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Table 1 Demographic, clinical, echocardiographic and microbiologic characteristics of the study population, by presence of cerebral embolism

From: Impact of septic cerebral embolism on prognosis and therapeutic strategies of infective endocarditis: a retrospective study in a surgical centre

  Cerebral embolism p value
No
(N = 425)
Yes
(N = 126)
Age (years, median ± IQR) 69 ± 22 69 ± 19 NS
Female gender (N, %) 140 (33.8%) 45 (36.9%) NS
BMI (median ± IQR) 24.2 ± 5.2 24.0 ± 4.5 NS
Diabetes (N, %) 81 (19.1%) 23 (18.3%) NS
Dyslipidemia (N, %) 116 (29.3%) 37 (31.6%) NS
Hypertension (N, %) 250 (59.1%) 73 (57.9%) NS
Renal failure (N, %) 101 (23.8%) 31 (24.6%) NS
 Mild 35 (8.2%) 12 (9.5%) NS
 Moderate 38 (8.9%) 12 (9.5%)
 Severe 13 (3.1%) 5 (4.0%)
 Dyalisis 15 (3.5%) 2 (1.6%)
Cancer (N, %) 95 (22.4%) 22 (17.5%) NS
PM (N, %) 56 (13.2%) 11 (8.7%) NS
Oral anticoagulant therapy (N, %) 120 (28%) 40 (32%) NS
Drug abuse (N, %) 47 (11.1%) 13 (10.3%) NS
Vegetation length (mm, median ± IQR) 10 ± 11 11 ± 10 0.004
 Site of infection    
 Aortic valve (N, %) 235 (55.3%) 60 (47.6%) 0.001
 Mitral valve (N, %) 149 (35.1%) 64 (50.8%)  
Tricuspid valve (N, %) 41 (9.6%) 2 (1.6%)  
Prosthetic valve (N, %) 172 (40.6%) 50 (39.7%) NS
Double valve infection (N, %) 69 (16.2%) 23 (18.3%) NS
Severe valvular dysfunction (N, %) 213 (50.1%) 47 (37.3%) 0.015
Paravalvular extension (N, %) 90 (21.2%) 26 (20.6%) NS
EF (%,median ± IQR) 58 ± 11 60 ± 10 0.008
TAPSE (mm, median ± IQR) 21 ± 6 19 ± 7 NS
EuroSCORE2 (median ± IQR) 7 ± 12 8 ± 20 NS
Germ (N, %)    
 Streptococci 69 (16.2%) 20 (15.9%) 0.025
 S. bovis 37 (8.7%) 4 (3.2%)  
 Staphylococcus aureus 69 (16.2%) 34 (27.0%)  
 Coagulase negative staphylococci 56 (13.2%) 12 (9.5%)  
 Enterococci 88 (20.7%) 18 (14.3%)  
 Negative coltures 77 (18.1%) 26 (20.6%)  
 Other 29 (6.8%) 12 (9.5%)  
  1. BMI body mass index, PM pacemaker, EF ejection fraction, TAPSE tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion