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Bacterial and fungal diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of bacterial and fungal diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section includes studies relating to antibiotic resistance and healthcare-associated infections.

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  1. Identifying the causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is challenging due to the disease’s complex etiology and the limitations of traditional microbiological diagnostic methods. Recent advances in next ...

    Authors: Fei Xie, Zhimei Duan, Weiqi Zeng, Shumei Xie, Mingzhou Xie, Han Fu, Qing Ye, Teng Xu and Lixin Xie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:352

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Staphylococcus aureus has been associated with the exacerbation and severity of atopic dermatitis (AD). Studies have not investigated the colonisation dynamics of S. aureus lineages in African toddlers with AD. W...

    Authors: Gillian O. N. Ndhlovu, Regina E. Abotsi, Adebayo O. Shittu, Shima M. Abdulgader, Dorota Jamrozy, Christopher L. Dupont, Avumile Mankahla, Mark P. Nicol, Carol Hlela, Michael E. Levin, Nonhlanhla Lunjani and Felix S. Dube

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:348

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) is a cutaneous infectious disease characterized by eschar-like skin ulcers typically caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here, we report a case of relapsing EG in a patient who had returned...

    Authors: Gabriela M. Wiedemann, Jochen Schneider, Mareike Verbeek, Björn Konukiewitz, Christoph D. Spinner, Henrik Einwächter, Roland M. Schmid and Kathrin Rothe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:344

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Previous studies found that S100A9 may involve in the pathophysiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the role of S100A9 was unclear in the CAP. The goal was to explore the correlations of seru...

    Authors: Hong-Yan Liu, Hui-Xian Xiang, Ying Xiang, Zheng Xu, Chun-Mei Feng, Jun Fei, Lin Fu and Hui Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:327

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Despite a notable decrease in acute rheumatic fever (ARF) incidence in the past few decades, there are still cases in our setting. Sydenham chorea (SC) may be the initial manifestation for this condition in ch...

    Authors: Marta Illán Ramos, Belén Sagastizabal Cardelús, Adrián García Ron, Sara Guillén Martín, Arantxa Berzosa Sánchez and José Tomás Ramos Amador

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:322

    Content type: Case report

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  6. The primary objective of our study was to examine predictors for readmission in a prospective cohort of sepsis patients admitted to an emergency department (ED) and identified by the new Sepsis-3 criteria.

    Authors: Peer Oscar Overgaard Stenholt, S. M. Osama Bin Abdullah, Rune Husås Sørensen and Finn Erland Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:315

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteraemia is increasingly acquired from community settings and is associated with a mortality rate of up to 40% following complications. Identifying risk factors for complicate...

    Authors: Carly L. Botheras, Steven J. Bowe, Raquel Cowan and Eugene Athan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:312

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Population external validity is the extent to which an experimental study results can be generalized from a specific sample to a defined population. In order to apply the results of a study, we should be able ...

    Authors: Vered Daitch, Mical Paul, George L. Daikos, Emanuele Durante-Mangoni, Dafna Yahav, Yehuda Carmeli, Yael Dishon Benattar, Anna Skiada, Roberto Andini, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Amir Nutman, Oren Zusman, Anastasia Antoniadou, Giusi Cavezza, Amos Adler, Yaakov Dickstein…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:309

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Proper detection of disease-causing organisms is very critical in controlling the course of outbreaks and avoiding large-scale epidemics. Nonetheless, availability of resources to address these gaps have been ...

    Authors: Michael Owusu, Bernard Nkrumah, Godfred Acheampong, Ebenezer Kofi Mensah, Abass Abdul-Karim Komei, Festus Kofi Sroda, Sambian David, Shannon Emery, Lucy Maryogo Robinson, Kwame Asante and David Opare

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:303

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of nosocomial infections, especially in people with a compromised immune system. Targeting virulence factors by neutralizing antibodies is a novel paradigm for the trea...

    Authors: Zahra Shadman, Safar Farajnia, Mohammad Pazhang, Mohammadreza Tohidkia, Leila Rahbarnia, Saeed Najavand and Sayna Toraby

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:300

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a rare complication in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Although IA has significant implications on graft and patient survival, data on diagnosis and management of this i...

    Authors: Dionysios Neofytos, Carolina Garcia-Vidal, Frédéric Lamoth, Christoph Lichtenstern, Alessandro Perrella and Jörg Janne Vehreschild

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:296

    Content type: Guidelines

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  12. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the important causative pathogens of neonatal invasive infection. The epidemiological and clinical profile of invasive E. coli infection in Chinese newborns is not well charac...

