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Bacterial and fungal diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of bacterial and fungal diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section includes studies relating to antibiotic resistance and healthcare-associated infections.

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  1. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM) is an emerging tick-born pathogen and usually causes symptomatic infection only in immunocompromised patients. Apart from one described case found in the literature where ...

    Authors: Mitja Lenart, Miha Simoniti, Katja Strašek-Smrdel, Vesna Cvitković Špik, Tanja Selič-Kurinčič and Tatjana Avšič-Županc

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:579

    Content type: Case report

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  2. Antibiotic Resistance is an imminent global public health threat. Antibiotic resistance emerged in healthcare settings and has now moved on to the community settings.

    Authors: Thilini Munasinghe, Gihani Vidanapathirana, Shahlina Kuthubdeen, Asela Ekanayake, Sacheera Angulmaduwa, Kunchana De Silva, Susan Subhasinghe, Ruwani Kalupahana, Veranja Liyanapathirana and Margaret Ip

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:578

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The recent increase in cases of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (ARAf) infections is a major clinical concern owing to its treatment limitations. Patient-derived ARAf occurs after prolonged azole treatment ...

    Authors: Yuya Ito, Takahiro Takazono, Satoru Koga, Yuichiro Nakano, Nobuyuki Ashizawa, Tatsuro Hirayama, Masato Tashiro, Tomomi Saijo, Kazuko Yamamoto, Yoshifumi Imamura, Taiga Miyazaki, Katsunori Yanagihara, Koichi Izumikawa and Hiroshi Mukae

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:573

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria and represent a major healthcare burden. Carbapenem-resistant (CR) strains of Enterobacterales and non-lactose fe...

    Authors: Ryan K. Shields, Yun Zhou, Hemanth Kanakamedala and Bin Cai

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:572

    Content type: Research article

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  5. We investigated for change in blood stream infections (BSI) with Enterobacterales, coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus during the first UK wave of SARS-CoV...

    Authors: Sarah Denny, Timothy M. Rawson, Peter Hart, Giovanni Satta, Ahmed Abdulaal, Stephen Hughes, Mark Gilchrist, Nabeela Mughal and Luke S. P. Moore

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:556

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Effective treatment of sepsis due to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CR-GNB) remains a challenge for clinicians worldwide. In recent years, the combination of antibiotics has become the preferred ...

    Authors: Alessia Savoldi, Elena Carrara, Laura J. V. Piddock, Francois Franceschi, Sally Ellis, Margherita Chiamenti, Damiano Bragantini, Elda Righi and Evelina Tacconelli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:545

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Invasive aspergillosis of the central nervous system is a rare but increasingly prevalent disease. We present the unusual case of an immunosuppressed patient suffering from unexpected superinfected invasive as...

    Authors: Basil Erwin Grüter, Anna Maria Reuss, Elisabeth Jane Rushing, Athina Pangalu and Markus Florian Oertel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:537

    Content type: Case report

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  8. Legionella bacteria is a common cause of pneumonia, but the infection may affect several organs in the most serious cases. A systemic involvement ab initio could be non-specific, leading to a diagnostic misint...

    Authors: Gabriella Serio, Francesco Fortarezza, Federica Pezzuto, Luigi Santacroce, Pietro Nazzaro, Emilio Bellitti, Domenica Cavone, Andrea Marzullo and Luigi Vimercati

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:532

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of invasive infection in neonates and infants. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings and culture may not show evidence of infection early in GBS meningitis. Next-...

    Authors: Kazuhiro Horiba, Michio Suzuki, Nobuyuki Tetsuka, Yoshihiko Kawano, Makoto Yamaguchi, Toshihiko Okumura, Takako Suzuki, Yuka Torii, Jun-ichi Kawada, Makoto Morita, Shinya Hara, Tomoo Ogi and Yoshinori Ito

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:531

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) is a growing health-concern in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. iNTS is associated with fatal diseases such as HIV and malaria. Despite high case fatality rates, the dise...

    Authors: Jung-Seok Lee, Vittal Mogasale, Florian Marks and Jerome Kim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:529

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic spirochetal disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. The clinical presentation ranges from an asymptomatic state to a fatal multiorgan dysfunction. Neurological manifestations includi...

