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Bacterial and fungal diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of bacterial and fungal diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section includes studies relating to antibiotic resistance and healthcare-associated infections.

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  1. Infections caused by Enterococcus hirae are common in animals, with instances of transmission to humans being rare. Further, few cases have been reported in humans because of the difficulty in identifying the bac...

    Authors: Tomoaki Nakamura, Kazuhiro Ishikawa, Takahiro Matsuo, Fujimi Kawai, Yuki Uehara and Nobuyoshi Mori

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:999

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  2. Mycetoma is the most common neglected disease in humans. It is a chronic, progressive, and destructive disease primarily caused by fungi or bacteria characterized by formation of dark pale grains commonly invo...

    Authors: Ammar Awad, Adnan Alnaser, Hozifa Abd-elmaged, Reyad Abdallah and Hussam S. Khougali

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:995

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common cause of prescribing antibiotics in family medicine. In Germany, about 40% of UTI-related prescriptions are second-line antibiotics, which contributes to emerging r...

    Authors: Ildikó Gágyor, Alexandra Greser, Peter Heuschmann, Viktoria Rücker, Andy Maun, Jutta Bleidorn, Christoph Heintze, Felix Jede, Tim Eckmanns, Anja Klingeberg, Anja Mentzel and Guido Schmiemann

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:990

    Content type: Study protocol

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  4. We conducted a distributed lag non-linear time series analysis to quantify the association between air pollution and scarlet fever in Qingdao city during 2014–2018.

    Authors: Fachun Jiang, Tao Wei, Xiaowen Hu, Yalin Han, Jing Jia, Bei Pan and Wei Ni

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:987

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Few studies on pharyngotonsillitis have examined the clinical presentation of different aetiologies where pathogens have been detected using molecular methods. We aimed to assess how well clinical signs and sy...

    Authors: Jon Pallon, Mattias Rööst, Martin Sundqvist and Katarina Hedin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:971

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by dimorphic fungi Coccidioides spp. endemic to Southwestern United States and Central and South America. A history of residence and travel in these areas is esse...

    Authors: Yuqiao Mao, Xia Li, Haibo Lou, Xiaoyu Shang, Yanjun Mai, Lan Yang, Fuhua Peng and Xihua Fu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:968

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Legionella spp. are ubiquitous freshwater bacteria responsible for rare but potentially severe cases of Legionnaires’ disease (LD). Legionella sainthelensi is a non-pneumophila Legionella species that was first i...

    Authors: Laure Kamus, Bénédicte Roquebert, Jérôme Allyn, Nicolas Allou, Dorothée Valance, Charles Simon, Marie-Christine Jaffar-Bandjee, Ghislaine Descours, Sophie Jarraud and Guillaume Miltgen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:966

    Content type: Case report

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  8. Talaromyces marneffei (TM) primarily infects patients with co-morbidities that cause immunodeficiency, but non-secretory myeloma (NSMM) is rare. TSM and NSMM are associated with fever, osteolysis, and swollen lym...

    Authors: Haiting Qin, Ye Qiu, Yanmei Huang, Mianluan Pan, Dong Lan, Wen Zeng and Jianquan Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:964

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Gas gangrene is usually manifested as myonecrosis and subcutaneous gas accumulation, but rarely manifested as arterial occlusion or pneumatosis in the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.

    Authors: Hui-Dan Jing, Lei Li, Jun-Ying Tian and Dong-Po Jiang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:957

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Brucellosis is an important neglected bacterial zoonotic disease that has been affecting animals and humans for decades. Malaria has been considered major cause of illness in tropical areas, including Ethiopia...

    Authors: Sintayehu Mehari, Biruk Zerfu and Kassu Desta

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:942

    Content type: Research article

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  11. To characterise the longitudinal dynamics of C-reactive protein (CRP) and Procalcitonin (PCT) in a cohort of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 and support antimicrobial decision-making.

    Authors: Damien K. Ming, Ashleigh C. Myall, Bernard Hernandez, Andrea Y. Weiße, Robert L. Peach, Mauricio Barahona, Timothy M. Rawson and Alison H. Holmes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:932

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:988

  12. Leprosy is a treatable disease; however, the release from treatment after completion of multidrug therapy (MDT) often does not equal absence of health problems. Consequently, sequelae interfere with the patien...