    Authors: Jidong Lai, Yao Zhu, Lixia Tang and Xinzhu Lin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:295

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Information about the clinical and microbiological characteristics of IMP-producing Enterobacterales has been limited. Here, we describe an institutional outbreak of IMP-producing Enterobacter cloacae complex (EC...

    Authors: Sohei Harada, Kotaro Aoki, Daisuke Ohkushi, Koh Okamoto, Kazumi Takehana, Tomomi Akatsuchi, Keito Ida, Daigo Shoji, Yoshikazu Ishii, Yohei Doi, Kyoji Moriya and Brian Hayama

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:289

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are novel hypoglycemic agents which reduce reabsorption of glucose at the renal proximal tubule, resulting in significant glycosuria and increased risk of gen...

    Authors: Caroline Bartolo, Victoria Hall, N. Deborah Friedman, Chloe Lanyon, Andrew Fuller, C. Orla Morrissey and Eugene Athan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:284

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Brazil has a high leprosy burden and poor treatment outcomes (TOs), manifesting in high relapse rates. Pernambuco, an impoverished Brazilian state suffering notable geographical health inequalities, has ‘hyperend...

    Authors: Divya Khanna, Gilles de Wildt, Luiz Antonio Miranda de Souza Duarte Filho, Mitali Bajaj, Jo Freda Lai, Esme Gardiner, Andrea Maia Fernandes de Araújo Fonseca, Antje Lindenmeyer and Patrícia Sammarco Rosa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:282

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare autosomal dominant disease associated with neurological complications, including cerebral abscesses (CA). They tend to be unique, supratentorial and lobar....

    Authors: Xavier A. Santander, Anwar Saab, Juan Manuel Revuelta-Barbero and Elena Múñez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:277

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Tetanus is a rare, vaccine-preventable but extremely serious disease. We investigated the recent trend of the clinical outcomes and medical costs for inpatients with tetanus in South Korea over 10 years.

    Authors: Sohyun Bae, Minsik Go, Yoonjung Kim, Soyoon Hwang, Shin-Woo Kim, Ki Tae Kwon, Sook-In Jung and Hyun-Ha Chang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:247

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a Gram-negative capnophilic rod and part of dogs/cats’ normal oral flora. It can be transmitted by bites, scratches, or even by contact of saliva with injured skin. Asplenic patients ...

    Authors: Simon A. Amacher, Kirstine K. Søgaard, Coralie Nkoulou, Raoul Sutter, Maja Weisser, Sandra S. Zingg, Adrian Egli, Alexa Hollinger and Martin Siegemund

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:231

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has emerged as a global threat to healthcare resulting in an increase in morbidity and mortality. Neonatal sepsis is ranked as the third highest cause of neonatal demise globally...

    Authors: Dharshni Pillay, Lerusha Naidoo, Khine Swe Swe-Han and Yesholata Mahabeer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:225

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The clinical profiles and outcomes of cryptococcal meningitis have been shown to vary depending on the underlying condition. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical characteristics and outcomes in pa...

    Authors: Hang Li, Xiaojing Li, Lei Zhang, Wenjie Fang, Keming Zhang, Amir Arastehfar, Macit Ilkit, Dongying Hu, Xianzhen Chen, Huiwei Wang, Liyan Ling, Jianjun Lin, Bin Xu, Wanqing Liao, Weihua Pan and Qilong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:224

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is diagnosed combining urinary symptoms with demonstration of urine culture growth above a given threshold. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of Urine Flow Cytometry ...

    Authors: Christian Gehringer, Axel Regeniter, Katharina Rentsch, Sarah Tschudin-Sutter, Stefano Bassetti and Adrian Egli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:209

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. In Mexico, the disease is rarely diagnosed in humans and there is no evidence of simultaneous environmental isolation of the pathogen. Her...

    Authors: Gerardo Alvarez-Hernandez, Denica Cruz-Loustaunau, J. Antonio Ibarra, Adela Rascon-Alcantar, Jesús Contreras-Soto, Georgina Meza-Radilla, Alfredo G. Torres and Paulina Estrada-de los Santos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:204

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Scrub typhus is a largely ignored tropical disease and a leading cause of undifferentiated febrile illness in the areas of tsutsugamushi triangle caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. It is frequently diagnosed in So...

    Authors: Meghnath Dhimal, Shyam Prakash Dumre, Guna Nidhi Sharma, Pratik Khanal, Kamal Ranabhat, Lalan Prasad Shah, Bibek Kumar Lal, Runa Jha, Bishnu Prasad Upadhyaya, Bhim Acharya, Sanjaya Kumar Shrestha, Silas A. Davidson, Piyada Charoensinphon and Khem B. Karki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:193

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Developing disease risk maps for priority endemic and episodic diseases is becoming increasingly important for more effective disease management, particularly in resource limited countries. For endemic and eas...

