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Table 2 Logistic regression for behavioural characteristics associated with undiagnosed infection by sex

From: Epidemiological and viral characteristics of undiagnosed HIV infections in Botswana

Variable Category Women (n = 383 newly diagnosed, n = 2252 known cases) Men (n = 218 newly diagnosed, n = 743 known cases)
OR (95% CI)a aOR (95% CI)b OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
Number of HIV tests 1–2 Ref   Ref  
3–4 3.74*** (3.28–4.27) 4.81*** (3.72–6.23) 0.76 (0.58–1.0) 0.74 (0.49–1.1)
4–9 6.41*** (5.43–7.61) 10.9*** (7.82– 15.2) 0.73 (0.51–1.07) 0.49* (0.28–0.85)
10 +  9.8*** (6.77–14.74) 18.8*** (8.41–42.1) 1.1 (0.48–3.03) 1.0 (0.36–3.0)
Number partners in 1 year 1 partner Ref   Ref  
2 partners 1.15 (1.0–1.32) 0.88 (0.15–5.1) 1.32*** (1.0–1.68) 0.67 (0.02– 20.0)
3 partners 2.54*** (1.43–4.93) 4.6 (0.25– 84.6) 1.17 (0.5–2.68) 0.19 (0.004–9.8)
4 partners 1.34 (0.66–3.0) 0.52 (0.09–3.0) 1.87 (0.73–4.61) 1.0 (0.03–35.1)
None 0.71*** (0.62–0.82) 1.36 (1.0–1.86)
Concurrency in past year No concurrent partners Ref   Ref  
Concurrent partners 1.17* (1.0–1.34) 1.2 (0.21–6.9) 1.42*** (1.12–1.79) 1.68 (0.06–46.8)
Partner’s HIV status HIV negative Ref   Ref  
HIV positive 0.06*** (0.05–0.07) 0.09*** (0.07–0.12) 0.8 (0.6–1.07) 0.8 (0.6–1.06)
Condom use in past year No Ref   Ref  
Yes 2.37*** (2.11–2.66) 0.8 (0.65–1.0)
Condom frequency Always Ref   Ref  
Sometimes 1.98*** (1.75–2.25) 1.64*** (1.32–2.03) 0.83 (0.66–1.05) 1.56* (1.07–2.25)
Never 3.07*** (2.53–3.75) 2.9*** (2.15–3.89) 0.77 (0.53–1.14) 2.17** (1.25–3.76)
Nights away from home Zero Ref   Ref  
< 1 week–< 1 month 1.24*** (1.09–1.42) 0.88 (0.67–1.15) 0.81 (0.64–1.03) 1.0 (0.65–1.68)
> 1 month 1.54*** (1.38–1.73) 0.96 (0.77–1.20) 0.85 (0.69–1.06) 0.95 (0.56–1.59)
  1. n number of participants, OR odds ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio for clustering by community, CI confidence interval, Ref reference group
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  3. aUnivariate logistic regression
  4. bMultivariable logistic regression