    Authors: Aleksandra Rosendo dos Santos, Pãmela Rodrigues de Souza Silva, Letícia Gomes Costa, Peter Steinmann and Eliane Ignotti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:916

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is one of the most virulent forms of mediastinitis. The main causes of high mortality in DNM are believed to stem from difficulty and delay in the diagnosis. Fast and...

    Authors: Jing Duan, Chuncheng Zhang, Xiaoshuang Che, Juanjuan Fu, Feng Pang, Qigang Zhao and Zhiqing You

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:905

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Enteric fever is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, B, and C. There is an emergence of Typhoid fever caused by extensively drug-resistant...

    Authors: Saba Shahid, Marvi Mahesar, Nida Ghouri and Saba Noreen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:900

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair using the MitraClip device is increasingly used for high surgical risk patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). Previous guidelines for infective endocardi...

    Authors: Aikaterini Papamanoli, Tahmid Rahman, Andreas P. Kalogeropoulos, Zeena Lobo, Paul Diggs, Anne Hamik and George Psevdos

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:884

    Content type: Case report

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  16. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is among the most pressing One Health issues. While interventions and policies with various targets and goals have been implemented, evidence about factors underpinning success a...

    Authors: Anaïs Léger, Irene Lambraki, Tiscar Graells, Melanie Cousins, Patrik J. G. Henriksson, Stephan Harbarth, Carolee A. Carson, Shannon E. Majowicz, Max Troell, E. Jane Parmley, Peter S. Jørgensen and Didier Wernli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:873

    Content type: Research article

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  17. In recent years, talaromycosis is reportedly on the rise in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected patients. However, the misdiagnosis and mistreatment of talaromycosis is more likely in HIV-uninfected ...

    Authors: Qiuhua Chen, Ye Qiu, Wen Zeng, Xuan Wei and Jianquan Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:865

    Content type: Case report

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  18. Stratification by clinical scores of patients suspected of infection can be used to support decisions on treatment and diagnostic workup. Seven clinical scores, SepsisFinder (SF), National Early Warning Score ...

    Authors: Steen Andreassen, Jens Kjølseth Møller, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Gorm Lisby and Logan Ward

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:864

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Campylobacter spp. cause mostly self-limiting enterocolitis, although a significant proportion of cases require hospitalisation highlighting potential for severe disease. Among people admitted, blood culture spec...

    Authors: Cameron R. M. Moffatt, Karina J. Kennedy, Ben O’Neill, Linda Selvey and Martyn D. Kirk

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:848

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Mycotic aortic pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication after heart transplantation (HTX) with remarkable mortality. Intrathoracic infection is a well-documented predisposing factor for this disease. Staphylococcus ...

    Authors: Szilvia Kugler, Miklós Pólos, Ákos Király, Ákos Pataki, Ádám Koppányi, Tamás Varga, Zsófia Szakál-Tóth, Nóra Parázs, Tímea Teszák, Zoltán Tarjányi, Gyula Prinz, István Hartyánszky, Zoltán Szabolcs, Béla Merkely and Balázs Sax

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:847

    Content type: Case report

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  21. Bordetella avium, an aerobic bacterium that rarely causes infection in humans, is a species of Bordetella that generally inhabits the respiratory tracts of turkeys and other birds. It causes a highly contagious ...

    Authors: Rui Zhang, Liping Hu, Chong Xu, Jianhua Wu, Changzhong Xu and Chao Feng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:833

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Nocardia-related endocarditis is rare. Intravenous drug use with nonsterile injection practices is a potential risk factor for nocardia infection. Disseminated nocardiosis with endovascular involvement is rare...

    Authors: Chukwunyelu Enwezor, Courtney L. Russ-Friedman, Zachary P. Gruss, Adam Murphy, Elizabeth L. Palavecino and Niyati Jakharia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:832

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease with rising health and economic concerns in many areas worldwide. Musculoskeletal pains are among the main complications of human brucellosis, which are often difficu...

    Authors: Saeed Alamian, Afshar Etemadi, Mohammad Reza Samiee and Maryam Dadar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:831

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Central nervous system (CNS) infections are relatively rare but are associated with high mortality worldwide. Empirical antimicrobial therapy is crucial for the survival of patients with CNS infections, and sh...