    Authors: Jayawardane Pathiranage Roneesha Lakmali, Kanapathipillei Thirumavalavan and Danapala Dissanayake

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:522

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Lactobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive non-spore-forming rods usually found in the microbiota of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and female genitourinary tract. Also, they are commonly used in the ...

    Authors: David Ramos-Coria, Jorge Canto-Losa, Daniel Carrillo-Vázquez, Leonardo Carbajal-Morelos, Rodrigo Estrada-León and Eduardo Corona-Rodarte

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:518

    Content type: Case report

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  13. We report an unusual case of infective colitis by Yersinia enterocolitica complicated by microliver abscesses mimicking multiple liver metastases in a 79 yr old female without any risk factors for bacteriaemia by...

    Authors: Rosario Luca Norrito, Chiara Pintus, Marco Cataldi, Alessandro Del Cuore, Mario Daidone, Valerio Vassallo, Maria Grazia Puleo, Tiziana Di Chiara, Salvatore Miceli, Giuseppina Maria Pizzo, Giuseppe Brancatelli, Antonino Tuttolomondo and Antonio Pinto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:517

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Empiric antibiotics for community acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) are often prescribed to patients with COVID-19, despite a low reported incidence of co-infections. Stewardship interventions targeted at fa...

    Authors: Natasha N. Pettit, Cynthia T. Nguyen, Alison K. Lew, Palak H. Bhagat, Allison Nelson, Gregory Olson, Jessica P. Ridgway, Mai T. Pho and Jade Pagkas-Bather

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:516

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Tick-borne pathogens other than Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato – the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis – are common in Ixodes ricinus ticks. How often these pathogens cause human disease is unknown. In additio...

    Authors: D. Hoornstra, M. G. Harms, S. A. Gauw, A. Wagemakers, T. Azagi, K. Kremer, H. Sprong, C. C. van den Wijngaard and J. W. Hovius

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:501

    Content type: Study protocol

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  16. SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection is associated with various complications. PMA (primary meningococcal arthritis) is a rare meningococcus-associated disease causing arthrit...

    Authors: Norman Ducatez, Marine Chancel, Youcef Douadi, Charles Dayen, Rémi Suguenot, Emmanuelle Lecuyer, Benoit Brihaye and Houcine Bentayeb

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:499

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium which may be a causative agent of meningitis in premature infants and enterocolitis and bacteremia in neonates and adults. While there...

    Authors: Syeda Sahra, Abdullah Jahangir, Neville Mobarakai, Allison Glaser, Ahmad Jahangir and Muhammad Ans Sharif

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:493

    Content type: Case report

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  18. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of early-onset neonatal sepsis. However, GBS was infrequently reported in the developing world in contrast to western countries. This study assessed the prevale...

    Authors: Yanmei Ge, Fei Pan, Rui Bai, Yuan Mao, Wenli Ji, Fenfang Wang and Huacheng Tong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:492

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Chromobacterium violaceum (C. violaceum) is a Gram-negative saprophytic bacterium that is widespread in tropical and subtropical environments, and belongs to conditional pathogenic bacteria. Human infection with

    Authors: Lijuan Lang, Menglei Wang, Xiaowen Huang, Hao Zhou, Zaigao Zhou, Liang Huang, Huanxin Zheng, Kang Zeng and Li Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:484

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Streptococcus pyogenes causes a profound global burden of morbidity and mortality across its diverse clinical spectrum. To support a new controlled human infection (‘challenge’) model seeking to accelerate S. pyo...

    Authors: Loraine V. Fabri, Kristy I. Azzopardi, Joshua Osowicki, Hannah R. Frost, Pierre R. Smeesters and Andrew C. Steer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:463

    Content type: Technical advance

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  21. This case report describes the clinical process of a shepherd who suffered brucellosis-related endocarditis (BE) and spondylitis (BS) and was infected with Brucella melitensis biovar 3 (B. melitensis biovar 3).

