of sialylated lipooligosaccharide (LOS) classes and capsular genoty...

    Authors: Mahnaz Sarhangi, Bita Bakhshi and Shahin Najar Peeraeyeh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:108

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Better information on the typical course and management of acute common infections in the community could inform antibiotic stewardship campaigns. We aimed to investigate the incidence, management, and natural...

    Authors: Catherine M. Smith, Laura J. Shallcross, Peter Dutey-Magni, Anne Conolly, Christopher Fuller, Suzanne Hill, Arnoupe Jhass, Franziska Marcheselli, Susan Michie, Jennifer S. Mindell, Matthew J. Ridd, Georgios Tsakos, Andrew C. Hayward and Ellen B. Fragaszy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:105

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Scalp Eschar and Neck LymphAdenopathy after Tick bite is a zoonotic non-pathogen-specific disease most commonly due to Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii. Diagnosis is mostly based only on epidemiological...

    Authors: Giulia Barlozzari, Federico Romiti, Maurizio Zini, Adele Magliano, Claudio De Liberato, Franco Corrias, Guglielmo Capponi, Luisa Galli, Manuela Scarpulla and Carlotta Montagnani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:103

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  30. The increasing use of antifungal drugs (AF) in children and the concern for related adverse events and costs has led to the development of specific AF stewardship programmes (AFS). Studies in adult patients ha...

    Authors: Natalia Mendoza-Palomar, Beatriz Garcia-Palop, Susana Melendo, Maria Teresa Martín, Berta Renedo-Miró, Pere Soler-Palacin and Aurora Fernández-Polo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:100

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Echocardiography (echo) is the primary imaging modality for infective endocarditis (IE). However, the recommendations on timing and mode selection for transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and transthoracic e...

    Authors: Peihan Xie, Xiaodong Zhuang, Menghui Liu, Shaozhao Zhang, Jia Liu, Donghong Liu and Xinxue Liao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:92

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Keratitis due to by filamentous fungi are not easy to diagnose thus causing a delay in correct therapy. There are many descriptions of keratitis due to Candida, Fusarium and Aspergillus genera. Subramaniula genus...

    Authors: Rosario Cultrera, Riccardo Torelli, Caterina Sarnicola, Daniela Segala, Andrea Mengoli, Giuseppina Chiaretto, Paolo Perri and Maurizio Sanguinetti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:82

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Candidemia has emerged as an important nosocomial infection, with a mortality rate of 30–50%. It is the fourth most common nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) in the United States and the seventh most commo...

    Authors: Nobuhiro Asai, Wataru Ohashi, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Hideo Kato, Mao Hagihara, Hiroki Watanabe, Arufumi Shiota, Yusuke Koizumi, Yuka Yamagishi and Hiroshige Mikamo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:77

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Invasive candidiasis is the most common fungal disease among hospitalized patients and continues to be a major cause of mortality. Risk factors for mortality have been studied previously but rarely developed i...

    Authors: Ding Li, Tianjiao Li, Changsen Bai, Qing Zhang, Zheng Li and Xichuan Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:76

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Cancer patients are more likely to develop and die of bloodstream infection (BSI) than noncancer patients. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is associated with immense mortality and econom...

    Authors: Zhouqi Li, Hemu Zhuang, Guannan Wang, Hui Wang and Ying Dong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:74

    Content type: Research article

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  36. In pregnant women Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) can be transmitted to newborn causing severe infections. It is classified into 10 serotypes (Ia, Ib, II-IX). The severity of neonatal disease is determined by the ...

    Authors: Fernando J. Bobadilla, Marina G. Novosak, Iliana J. Cortese, Osvaldo D. Delgado and Margarita E. Laczeski

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:73

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Scrub typhus is a mite-borne infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Few follow-up studies have assessed antibody titers using serologic tests from various commercial laboratories and the Korea Cente...

    Authors: Choon-Mee Kim, Dong-Min Kim and Na Ra Yun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:69

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Recently, many cases of pneumonia in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection have been shown to have varying degrees of intrabronchial mucus plug formation. The clinical, laboratory, radiological characteri...

    Authors: Jiahui Zhang, Ting Wang, Rongrong Li, Wei Ji, Yongdong Yan, Zhichao Sun, Jiahong Tan, Jinfeng Wu, Li Huang and Zhengrong Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:67

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Early detection and treatment of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), major causative pathogens of sepsis (a potentially fatal condition caused by the body’s response to an infection), may benefit a patient’s outcome...

    Authors: Chan-Peng Hsu, Hsin-Yu Chen, Wei-Lung Chen, Jiann-Hwa Chen, Chien-Cheng Huang, Po-Han Wu and Jui-Yuan Chung

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:66

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Small bowel obstruction is one of the leading reasons for accessing to the Emergency Department. Food poisoning from Clostridium botulinum has emerged as a very rare potential cause of small bowel obstruction. Th...

    Authors: Alberto Friziero, Cosimo Sperti, Gianfranco Da Dalt, Nicola Baldan, Gianpietro Zanchettin, Pasquale Auricchio, Laura Gavagna, Andrea Grego, Giulia Capelli and Stefano Merigliano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:55

    Content type: Case report

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  41. Previous studies have reported poor prognosis in cases of tetanus that develops after bacteria enters via breast cancer-related skin ulcers that are not treated with surgical debridement. Herein, we review the...

    Authors: Kazuhito Nomura, Eiji Sakawaki, Sonoko Sakawaki, Ayumu Yamaoka, Wakiko Aisaka, Hiroyuki Okamoto, Yoshihiro Takeyama, Shuji Uemura and Eichi Narimatsu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:37

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection can occur in an immunocompromised host. Although rare, bacteremia due to Y. pseudotuberculosis may also occur in immunocompetent hosts. The prognosis and therapeutic strategy...

    Authors: Takehiro Hashimoto, Ryuichi Takenaka, Haruka Fukuda, Kazuhiko Hashinaga, Shin-ichi Nureki, Hideki Hayashidani, Teruo Sakamoto and Osamu Shigemitsu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:36

    Content type: Case report

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  43. Salmonellas enterica serovar Typhi (S.typhi) causes typhoid fever and is a global health problem, especially in developing countries like Ethiopia. But there is a little information about prevalence and factors a...

    Authors: Roza Nasir Awol, Dawit Yihdego Reda and Deresse Daka Gidebo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:30

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Ruxolitinib is a novel oral Janus kinase inhibitor that is used for treatment of myeloproliferative diseases. It exhibits potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects, and may increase the risk of op...

    Authors: Naruemit Sayabovorn, Piriyaporn Chongtrakool and Methee Chayakulkeeree

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:27

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

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COVID-19 Announcement

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.