    Authors: Zheng Zhang, Yan Song, Jianbang Kang, Surong Duan, Qi Li, Fuqiang Feng and Jinju Duan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:826

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The most common pathological cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in reproductive-aged women is bacterial vaginosis (BV). Amsel’s criteria and Nugent scoring systems are commonly employed approaches for the dia...

    Authors: Rajshree Bhujel, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Santosh Kumar Yadav, Kesang Diki Bista and Keshab Parajuli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:825

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The management of non-fermentative gram-negative bloodstream infection (NFGN-BSI) offers numerous challenges. In this study the aim is to analyse a large cohort of patients with NFGN-BSI recruited in the north...

    Authors: Renato Pascale, Silvia Corcione, Linda Bussini, Livia Pancaldi, Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Simone Ambretti, Tommaso Lupia, Cristina Costa, Anna Marchese, Francesco Giuseppe De Rosa, Matteo Bassetti, Claudio Viscoli, Michele Bartoletti, Maddalena Giannella and Pierluigi Viale

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:806

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Early recognition of patients hospitalized for sepsis at higher risk of poor clinical outcome is a mandatory task and many studies suggested that indicators of the immune status may be useful for this purpose....

    Authors: Ennio Polilli, Jessica Elisabetta Esposito, Antonella Frattari, Francesca Trave, Federica Sozio, Giovanna Ferrandu, Giancarlo Di Iorio and Giustino Parruti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:780

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Nocardiosis is known as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts, but it occasionally has been reported in immunocompetent patient. The Nocardia exalbida is first-reported in 2006 from Japan, and a f...

    Authors: Seitaro Abe, Yoshinari Tanabe, Takeshi Ota, Fumio Fujimori, Akira Youkou and Masato Makino

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:776

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  29. Cat scratch disease frequently involves a benign, self-limited disease. Neurological forms associated with Bartonella henselae are uncommon, consisting mostly in neuroretinitis, encephalitis and meningitis. Cereb...

    Authors: Stéphanie Matta, Audrey Rousseau, Rachel Chenouard, Carole Lemarié, Matthieu Eveillard, Marie Kempf, Rafaël Mahieu and Hélène Pailhoriès

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:765

    Content type: Case report

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  30. Disseminated nocardiosis is liable to be misdiagnosed owing to the non-specific clinical manifestations and laboratory/imaging findings. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) is a culture-independent a...

    Authors: Lei Pan, Xiao-hong Pan, Jie-kun Xu, Xiao-qing Huang, Jun-ke Qiu, Cai-hong Wang, Xiao-bo Ji, Yang Zhou and Min-jie Mao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:754

    Content type: Case report

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  31. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are amongst the most frequent causes of urinary tract infections. We report a systematic review and meta-analysis of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of UPEC is...

    Authors: Gabriel Kambale Bunduki, Eva Heinz, Vincent Samuel Phiri, Patrick Noah, Nicholas Feasey and Janelisa Musaya

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:753

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Empyema necessitans is a rare pulmonary condition described as the presence of pus in the pleural cavity with insidious extension into the surrounding soft tissue. The common microbial aetiology of empyema nec...

    Authors: Swapnil Tripathi, Durga Shankar Meena, Amit Kumar Rohila, Neetha T.R., Vidhi Jain, Deepak Kumar, Taruna Yadav and Mahendra Kumar Garg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:745

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Capnocytophaga canimorsus (C. canimorsus) infections are rare and usually present with unspecific symptoms, which can eventually end in fatal septic shock and multiorgan failure. The severe acute respiratory s...

    Authors: Eva Christina Meyer, Sabine Alt-Epping, Onnen Moerer and Benedikt Büttner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:736

    Content type: Case report

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  34. Fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia is one of the most severe manifestations of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SM) infections. Here, we aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of SM bacteremia and to identify...

    Authors: Lixia Zhu, Lulu Wang, Yuping Zhang, Rongrong Chen, Xueying Li, Jianai Sun, De Zhou, Mingyu Zhu, Xiaolong Zheng, Li Li, Jingjing Zhu, Mixue Xie, Xiudi Yang, Wenjuan Yu, Hongyan Tong, Honghu Zhu…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:723

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS) is an infectious disease of large intestines caused by Brachyspira species, and most HIS cases are asymptomatic or exhibit mild intestinal symptoms. The host reaction to HIS r...