    Authors: Huan Zhang, Songsong Xie, Yueli Wang, Xiaoli Zhao, Jihai Yi, Zhen Wang, Qi Liu, Xiaoyu Deng, Bingjie Li, Buyun Cui, Yuanzhi Wang and Chuangfu Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:460

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Clostridioides difficile is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, which causes Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). It has been recognised as a leading cause of healthcare-associated infections and a consider...

    Authors: Elaine Finn, Fredrik L. Andersson and Matthew Madin-Warburton

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:456

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Enterococcus casseliflavus is rarely isolated from human specimens. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on its detailed treatment course and prognosis. Here, we present the first known case of E. c...

    Authors: Nobumasa Okumura, Takashi Watanabe, Satoshi Teranishi, Daisuke Suzuki, Takahiko Hashimoto, Kosuke Takahashi and Toru Hara

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:447

    Content type: Case report

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  24. To investigate the trends and correlation between antibacterial consumption and carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria from 2012 to 2019 in a tertiary-care teaching hospital in southern China.

    Authors: Chunhong Liang, Xueyan Zhang, Lijuan Zhou, Guangyi Meng, Liqiu Zhong and Pingzhi Peng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:444

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Lower respiratory tract infection is a global problem accounting over 50 million deaths annually. Here, we determined the bacterial profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of lower respiratory tract i...

    Authors: Alemitu Beyene Gebre, Tsegaye Alemayehu Begashaw and Moges Desta Ormago

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:440

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Many studies have shown that vancomycin is inferior to β-lactam antibiotics in terms of effectiveness in the treatment of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia. However, limited data are...

    Authors: Ching-Yen Tsai, Chen-Hsiang Lee and I-Ling Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:437

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 8 incidence has increased in Denmark after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCV). The mechanism behind the serotype 8 replacement is not well understood. In ...

    Authors: Camilla Bülow Hansen, Kurt Fuursted, Palle Valentiner-Branth, Tine Dalby, Charlotte Sværke Jørgensen and H-C Slotved

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:421

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most feared complications following total arthroplasty surgeries. Gram-positive bacteria are the most common microorganisms implicated in PJIs, while infections m...

    Authors: Marta Bottagisio, Alessandro Bidossi, Nicola Logoluso, Antonio Pellegrini and Elena De Vecchi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:416

    Content type: Case report

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  29. Kawasaki disease (KD) is the most common cause of acquired heart disease among children in developed countries, in which the resulting coronary artery (CA) abnormalities cause myocardial ischemia, infarction, ...

    Authors: Yifan Ren, Chuanxin Zhang, Xiaoqin Xu and Yu Yin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:415

    Content type: Case report

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  30. In non-pregnant adults, the incidence of invasive Group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease is continuously increasing. Elderly and immunocompromised persons are at increased risk of infection. GBS commonly colonizes t...

    Authors: Rossella Baldan, Sara Droz, Carlo Casanova, Laura Knabben, Dorothy J. Huang, Christine Brülisauer, André B. Kind, Elke Krause, Stefanie Mauerer, Barbara Spellerberg and Parham Sendi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:408

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The prevalent resurgence of pertussis has recently become a critical public health problem worldwide. To understand pertussis pathogenesis and the host response to both the pathogen and vaccines, a suitable pe...

    Authors: Wenwen Jiang, Chen Wei, Dachao Mou, Weilun Zuo, Jiangli Liang, Xiao Ma, Lichan Wang, Na Gao, Qin Gu, Peng Luo, Yan Ma, Jingyan Li, Shuyuan Liu, Li Shi and Mingbo Sun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:407

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Carnobacterium species are lactic acid-producing Gram-positive bacteria that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and Health Canada for use as a food bio-preservative. The use of live bacteri...

    Authors: Carson Ka-Lok Lo and Prameet M. Sheth

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:403

    Content type: Case report

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  33. The aim of the study was to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the accuracy of neutrophil CD64, procalcitonin (PCT), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as markers for the diagnosis of sepsis in adult patients.

    Authors: Shan Cong, Tiangang Ma, Xin Di, Chang Tian, Min Zhao and Ke Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:384

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Brain abscesses caused by Nocardia farcinica are rare, and mostly occur in immunocompromised individuals. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of nocardiosis is challenging. Due to the inadequate performance of conventio...

