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Table 1 Characteristics of the analyzed children with COVID-19 according to in-hospital outcome, Mexico 2020–2021

From: Decreased survival in children inpatients with COVID-19 and antibiotic prescription

Characteristic Overall In-hospital outcome \(p\) Follow-up (person-days)
Recovery Death
\(n\) = 1601 \(n\) = 1450 \(n\) = 151
Sex
 Girl 54 (40.8) 585 (89.4) 69 (10.6) 0.203 6750
 Boy 947 (59.2) 865 (91.3) 82 (8.7)   9488
Age (years)a 1.7 (0.3–4.8) 1.7 (0.2–4.8) 1.5 (0.3–4.6) 0.925 16,238
Age group (years)     
 < 1 653 (40.8) 587 (89.9) 66 (10.1) 0.694 7168
 1–4 576 (36.0) 526 (91.3) 50 (8.7)   5622
 5–9 372 (23.2) 337 (90.6) 35 (9.4)   3448
Date of symptoms onset     
 March 2020–April 2021 901 (56.3) 794 (88.1) 107 (11.9)  < 0.001 10,910
 May 2021–December 2021 700 (43.7) 656 (93.7) 44 (6.3)   5328
Days from symptoms onset to healthcare-seekinga 1 (0–4) 1 (0–4) 1 (0–4) 0.906 16,238
Antibiotic (any) was prescribed at hospital admission     
 No 1390 (86.8) 1275 (91.7) 115 (8.3)  < 0.001 13,825
 Yes 211 (13.2) 175 (82.9) 36 (17.1)   2413
Prescribed antibioticb     
 Cephalosporin 65 (30.8) 55 (84.6) 10 (15.4) 0.206 648
 Penicillin 22 (10.4) 22 (100) 0 (0)   278
 Macrolide 12 (5.7) 9 (75.0) 3 (25.0)   77
 Aminoglycoside 11 (5.2) 10 (90.9) 1 (9.1)   90
 Glycopeptide 11 (5.2) 7 (63.6) 4 (36.4)   154
 Carbapenem 4 (1.9) 1 (25.0) 3 (75.0)   24
 Unspecified 86 (40.8) 71 (82.6) 15 (17.4)   1142
Length of hospital stay (days)a 6 (3–14) 6 (3–14) 7 (3–17) 0.095 16,238
Personal history of     
 Obesity (yes) 25 (1.6) 22 (88.0) 3 (12.0) 0.658 261
 Asthma (yes) 62 (3.9) 57 (91.9) 5 (8.1) 0.707 611
 T1DM (yes) 21 (1.3) 19 (90.5) 2 (9.5) 0.988 223
 Cardiovascular disease (yes) 57 (3.5) 44 (77.2) 12 (21.1) 0.002 593
 CKD (yes) 9 (0.6) 7 (77.8) 2 (22.2) 0.188 101
 Immunosuppression (yes) 99 (6.2) 83 (83.8) 14 (14.1) 0.082 1004
  1. (1) \(p\)-value from chi-squared or Mann–Whitney U test is presented as corresponding; (2) Absolute (\(n\)) and relative (%) frequencies are presented, except if median and interquartile ranges are specified; (3) Percentages of death by row are shown
  2. COVID-19 Coronavirus disease 2019; T1DM type 1 diabetes mellitus; CKD chronic kidney disease
  3. aMedian and interquartile ranges
  4. bAmong 211 hospitalized children in whom antibiotics were prescribed