    Authors: Sho Ogata, Ken Shimizu, Susumu Tominaga and Susumu Matsukuma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:721

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Brucellosis is a common zoonotic disease that is prevalent in many areas worldwide. This infectious disease can occasionally affect the central nervous system but intracranial arteries are rarely involved.

    Authors: Yanyan Guan, Nannan Xu, Yongyuan Yao, Feng Zheng, Fengzhe Chen, Wei Wang, Xiaomeng Dong and Gang Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:720

    Content type: Case report

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  37. Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccine was introduced in France in 1992 as a 3 + 1 scheme at 2, 3, and 4 months (primary vaccination) with a booster at the age of 16–18 months. The vaccination ...

    Authors: Eva Hong, Aude Terrade, Mélanie Denizon, Myriam Aouiti-Trabelsi, Michaël Falguières, Muhamed-Kheir Taha and Ala-Eddine Deghmane

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:715

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The current emergence of multi-drug resistance among nosocomial pathogens has led to increased use of last-resort agents including Tigecycline (TGC). Availability of reliable methods for testing TGC susceptibi...

    Authors: Sima Babaei and Mehri Haeili

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:709

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Campylobacter fetus is an uncommon Campylobacter species, and its infections mainly cause infective endocarditis, aortic aneurysm, and meningitis rather than enteritis. It is more likely to be detected in blood t...

    Authors: Ryo Nakatani, Koki Shimizu, Takahiro Matsuo, Ryosuke Koyamada, Nobuyoshi Mori, Takuya Yamashita and Shinichiro Mori

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:680

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Oral beta-lactam antimicrobials are not routinely tested against Streptococcus pneumoniae due to presumed susceptibility based upon penicillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing. Currently, Clinical a...

    Authors: Mark E. Murphy, Eleanor Powell, Joshua Courter and Joel E. Mortensen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:679

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia (PAB) is associated with high mortality. The benefits of infectious diseases consultation (IDC) has been demonstrated in Staphylococcal aureus bacteraemia and other complex infe...

    Authors: Fabian Chiong, Mohammed S. Wasef, Kwee Chin Liew, Raquel Cowan, Danny Tsai, Yin Peng Lee, Larry Croft, Owen Harris, Stella May Gwini and Eugene Athan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:671

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Granulicatella adiacens is facultative anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, which mainly involve bacterial endocarditis and bacteremia, but there are few reports of local suppurative infection. A case of lung abs...

    Authors: Shuo Yang, Liangliang Wu, Lili Xu, Xiang Huang, Xiaofeng Sun, Lan Yang and Ling Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:662

    Content type: Case report

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  43. Searching the risk factors for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infection is important in clinical practice. In the present study, we aim to investigate bacterial characteristics of colonizing strain...

    Authors: Qun Lin, Yue Wang, Jing Yu, Shusheng Li, Yicheng Zhang, Hui Wang, Xiaoquan Lai, Dong Liu, Liyan Mao, Ying Luo, Guoxing Tang, Zhongju Chen and Ziyong Sun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:638

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Cedecea neteri is a gram-negative, oxidase-negative bacillus, a rare pathogen. Few reports are emerging globally about its antimicrobial resistance pattern especially in immunocompromised individuals with comorbi...

    Authors: Hafiz Ahmad, Talat Masroor, Satyam A. Parmar and Debadatta Panigrahi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:637

    Content type: Case report

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  45. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology, microbiology, and risk factors associated with mortality and multi-drug resistance bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) among adult cancer patients in Shira...

    Authors: Ali Amanati, Sarvin Sajedianfard, Somayeh Khajeh, Shabnam Ghasempour, Salma Mehrangiz, Samane Nematolahi and Zahra Shahhosein

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:636

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Infection with Salmonella enterica usually results in diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps, but some people become asymptomatic or chronic carrier as a source of infection for others. This study aimed to analyze...

    Authors: Haiyan Xu, Weibing Zhang, Kai Zhang, Yue Zhang, Zhenyu Wang, Wei Zhang, Yang Li and Qiuchun Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:632

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Psittacosis, which is also known as parrot fever, is Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) caused infectious disease. The clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic infection to severe atypical pneumonia or even f...

    Authors: Yunfeng Shi, Junxian Chen, Xiaohan Shi, Jiajia Hu, Hongtao Li, Xiaojie Li, Yanhong Wang and Benquan Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:621

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.