    Authors: Chaojun Zhou, Kai Wang, Hanrong Li and Xiaobo Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:380

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Native valves infective endocarditis due to Escherichia coli is still a rare disease and a particular virulence of some E.coli isolate may be suspected.

    Authors: Marie-Françoise Leonard, Hector Rodriguez-Villalobos, Nadia Boisen, Flemming Scheutz, Pierre-François Laterre and Philippe Hantson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:370

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Parvimonas micra (P. micra) is a gram-positive anaerobic coccus that is detected widely on the skin, in the oral mucosa and in the gastrointestinal tract. In certain circumstances, P. micra can cause abdominal ab...

    Authors: Qing Yu, Lingling Sun, Zuqing Xu, Lumei Fan and Yunbo Du

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:364

    Content type: Case report

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  37. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infectious diseases which causes considerable morbidity and costly health problems. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most common pathoge...

    Authors: Seyedeh Elham Rezatofighi, Mahsa Mirzarazi and Mansour Salehi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:361

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Identifying the causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is challenging due to the disease’s complex etiology and the limitations of traditional microbiological diagnostic methods. Recent advances in next ...

    Authors: Fei Xie, Zhimei Duan, Weiqi Zeng, Shumei Xie, Mingzhou Xie, Han Fu, Qing Ye, Teng Xu and Lixin Xie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:352

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Staphylococcus aureus has been associated with the exacerbation and severity of atopic dermatitis (AD). Studies have not investigated the colonisation dynamics of S. aureus lineages in African toddlers with AD. W...

    Authors: Gillian O. N. Ndhlovu, Regina E. Abotsi, Adebayo O. Shittu, Shima M. Abdulgader, Dorota Jamrozy, Christopher L. Dupont, Avumile Mankahla, Mark P. Nicol, Carol Hlela, Michael E. Levin, Nonhlanhla Lunjani and Felix S. Dube

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:348

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) is a cutaneous infectious disease characterized by eschar-like skin ulcers typically caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here, we report a case of relapsing EG in a patient who had returned...

    Authors: Gabriela M. Wiedemann, Jochen Schneider, Mareike Verbeek, Björn Konukiewitz, Christoph D. Spinner, Henrik Einwächter, Roland M. Schmid and Kathrin Rothe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:344

    Content type: Case report

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  41. Previous studies found that S100A9 may involve in the pathophysiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the role of S100A9 was unclear in the CAP. The goal was to explore the correlations of seru...

    Authors: Hong-Yan Liu, Hui-Xian Xiang, Ying Xiang, Zheng Xu, Chun-Mei Feng, Jun Fei, Lin Fu and Hui Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:327

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Despite a notable decrease in acute rheumatic fever (ARF) incidence in the past few decades, there are still cases in our setting. Sydenham chorea (SC) may be the initial manifestation for this condition in ch...

    Authors: Marta Illán Ramos, Belén Sagastizabal Cardelús, Adrián García Ron, Sara Guillén Martín, Arantxa Berzosa Sánchez and José Tomás Ramos Amador

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:322

    Content type: Case report

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  43. The primary objective of our study was to examine predictors for readmission in a prospective cohort of sepsis patients admitted to an emergency department (ED) and identified by the new Sepsis-3 criteria.

    Authors: Peer Oscar Overgaard Stenholt, S. M. Osama Bin Abdullah, Rune Husås Sørensen and Finn Erland Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:315

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteraemia is increasingly acquired from community settings and is associated with a mortality rate of up to 40% following complications. Identifying risk factors for complicate...

    Authors: Carly L. Botheras, Steven J. Bowe, Raquel Cowan and Eugene Athan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:312

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Population external validity is the extent to which an experimental study results can be generalized from a specific sample to a defined population. In order to apply the results of a study, we should be able ...

    Authors: Vered Daitch, Mical Paul, George L. Daikos, Emanuele Durante-Mangoni, Dafna Yahav, Yehuda Carmeli, Yael Dishon Benattar, Anna Skiada, Roberto Andini, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Amir Nutman, Oren Zusman, Anastasia Antoniadou, Giusi Cavezza, Amos Adler, Yaakov Dickstein…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:309

    Content type: Research article

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.