    Authors: Leonard M. Nderitu, John Gachohi, Frederick Otieno, Eddy G. Mogoa, Mathew Muturi, Athman Mwatondo, Eric M. Osoro, Isaac Ngere, Peninah M. Munyua, Harry Oyas, Obadiah Njagi, Eric Lofgren, Thomas Marsh, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Bernard Bett and M. Kariuki Njenga

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:191

    Content type: Research article

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  25. PCRs targeting 16S ribosomal DNA (16S PCR) followed by Sanger’s sequencing can identify bacteria from normally sterile sites and complement standard analyzes, but they are expensive. We conducted a retrospecti...

    Authors: Axel Ursenbach, Frédéric Schramm, François Séverac, Yves Hansmann, Nicolas Lefebvre, Yvon Ruch and Xavier Argemi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:190

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:276

  26. Upper urinary tract infection (UTI) or pyelonephritis may increase the pathogenesis rate and risk of severe complications in children due to kidney atrophy.

    Authors: Daryoosh Fahimi, Leila Khedmat, Azadeh Afshin, Zahra Noparast, Maryam Jafaripor, Effat Hosseinali Beigi, Maryam Ghodsi, Anahita Izadi and Sayed Yousef Mojtahedi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:189

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Positive blood cultures showing Gram positive cocci in clusters signifies either Staphylococcus aureus or the less-virulent coagulase-negative staphylococci. Rapid identification and methicillin susceptibility de...

    Authors: Kessendri Reddy and Andrew Whitelaw

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:177

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Prosthetic joint infections (PJI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality burden worldwide. While surgical management is well defined, rifampicin (RIF) dose remains controversial. The aim of our study was...

    Authors: M. Tonnelier, A. Bouras, C. Joseph, Y. El Samad, B. Brunschweiler, J.-L. Schmit, C. Mabille and J-P Lanoix

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:174

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Blood cultures are one of the most important tests performed by microbiology laboratories. Many hospitals, particularly in low and middle-income countries, lack either microbiology services or staff to provide...

    Authors: Clare L. Ling, Tamalee Roberts, Sona Soeng, Tomas-Paul Cusack, David A. B. Dance, Sue J. Lee, Thomas A. N. Reed, Pattaraporn Hinfonthong, Somsavanh Sihalath, Amphone Sengduangphachanh, Wanitda Watthanaworawit, Tri Wangrangsimakul, Paul N. Newton, Francois H. Nosten, Paul Turner and Elizabeth A. Ashley

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:173

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) is common among hospitalized patients. Though carbapenems are an effective treatment in the face of rising resistance, overuse drives carbapenem resistance (CR). We h...

    Authors: Marya D. Zilberberg, Brian H. Nathanson, Kate Sulham and Andrew F. Shorr

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:159

    Content type: Research article

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  31. This systematic review and meta-analysis explored the relationship between vancomycin (VCM) monitoring strategies and VCM effectiveness and safety.

    Authors: Moeko Tsutsuura, Hiromu Moriyama, Nana Kojima, Yuki Mizukami, Sho Tashiro, Sumika Osa, Yuki Enoki, Kazuaki Taguchi, Kazutaka Oda, Satoshi Fujii, Yoshiko Takahashi, Yukihiro Hamada, Toshimi Kimura, Yoshio Takesue and Kazuaki Matsumoto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:153

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have continually grown as a global public health threat, with significant mortality rates observed across the world. We examined the clinical ...

    Authors: Adhiratha Boonyasiri, Elita Jauneikaite, Lauren M. Brinkac, Chris Greco, Kanokorn Lerdlamyong, Teerawit Tangkoskul, Kevin Nguyen, Visanu Thamlikitkul and Derrick E. Fouts

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:142

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The use of complement inhibition is well established for complement mediated thrombotic microangiopathy, but its role in secondary forms of thrombotic microangiopathy is debated. We here present a case of thro...

    Authors: Magnus Holter Bjørkto, Andreas Barratt-Due, Ingvild Nordøy, Christina Dörje, Eivind Galteland, Andreas Lind, Abdulkarim Hilli, Pål Aukrust and Geir Mjøen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:137

    Content type: Case report

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  34. To observe the effect of corticosteroids in the treatment of children with refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (RMPP) under different doses, to summarize the clinical features of children treated with g...

    Authors: Zhenli Zhu, Tongqiang Zhang, Wei Guo, Yaoyao Ling, Jiao Tian and Yongsheng Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:126

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Streptococcus agalacticae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is one of the most important causative agents of serious infections among neonates. This study was carried out to identify antibiotic resistance and virulenc...

