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Table 2 Patient characteristics according to carbapenem susceptibility of the infection

From: Economic and clinical burden from carbapenem-resistant bacterial infections and factors contributing: a retrospective study using electronic medical records in Japan

Variable CS infections (N = 9,431) CR infections (N = 86) P-value
Age (years), mean ± SD 76.4 ± 12.5 74.9 ± 12.7 0.259
Age (years), n (%)    0.480
 15–64 1331 (14.1) 16 (18.6)  
 65–74 2098 (22.2) 19 (22.1)  
  ≥ 75 6002 (63.6) 51 (59.3)  
Sex, n (%)    0.025
 Male 5334 (56.6) 59 (68.6)  
 Female 4097 (43.4) 27 (31.4)  
BMI (kg/m2), mean ± SD 21.2 ± 4.2 20.8 ± 4.5 0.127
BMI (kg/m2), n (%)    
  < 18.5 2517 (26.7) 28 (32.6) 0.221
 18.5–25 5401 (57.3) 45 (52.3) 0.356
  ≥ 25 1513 (16.0) 13 (15.1) 0.816
WBC, mean ± SD 11,860.8 ± 7324.4 11,191.0 ± 6277.7 0.341
CRP, mean ± SD 12.2 ± 9.0 11.0 ± 8.8 0.149
BT, mean ± SD 38.5 ± 0.9 38.3 ± 1.0 0.007
Main diagnosis, n (%)    
 Pneumonia 4541 (48.1) 46 (53.5) 0.324
 Sepsis 1552 (16.5) 14 (16.3) 0.965
 UTI 3254 (34.5) 24 (27.9) 0.200
 Biliary infection 1309 (13.9) 14 (16.3) 0.522
Reason for hospitalization, n (%)    
 Diseases of the circulatory system 2822 (29.9) 22 (25.6) 0.449
 Neoplasms 2214 (23.5) 14 (16.3) 0.150
 Diseases of the digestive system 1067 (11.3) 19 (22.1) 0.003
Charlson Comorbidity Index, n (%)    0.230
 0 point 1041 (11.0) 13 (15.1)  
 ≥ 1 point 8390 (89.0) 73 (84.9)  
Comorbidity, n (%)    
 Myocardial infarction 398 (4.2) 2 (2.3) 0.383
 Cerebrovascular disease 2783 (29.5) 26 (30.2) 0.884
 Congestive heart failure 1774 (18.8) 17 (19.8) 0.821
 Rheumatic disease 274 (2.9) 6 (7.0) 0.026
 Dementia 1353 (14.3) 7 (8.1) 0.102
 Diabetes without complications 1972 (20.9) 25 (29.1) 0.064
 Diabetes with complications 379 (4.0) 6 (7.0) 0.166
 Mild liver disease 565 (6.0) 5 (5.8) 0.945
 Moderate or severe liver disease 122 (1.3) 2 (2.3) 0.401
 Peptic ulcer disease 951 (10.1) 4 (4.7) 0.095
 Peripheral vascular disease 464 (4.9) 3 (3.5) 0.541
 Chronic pulmonary disease 665 (7.1) 6 (7.0) 0.979
 Paraplegia and hemiplegia 233 (2.5) 1 (1.2) 0.436
 Renal disease 748 (7.9) 4 (4.7) 0.262
 Cancer 3518 (37.3) 27 (31.4) 0.259
 Metastatic carcinoma 1032 (10.9) 6 (7.0) 0.240
 HIV 10 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 0.763
Healthcare utilization, n (%)    
 ICU admission 2359 (25.0) 19 (22.1) 0.534
 Surgical procedure 4634 (49.1) 48 (55.8) 0.218
 Dialysis 512 (5.4) 5 (5.8) 0.875
 Mechanical ventilation 1997 (21.2) 32 (37.2)  < 0.001
 Immunosuppressive drug 3223 (34.2) 30 (34.9) 0.890
 Antibiotics before the culture test 5937 (63.0) 76 (88.4)  < 0.001
 Carbapenem before culture test 779 (8.3) 27 (31.4)  < 0.001
Number of beds, n (%)    0.021
 < 400 2275 (24.1) 11 (12.8)  
 400–500 3569 (37.8) 32 (37.2)  
 ≥ 500 3587 (38.0) 43 (50.0)  
Rout of admission, n (%)    0.070
 From other wards 5 (0.1) 0 (0.0)  
 From home 7,469 (79.2) 68 (79.1)  
 From other hospital 1,175 (12.5) 13 (15.1)  
 From long-term institutions 738 (7.8) 3 (3.5)  
 Others 44 (0.5) 2 (2.3)  
  1. BMI body mass index, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, CR carbapenem-resistant, CRP C-reactive protein, CS carbapenem-susceptible, ICU intensive care unit, SD standard deviation, WBC white blood cell, BT body temperature; UTI urinary tract infection