    Authors: Raymond Mudzana, Rooyen T. Mavenyengwa and Muchaneta Gudza-Mugabe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:125

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Prolonged myelosuppression following CD19-directed CAR T-cell transfusion represents an important, yet underreported, adverse event. The resulting neutropenia and multifactorial immunosuppression can facilitat...

    Authors: Kai Rejeski, Wolfgang G. Kunz, Martina Rudelius, Veit Bücklein, Viktoria Blumenberg, Christian Schmidt, Philipp Karschnia, Florian Schöberl, Konstantin Dimitriadis, Louisa von Baumgarten, Joachim Stemmler, Oliver Weigert, Martin Dreyling, Michael von Bergwelt-Baildon and Marion Subklewe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:121

    Content type: Case report

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  37. The burden of cardiovascular (CV) complications in patients hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still uncertain. Available studies used different designs and different criteria to define CV ...

    Authors: Filippo Pieralli, Vieri Vannucchi, Carlo Nozzoli, Giuseppe Augello, Francesco Dentali, Giulia De Marzi, Generoso Uomo, Filippo Risaliti, Laura Morbidoni, Antonino Mazzone, Claudio Santini, Daniela Tirotta, Francesco Corradi, Riccardo Gerloni, Paola Gnerre, Gualberto Gussoni…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:116

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:195

  38. Diarrhoea is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in children under five years old. In Kenya, it has a 21% case fatality with Enteropathogenic E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp.

    Authors: Ongwae H. Zachariah, Mwamburi A. Lizzy, Kakai Rose and Mutuku M. Angela

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:109

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in human worldwide. The aim of study was to assess the distribution of sialylated lipooligosaccharide (LOS) classes and capsular genoty...

    Authors: Mahnaz Sarhangi, Bita Bakhshi and Shahin Najar Peeraeyeh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:108

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Better information on the typical course and management of acute common infections in the community could inform antibiotic stewardship campaigns. We aimed to investigate the incidence, management, and natural...

    Authors: Catherine M. Smith, Laura J. Shallcross, Peter Dutey-Magni, Anne Conolly, Christopher Fuller, Suzanne Hill, Arnoupe Jhass, Franziska Marcheselli, Susan Michie, Jennifer S. Mindell, Matthew J. Ridd, Georgios Tsakos, Andrew C. Hayward and Ellen B. Fragaszy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:105

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Scalp Eschar and Neck LymphAdenopathy after Tick bite is a zoonotic non-pathogen-specific disease most commonly due to Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii. Diagnosis is mostly based only on epidemiological...

    Authors: Giulia Barlozzari, Federico Romiti, Maurizio Zini, Adele Magliano, Claudio De Liberato, Franco Corrias, Guglielmo Capponi, Luisa Galli, Manuela Scarpulla and Carlotta Montagnani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:103

    Content type: Case report

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  42. The increasing use of antifungal drugs (AF) in children and the concern for related adverse events and costs has led to the development of specific AF stewardship programmes (AFS). Studies in adult patients ha...

    Authors: Natalia Mendoza-Palomar, Beatriz Garcia-Palop, Susana Melendo, Maria Teresa Martín, Berta Renedo-Miró, Pere Soler-Palacin and Aurora Fernández-Polo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:100

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Echocardiography (echo) is the primary imaging modality for infective endocarditis (IE). However, the recommendations on timing and mode selection for transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and transthoracic e...

    Authors: Peihan Xie, Xiaodong Zhuang, Menghui Liu, Shaozhao Zhang, Jia Liu, Donghong Liu and Xinxue Liao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:92

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Keratitis due to by filamentous fungi are not easy to diagnose thus causing a delay in correct therapy. There are many descriptions of keratitis due to Candida, Fusarium and Aspergillus genera. Subramaniula genus...

    Authors: Rosario Cultrera, Riccardo Torelli, Caterina Sarnicola, Daniela Segala, Andrea Mengoli, Giuseppina Chiaretto, Paolo Perri and Maurizio Sanguinetti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:82

    Content type: Case report

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  45. Candidemia has emerged as an important nosocomial infection, with a mortality rate of 30–50%. It is the fourth most common nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) in the United States and the seventh most commo...

    Authors: Nobuhiro Asai, Wataru Ohashi, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Hideo Kato, Mao Hagihara, Hiroki Watanabe, Arufumi Shiota, Yusuke Koizumi, Yuka Yamagishi and Hiroshige Mikamo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:77

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Invasive candidiasis is the most common fungal disease among hospitalized patients and continues to be a major cause of mortality. Risk factors for mortality have been studied previously but rarely developed i...

    Authors: Ding Li, Tianjiao Li, Changsen Bai, Qing Zhang, Zheng Li and Xichuan Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:76

    Content type: Research article

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